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TREATY OF PEACE, FRIENDSHIP, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION.
Concluded May 13, 1858; ratification advised with amendments by the Senate June 26, 1860; amendments proposed by Constituent Assembly of Bolivia consented to by the Senate and time for exchange of ratifications extended February 3, 1862; ratified by the President February 17, 1862; ratifications exchanged November 9, 1862; proclaimed January 8, 1863. (Treaties and Conventions, 1889, p. 90.)
The United States of America and the Republic of Bolivia, desiring to make lasting and firm the friendship and good understanding which happily prevail between both nations, have resolved to fix, in a manner clear, distinct, and positive, the rules which shall, in future, be religiously observed between the one and the other, by means of a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation. For this most desirable object, the President of the United States of America has conferred full powers on John W. Dana, a citizen of the said States, and their Minister Resident to the said Republic, and the President of the Republic of Bolivia on the citizen Lucas Mendosa de la Tapia, Secretary of State in the Department of Exterior Relations and Public Instruction, who, after having exchanged their said full powers, in due and proper form, have agreed to the following articles:
There shall be a perfect, firm, and inviolable peace and sincere friendship between the United States of America and the Republic of Bolivia,
in all the extent of their possessions and territories, and between their people and citizens, respectively, without distinction of persons or places.
If either party shall, hereafter grant to any other nation, its citizens or subjects, any particular favor in navigation or commerce, it shall, immediately, become common to the other party, freely when freely granted to such other nation, or on yielding the same compensation, when the grant is conditional.
[As in said article it is stipulated that any special favor in navigation and trade granted by one of the contracting parties to any other nation, extends and is common to the other party forthwith, it is declared that, in what pertains to the navigation of rivers, this treaty shall only apply to concessions which the Government may authorize for navigating fluvial streams which do not present obstructions; that is to say, those whose navigation may be naturally plain and current without there having been need to obtain it by the employment of labor and capital; that by consequence there remains reserved the right of the Bolivian Government to grant privileges to any association or company, as well foreign as national, which should undertake the navigation of those rivers from which, in order to succeed, there are difficulties to be overcome, such as the clearing out of rapids, &c., &c.]
The United States of America and the Republic of Bolivia mutually agree that there shall be reciprocal liberty of commerce and navigation between their respective territories and citizens. The citizens of either republic may frequent with their vessels, all the coasts, ports and places of the other, where foreign commerce is permitted, and reside in all parts of the territory of either, and occupy dwellings and warehouses; and everything belonging thereto shall be respected, and shall not be subjected to any arbitrary visits or search. The said citizens shall have full liberty to trade in all parts of the territory of either, according to the rules established by the respective regulations of commerce, in all kinds of goods, merchandise, manufactures, and produce, not prohibited to all, and to open retail stores and shops, under the same municipal and police regulations as native citizens; and they shall not in this respect be liable to any other or higher taxes or imposts than those which are or may be paid by native citizens. No examination or inspection of their books, papers, or accounts, shall be made without the legal order of a competent tribunal or judge.
The provisions of this treaty are not to be understood as applying to the navigation and coasting trade between one port and another situated in the territory of either of the contracting parties-the regulation of such navigation and trade being reserved, respectively, by the parties according to their own separate laws. Vessels of either country shall, however, be permitted to discharge part of their cargoes at one port, open to foreign commerce in the territories of either of the high contracting parties, paying only the custom house duties upon that portion of the cargo which may be discharged, and to proceed with the remainder of their cargo to any other port or ports of the same territory open to foreign commerce, without paying other
1 Amendment by the Senate accepted by Bolivia.
or higher tonnage duties or port charges in such cases than would be paid by national vessels in like circumstances; and they shall be permitted to load in like manner at different ports in the same voyage outwards.
The citizens of either country shall also have the unrestrained right to travel in any part of the possessions of the other, and shall in all cases enjoy the same security and protection as the natives of the country in which they reside, on condition of their submitting to the laws, decrees, and ordinances there prevailing. They shall not be called upon for any forced loan or occasional contribution, nor shall they be liable to any embargo, or to be detained with their vessels, cargoes, merchandise, goods, or effects, for any military expedition, or for any public purpose whatsoever, without being allowed therefor a full and sufficient indemnification, which shall in all cases be agreed upon and paid in advance.
All kinds of produce, manufactures, or merchandise of any foreign country which can, from time to time, be lawfully imported into the United States in their own vessels, may be also imported in vessels of the Republic of Bolivia; and no higher or other duties upon the tonnage of the vessel and her cargo shall be levied and collected, whether the importation be made in the vessels of the one country or of the other; and in like manner, all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandise of any foreign country that can be, from time to time, lawfully imported into the Republic of Bolivia in its own vessels, whether in her ports upon the Pacific, or her ports upon the tributaries of the Amazon or La Plata, may be also imported in vessels of the United States; and no higher or other duties upon the tonnage of the vessel and her cargo shall be levied or collected, whether the importation be made in vessels of the one country or of the other. And they agree that what may be lawfully exported or re-exported from the one country in its own vessels, to any foreign country, may, in like manner, be exported or re-exported in the vessels of the other country; and the same bounties, duties, and drawbacks shall be allowed and collected, whether such exportation or re-exportation be made in vessels of the United States or of the Republic of Bolivia. In all these respects the vessels and their cargoes of the one country, in the ports of the other, shall, also, be on an equal footing with those of the most favored nation. It being further understood, that these principles shall apply, whether the vessels shall have cleared directly from the ports of the nation to which they appertain, or from the ports of any other nation.
For the better understanding of the preceding article, and taking into consideration the actual state of the commercial marine of the Republic of Bolivia, it is stipulated and agreed, that all vessels belonging exclusively to a citizen or citizens of said Republic, and whose captain is also a citizen of the same, though the construction or the crew are or may be foreign, shall be considered, for all the objects of this treaty, as a Bolivian vessel.
No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the United States of any articles, the produce or manufactures of the Republic of Bolivia, and no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the Republic of Bolivia of any articles, the produce or manufactures of the United States, than are or shall be payable on the like articles, being the produce or manufactures of any other country; nor shall any higher or other duties or charges be imposed, in either of the two countries, on the exportation of any articles to the United States or to the Republic of Boliyia, respectively, than such as are payable on the exportation of the like articles to any other foreign country; nor shall any prohibitions be imposed on the exportation or importation of any articles the produce or manufactures of the United States or of the Republic of Bolivia, to or from the territories of the United States, or to or from the territories of the Republic of Bolivia, which shall not equally extend to all other nations.
It is likewise agreed that it shall be wholly free for all merchants, commanders of ships, and other citizens of either country, to manage themselves, their own business, in all the ports and places subject to the jurisdiction of the other, as well with respect to the consignment and sale of their goods and merchandise by wholesale or retail, as with respect to the loading, unloading, and sending off their ships; they being in all these cases to be treated as citizens of the country in which they reside, or, at least, to be placed on a footing with the citizens or subjects of the most favored nation.
The Republic of Bolivia, desiring to increase the intercourse between the Pacific ports, by means of steam navigation, engages to accord to any citizen or citizens of the United States, who may establish a line of steam vessels, to navigate regularly between the different ports and bays of the coasts of the Bolivian territory, the same privileges of taking in and landing freight and cargo, entering the by-ports for the purpose of receiving and landing passengers and their baggage and money, carrying the public mails, establishing depots for coal, erecting the necessary machine and work shops for repairing and refitting the steam vessels, and all other favors enjoyed by any other association or company whatsoever of the same character. It is furthermore understood between the two high contracting parties, that the steam vessels of either shall not be subject, in the ports of the other party to any duties of tonnage, harbor, or other similar duties whatsoever, than those that are or may be paid by any other association or company.
Whenever the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be forced to seek refuge or asylum in the rivers, ports, or dominions of the other with their vessels, whether merchant or of war, through stress of weather, pursuit of pirates or enemies, they shall be received and treated with humanity; giving to them all favor and protection for repairing their ships, and placing themselves in a situation to continue their voyage, without obstacles or hinderance of any kind. And the provisions of this article shall apply to privateers or private vessels
of war, as well as public, until the two high contracting parties may relinquish the right of that mode of warfare, in consideration of the general relinquishment of the right of capture of private property upon the high seas.
When any vessel belonging to the citizens of either of the contracting parties shall be wrecked, or shall suffer any damage, in the seas, rivers, or channels within the dominions of the other, there shall be given to them all assistance and protection, in the same manner which is usual and customary with the vessels of the nation where the damage happens, permitting them to unload the said vessel, if necessary, of its merchandise, and effects, without exacting for it any duty, impost, or contribution whatever.
All the ships, merchandise, and the effects belonging to the citizens of one of the contracting parties, which may be captured by pirates, whether within the limits of its jurisdiction or on the high seas, and may be carried or found in the rivers, roads, bays, ports, or dominions of the other, shall be delivered up to the owners, they proving, in due form, their rights before the competent tribunals; it being well understood, that the claim should be made within the term of one year, by the parties themselves, their attorneys, or agents of their respective Governments.
The citizens of each of the contracting parties shall have power to dispose of their personal goods within the jurisdiction of the other, by sale, donation, testament, or otherwise, and their representatives, being citizens of the other party, shall succeed to their said personal goods, whether by testament, or ab intestato, and they may take possession thereof, either by themselves or others acting for them, and dispose of the same at their will, paying such duties only as the inhabitants of the country where such goods are, shall be subject to pay in like cases. And if in the case of real estate, the said heirs would be prevented from entering into the possession of the inheritance on account of their character of aliens, there shall be granted to them the longest period allowed by the law, to dispose of the same as they may think proper, and to withdraw the proceeds without molestation, nor any other charges than those which are imposed by the laws of the country.
Both the contracting parties promise and engage, formally, to give their special protection to the persons and property of the citizens of each other, of all occupations, who may be in the territories subject to the jurisdiction of the one or the other, transient or dwelling therein, leaving open and free to them the tribunals of justice, for their judicial recourse, on the same terms which are usual and customary with the natives of the country; for which they may employ, in defence of their rights, such advocates, solicitors, notaries, agents and factors, as they. may judge proper, in all their trials at law; and such citizens or agents shall have free opportunity to be present at the accusations and sentences of the tribunals, in all cases which may concern them; and likewise at the taking of all examinations and evidence which