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by the consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents, and sealed with their official seal, shall be received as legal documents in courts of justice throughout the United States and Roumania.


The respective consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents shall have exclusive charge of the internal order of the merchant vessels of their nation, and shall alone take cognizance of all differences which may arise, either at sea or in port, between the cap. tains, officers, and crews, without exception, particularly in reference to the adjustment of wages and the execution of contracts. The local authorities shall not interfere except when the disorder that has arisen is of such a nature as to disturb tranquillity and public order on shore, or in the port, or when a person of the country or not belonging to the crew shall be concerned therein.

In all other cases, the aforesaid authorities shall confine themselves to lending aid to the consuls and vice-consuls or consular agents, if they are requested by them to do so, in causing the arrest and imprisonment of any person whose name is inscribed on the crew-list, whenever, for any cause, the said officers shall think proper.

ARTICLE XII. The respective consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents may cause to be arrested the officers, sailors and all other persons making part of the crews, in any manner whatever, of ships of war or merchant vessels of their nation, who may be guilty, or be accused, of having deserted said ships and vessels, for the purpose of sending them on board or back to their country. To this end they shall address the competent local authorities of the respective countries, in writing, and shall make to them a written request for the deserters, supporting it by the exhibition of the register of the vessel and list of the crew, or by other official documents, to show that the persons claimed belong to the said ship's company.

Upon such request thus supported, the delivery to them of the deserters cannot be refused, unless it should be duly proved that they were citizens of the country where their extradition is demanded at the time of their being inscribed on the crew-list. All the necessary aid and protection shall be furnished for the pursuit, seizure, and arrest of the deserters, who shall even be put and kept in the prisons of the country, at the request and expense of the consular officers until there may be an opportunity for sending them away. If, however, such an opportunity should not present itself within the space of three months, counting from the day of the arrest, the deserters shall be set at liberty, nor shall they again be arrested for the same cause.

If the deserter has committed any misdemeanour, and the court having the right to take cognizance of the offence shall claim and exercise it, the delivery of the deserter shall be deferred until the decision of the court has been pronounced and executed.

ARTICLE XIII. In the absence of an agreement to the contrary between the owners, freighters, and insurers, all damages suffered at sea by the vessels of the two countries, whether they enter port voluntarily, or are forced by stress of weather, shall be settled by the consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents of the respective countries. If, however, any inhabitant of the country, or citizen or subject of a third power, shall be interested in the matter, and the parties cannot agree, the competent local authorities shall décide.


All proceedings relative to the salvage of vessels of the United States wrecked upon the coasts of Roumania, and of Roumanian vessels wrecked upon the coasts of the United States, shall be directed by the consuls-general, consuls, and vice-consuls of the two countries respectively, and until their arrival, by the respective consular agents, wherever an agency exists. In the places and ports where an agency does not exist, the local authorities until the arrival of the consul in whose district the wreck may have occurred, and who shall be immediately informed of the occurrence, shall take all necessary measures for the protection of persons and the preservation of wrecked property. The local authorities shall not otherwise interfere than for the maintenance of order, the protection of the interests of the salvors if these do not belong to the crews that have been wrecked, and to carry into effect the arrangements made for the entry and exportation of the merchandize saved.

It is understood that such merchandize is not to be subjected to any custom-house charges, unless it be intended for consumption in the country where the wreck may have taken place.

The intervention of the local authorities in these different cases shall occasion no expense of any kind, except such as may be caused by the operations of salvage and the preservation of the goods saved, together with such as would be incurred under similar circumstances by vessels of the nation.

ARTICLE XV. In case of the death of any citizen of the United States in Roumania, or of any Roumanian in the United States, without having any known heirs or testamentary executor by him appointed, the competent local authorities shall give information of the circumstance to the consuls or consular agents of the nation to which the deceased belongs, in order that the necessary information may be immediately forwarded to parties interested.

Consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents shall have the right to appear, personally or by delegate, in all proceedings on behalf of the absent or minor heirs, or creditors, until they are duly represented.

ARTICLE XVI. The present convention shall remain in force for the space of ten years, counting from the day of the exchange of the ratifications, which shall be made in conformity with the respective constitutions of the two countries and exchanged at Bucarest as soon as possible.

In case neither party gives notice, twelve months before the expiration of the said period of ten years, of its intention not to renew this convention, it shall remain in force one year longer, and so on from year to year, until the expiration of a year from the day on which one of the parties shall have given such notice.

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this convention in duplicate, and have hereunto affixed their seals.

Done at Bucarest the 5/17 day of June in the year one thousand eight hundred and eighty one







Concluded April 17, 1824; ratification advised by the Senate January

5, 1825; ratified by the President January 7, 1825; ratifications exchanged January 11, 1825; proclaimed January 12, 1825. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 931.)

(Translation from the original, which is in the French language.)


V. Sale of liquors and firearms pro

VI. Ratification.

I. Navigation, fishing, and trading.
II. Illicit trade.
III. Mutual limit of occupation of

northwest coast.
IV. Temporary fishing and trading


In the Name
of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

The President of the United States of America and IIis Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, wishing to cement the bonds of amity which unite them and to secure between them the invariable maintenance of a perfect concord, by means of the present Convention, have named as their Plenipotentiaries to this effect, to wit: The President of the United States of America, llenry Middleton a Citizen of said States, and their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near His Imperial Majesty: and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, his beloved and faithful Charles Robert Count of Nesselrode, actual Privy Counsellor, Member of the Council of State, Secretary of State directing the administration of foreign Affairs, actual Chamberlain, Knight of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, Grand Cross of the order of St. Wladimir of the first Class, Knight of that of the white Eagle of Poland, Grand Cross of the order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Knight of the orders of the Holy Ghost and of St. Michael, and Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour of France, Knight Grand Cross of the orders of the Black and of the Red Eagle of Prussia, of the Annunciation of Sardinia, of Charles III of Spain, of St. Ferdinand and of Merit of Naples, of the Elephant of Denmark, of the Polar Star of Sweden, of the Crown of Wirtemberg, of the Guelphs of Hanover, of the Belgic Lion, of Fidelity of Baden, and of St. Constantine of Parma, and Pierre de Poletica, actual Counsellor of State, Knight of the order of St. Anne of the first Class, and Grand Cross of the order of St. Wladimir of the second; who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and signed the following stipulations.


It is agreed that in any part of the Great Ocean, commonly called the Pacific Ocean, or South-Sea, the respective Citizens or Subjects of the high contracting Powers shall be neither disturbed nor restrained either in navigation, or in fishing, or in the power of resorting to the coasts upon points which may not already have been occupied, for the purpose of trading with the Natives, saving always the restrictions and conditions determined by the following articles.

ARTICLE SECOND. With a view of preventing the rights of navigation and of fishing, exercised upon the Great Ocean by the Citizens and Subjects of the high contracting Powers from becoming the pretext for an illicit trade, it is agreed, that the Citizens of the United States shall not resort to any point where there is a Russian establishment, without the permission of the Governor or Commander; and that, reciprocally, the Subjects of Russia shall not resort, without permission, to any establishment of the United States upon the North West Coast.

ARTICLE THIRD. It is moreover agreed, that hereafter there shall not be formed by the Citizens of the United-States, or under the authority of the said States, any establishment upon the North West Coast of America, nor in any of the Islands adjacent, to the north of fifty four degrees and forty minutes of north latitude; and that in the same manner there shall be none formed by Russian Subjects or under the authority of Russia south of the same parallel."


It is nevertheless understood that during a term of ten years, counting from the signature of the present Convention, the ships of both Powers, or which belong to their Citizens or Subjects respectively, may reciprocally frequent without any hindrance whatever, the interior seas, gulphs, harbours and creeks upon the Coast mentioned in the preceding Article, for the purpose of fishing and trading with the natives of the country.

ARTICLE FIFTH. All spirituous liquors, fire-arms, other arms, powder and munitions of war of every kind, are always excepted from this same commerce permitted by the preceding Article, and the two Powers engage, reciprocally, neither to sell, nor suffer them to be sold to the Natives by their respective Citizens and Subjects, nor by any person who may be under their authority. It is likewise stipulated that this restriction shall never afford a pretext, nor be advanced, in any case, to authorize either search or detention of the vessels, seizure of the merchandize, or, in fine, any measures of constraint whatever towards the merchants or the crews who may carry on this commerce: the high contracting Powers reciprocally reserving to themselves to determine upon the penalties to be incurred, and to inflict the punishment, in case of the contravention of this Article by their respective Citizens or Subjects.

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When this Convention shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, with the advice and consent of the Senate on the one part, and on the other by Ilis Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington in the space of ten months from the date below, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Convention, and thereto affixed the Seals of their Arms.

Done at St. Petersburg the 12 April, of the year of Grace one thousand eight hundred and twenty four.

L. S.] (Signed)


[L. S.]

(L. S.)



Concluded December 18, 1832; ratification advised by the Senate Feb

ruary 27, 1833; ratified by the President April 8, 1833; ratifications exchanged May 11, 1833; proclaimed May 11, 1833. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 933.)


I. Freedom of commerce and navi- | VIII. Consular officers and powers. gation.

IX. Deserters from ships. II. Reciprocal treatment of vessels. X. Estates of deceased persons. III. No discrimination on account of XI. Most favored nation commercial vessels importing.

privileges. IV. Application of two preceding XII. Duration. articles.

XIII. Ratification. V. Export duties.

Separate article: Trade with Prussia, VI. Import duties.

Sweden, Norway, Poland, and FinVII. Coastwise trade.


In the name of the most Holy and indivisible Trinity

The United States of America, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, equally animated with the desire of maintaining the relations of good understanding, which have hitherto so happily subsisted between their respective States, and of extending and consolidating the commercial intercourse between them, have agreed to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of a Treaty of navigation and commerce, For which purpose the President of the United States has conferred full powers on James Buchanan their Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary near His Imperial Majesty; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias has conferred like powers on the Sieur Charles Robert Count de Nesselrode, His Vice-Chancellor, Knight of the orders of Russia, and of many others &c: and the

Federal cases: Taylor v. Morton, 2 Curtis, 454; Ropes v. Clinch, 8 Blatch, 304.

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