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NORTH GERMAN UNION.
(SEE ALSO GERMAN EMPIRE AND PRUSSIA.)
Concluded February 22, 1868; ratification advised by the Senate with amendment March 26, 1868; ratified by the President March 30, 1868; ratifications exchanged May 9, 1868; proclaimed May 27, 1868. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 790.)
I Naturalization recognized. II. Punishment for offenses prior to naturalization.
IV. Renunciation of naturalization.
The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the King of Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation, led by the wish to regulate the citizenship of those persons who emigrate from the North German Confederation to the United States of America, and from the United States of America to the territory of the North German Confederation, have resolved to treat on this subject, and have for that purpose appointed plenipotentiaries to conclude a convention, that is to say:
The President of the United States of America, George Bancroft, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said States near the King of Prussia and the North German Confederation, and His Majesty the King of Prussia, Bernhard König, Privy Councillor of Legation, who have agreed to and signed the following articles:
Citizens of the North German Confederation who become naturalized citizens of the United States of America and shall have resided uninterruptedly within the United States five years shall be held by the North German Confederation to be American citizens and shall be treated as such.
Reciprocally; citizens of the United States of America who become naturalized citizens of the North German Confederation and shall have resided uninterruptedly within North Germany five years shall be held by the United States to be North German citizens, and shall be treated as such. The declaration of an intention to become a citizen of the one or the other country has not for either party the effect of naturalization.
This article shall apply as well to those already naturalized in either country as those hereafter naturalized.
A naturalized citizen of the one party on return to the territory of the other party remains liable to trial and punishment for an action punishable by the laws of his original country and committed before his emigration; saving always the limitations established by the laws of his original country.
The convention' for the mutual delivery of criminals, fugitives from justice, in certain cases, concluded between the United States on the one part and Prussia and other states of Germany on the other part, the sixteenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, is hereby extended to all the states of the North German Confederation.
If a German naturalized in America renews his residence in North Germany without the intent to return to America, he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization in the United States. Reciprocally: if an American naturalized in North Germany renews his residence in the United States, without the intent to return to North Germany he shall be held to have renounced his naturalization in North Germany. The intent not to return may be held to exist when the person naturalized in the one country resides more than two years in the other country.
The present convention shall go into effect immediately on the exchange of ratifications and shall continue in force for ten years. If neither party shall have given to the other six months previous notice of its intention then to terminate the same, it shall further remain in force until the end of twelve months after either of the contracting parties shall have given notice to the other of such intention.
The present Convention shall be ratified by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, and by His Majesty the King of Prussia in the name of the North German Confederation; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Berlin within six months from the date hereof.
In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed this Convention.
BERLIN, the 22nd of February, 1868.
1See p. 520
(SEE SWEDEN AND NORWAY.)
Concluded June 7, 1893; ratification advised by the Senate November 1, 1893; ratified by the President November 3, 1893; ratifications exchanged November 8, 1893; proclaimed November 9, 1893. (U. S. Stats. Vol. 28, p. 1187.)
I. Delivery of accused. II. Extraditable crimes.
IV. Provisional detention.
V. Nondelivery of citizens.
VIII. Prior offenses.
IX. Property seized with fugitives.
XII. Duration; ratification.
The United States of America and His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, being desirous to confirm their friendly relations and to promote the cause of justice, have resolved to conclude a new treaty for the extradition of fugitives from justice between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Norway, and have appointed for that purpose the following Plenipotentiaries:
The President of the United States of America, W. Q. GRESHAM, Secretary of State of the United States, and
His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, J. A. W. GRIP, His Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States,
who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:
The Government of the United States and the Government of Norway mutually agree to deliver up persons who, having been charged with or convicted of any of the crimes and offenses specified in the following article, committed within the jurisdiction of one of the contracting parties, shall seek an asylum or be found within the territories of the other: Provided, that this shall only be done upon such evidence of criminalty as, according to the laws of the place where the fugitive or person so charged shall be found, would justify his or her apprehension and commitment for trial if the crime or offense had been there committed.
Extradition shall be granted for the following crimes and offenses: 1. Murder, comprehending assassination, parricide, infanticide and poisoning; attempt to commit murder; manslaughter, when voluntary.
3. Robbery, defined to be the act of feloniously and forcibly taking from the person of another money or goods, by violence or putting him in fear; burglary.
4. Forgery, or the utterance of forged papers; the forgery or falsification of official acts of government, of public authorities, or of courts of justice, or the utterance of the thing forged or falsified.
5. The counterfeiting, falsifying or altering of money, whether coin or paper, or of instruments of debt created by national, state, provincial, or municipal governments, or of coupons thereof, or of bank notes, or the utterance or circulation of the same; or the counterfeiting, falsifying or altering of seals of state.
6. Embezzlement by public officers; embezzlement by persons hired or salaried, to the detriment of their employers; larceny.
7. Fraud or breach of trust by a bailee, banker, agent, factor, trustee, or other person acting in a fiduciary capacity, or director or member or officer of any company, when such act is made criminal by the laws of both countries and the amount of money or the value of the property misappropriated is not less than $200 or Kroner 740. 8. Perjury; subornation. of perjury.
9. Rape; abduction; kidnapping.
10. Willful and unlawful destruction or obstruction of railroads which endangers human life.
11. Crimes committed at sea:
(a) Piracy, by statute or by the law of nations.
(b) Revolt, or conspiracy to revolt, by two or more persons on board
a ship on the high seas against the authority of the master.
(c) Wrongfully sinking or destroying a vessel at sea, or attempting to do so.
(d) Assaults on board a ship on the high seas with intent to do grievous bodily harm.
12. Crimes and offenses against the laws of both countries for the suppression of slavery and slave-trading.
Extradition is also to take place for participation in any of the crimes and offenses mentioned in this Treaty, provided such participation may be punished, in the United States as a felony, and in Norway by imprisonment at hard labor.
Requisitions for the surrender of fugitives from justice shall be made by the diplomatic agents of the contracting parties, or in the absence of these from the country or its seat of government, may be made by the superior consular officers.
If the person whose extradition is requested shall have been convicted of a crime or offense, a duly authenticated copy of the sentence of the court in which he was convicted, or if the fugitive is merely charged with crime, a duly authenticated copy of the warrant of arrest in the country where the crime has been committed, and of the depositions or other evidence upon which such warrant was issued, shall be produced.
The extradition of fugitives under the provisions of this Treaty shall be carried out in the United States and in Norway, respectively, in conformity with the laws regulating extradition for the time being in force in the state on which the demand for surrender is made.
Where the arrest and detention of a fugitive are desired on telegraphic or other information in advance of the presentation of formal proofs, the proper course in the United States shall be to apply to a judge or other magistrate authorized to issue warrants of arrest in extradition cases and present a complaint on oath, as provided by the statutes of the United States.
When, under the provisions of this article, the arrest and detention or a fugitive are desired in the Kingdom of Norway, the proper course shall be to apply to the Foreign Office, which will immediately cause the necessary steps to be taken in order to secure the provisional arrest or detention of the fugitive.
The provisional detention of a fugitive shall cease and the prisoner be released if a formal requisition for his surrender, accompanied by the necessary evidence of his criminality, has not been produced under the stipulations of this Treaty, within two months from the date of his provisional arrest or detention.
Neither of the contracting parties shall be bound to deliver up its own citizens or subjects under the stipulations of this Treaty.
A fugitive criminal shall not be surrendered if the offense in respect of which his surrender is demanded be of a political character, or if he proves that the requisition for his surrender has, in fact, been made with a view to try or punish him for an offense of a political character.
No person surrendered by either of the high contracting parties to the other shall be triable or tried, or be punished, for any political crime or offense, or for any act connected therewith, committed previously to his extradition.
If any question shall arise as to whether a case comes within the provisions of this article, the decision of the authorities of the government on which the demand for surrender is made, or which may have granted the extradition, shall be final.
Extradition shall not be granted, in pursuance of the provisions of this Treaty, if legal proceedings or the enforcement of the penalty for the act committed by the person claimed has become barred by limitation, according to the laws of the country to which the requisition is addressed.
No person surrendered by either of the high contracting parties to the other shall, without his consent, freely granted and publicly declared by him, be triable or tried or be punished for any crime or