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which is nevertheless causing much waste of energy.
The athletic boy is the pride of his family and of his school. His His are the immediate rewards, and he is very likely to obtain professional and social consideration by virtue of his physical feats, which will give him an advantage over his better informed but less robust schoolmates. So far is this carried that the writer knows of English university men even in this country, who are able to make a living simply by virtue of their reputation for athletic prowess in the home college.
This zeal for athletics is apparently very innocent, but there are other matters involved which are not so harmless, for there is another world closely surrounding the world of sport which is altogether demoralizing and dangerous. Thus, we read that the boys at Eton have lately been discovered to be engaged in extensive gambling transactions. They bought the evening papers ostensibly to read the football news but in reality to follow their own gambling operations. Moreover, athletics have become so complicated that it is hard to say where the region of amateur sport merges into the professional, and even school athletics may easily take on the complexion of gambling, and as a matter of fact tend to do so, even here.
The American habit of exclusive training for special athletic events has a very unhealthy effect upon the school boy. Athletic ability comes to be regarded for its own sake, and instead of a means to the enjoyment of life, is apt to be considered as an end in itself, a point of view destructive of true sport.
It must be supposed that all this will right itself in time, but in the meantime the schoolbov runs a certain amount of risk from the society into which he is likely to be drawn by his fondness for athletic sports.
Many parents choose a private school chiefly because it claims certain social exclusiveness, but social exclusiveness implies extravagance, the waste of money and indulgence in dissipation, of one sort or another, and is in fact the very worst possible atmosphere in which a boy can be educated. For where the school lays claim to social distinction and bases its grounds for support upon the wealth of its patrons, the masters are more than likely to be more or less toadies. Their preferences will be obvious to the boys, who naturally lose respect for them and their authority, and acquire thereby a certain unhealthy cynical attitude toward life and which only tends to increase their belief in the absolute premacy of mere money.
The important task is to discover the tone of the school, and that is particularly hard, as the tone in the same school varies from time to time, so that the school which at one time is beyond reproach, may at another be really a dangerous place to which to send a boy who is easily influenced.
It is interesting to observe the effect of this tone upon a new boy. The writer has watched it for a number of years. The boy who finds the school tone higher than that to which he is accustomed is likely to feel the bracing effects of it, and to begin an upward climb which will be of incalculable benefit to him, and which may ultimately place him in a class to which he seemed never likely to belong.
On the other hand, the boy who feels a moral relaxation in school as compared with home life, is not unlikely to loosen his moral hold and the last state of that boy will be worse than if he had never gone to school.
Nothing is more changeable than the tone of a school. Instances have frequently occurred where the bead boys have kept an excellent spirit alive for a whole year, but when
they have left, their successors, who have been under the same influences, and have obeyed the higher standards fairly well, suddenly, and apparently unaccountably, when they have come into positions of influence, have reversed the policy of their predecessors, and have become just as great a danger to good morals and good discipline as their predecessors were a support.
There can be no question, at least on the part of those who have had experience, that it is the boys who make the school, for the governing power is perfectly helpless to deal with a set of boys whose minds are deliberately set upon a wrong
The big boys, the upper form men, are the censors of morals and the natural leaders of the school. The authorities, on their part, may Jetermine the qualities which constitute an upper form man, and thus set a standard to which the lower form men must to a certain extent conform. Now and then, however, a boy with a personality arises, who puts the authorities to confusion, and becomes himself the uncrowned king of the place, which boy is, generally speaking, an excellent person to send home again.
Occasionally, on the other hand, we get a master of exceptionally strong personality, who has very definite ideas as to the way in which he wishes his school to be conducted. Unfortunately, this cannot be relied upon, for such men are scarce in every profession, and it must be admitted that that of teaching is by no means the best suited to the development of personality and strong character. But whenever such a man has been found he should be sustained by every possible means; he is simply invaluable to a boy.
In the matter of physical care, boarders in private schools do not have to contend with insufficient and poor food as was the rule not so many years ago, and it may gen
erally be taken for granted that the food supply is abundant and wholesome. Furthermore, there has, in late years, been a great improvemen in school hygiene, so much so that hardly any improvement can be made in the system of dormitories and class-rooms in the modern school buildings, and this country is far in the lead in the matter of all mechanical school contrivances.
It may fairly be debated, however, whether moral and intellectual development has followed in the wake of these practical improvements. The problems which confront the modern schoolmaster are in their essence precisely the same as those which faced the old headmasters, and it cannot be affirmed with anything like certainty that the moderns are solving them better. The ordinary head-master is, generally speaking, better equipped than his predecessor, but conspicuous and really talented pedagogues are no more numerous than formerly. In fact, the great headmasters of the last twenty-five years in Great Britain and the United States combined, could be counted on the fingers of one hand.
It may be questioned, also, if we have made any distinct advance in school instruction. Our system is different, that is all. Now we prepare boys for the specialist: then an attempt was made to instill the elements of general culture. The specialist system is probably more economical for the community as it ensures greater accuracy and rapidity in the performance of specific tasks, but it is very doubtful if it makes for the greater happiness of the individual and the joy of life.
And it must never be forgotten that from the small schools which it is now the fashion to despise proceeded a very splendid set of men who did their work well in their day and gained an appreciation of true culture which served them well in after years.
The best school is that where the true value of simple, refined living is best learned. But where is such a school to be found? Advertising will not discover it; more often than not it will escape the eye of the superficial observer. It is not likely to be a popular academythe chosen resort of the wealthy and socially distinguished.
Continual experiments are now being made to supplement the deficiencies of ordinary schools by the creation of schools where the system is directed to certain special educational ends. Many of these are mere fads, but many, on the other hand, are valuable and conscientious experiments which
must have a beneficial effect upon education in general. Nearly all of them are possessed of some merit.
Perhaps in this study of the needs of the individual boy lies the solution of many educational problems. The necessity of sending any boy to private school grows less and less every year, with the improvement in the public schools, and this fact, taken together with the tendency toward specialization in educational methods may bring about a sort of pathological pedagogy which may lead to something like a scientific view of education as adapted to the needs of the individual boy.
BY S. HOMER HENLEY
Night, and the stars, and the scented air;
Sighs from moist lips of flowers asleep : Murmurings low from the pine-tops dimAnd she leans from out her casement's deep, And closes her eyes and dreams of―him.
The fountain's mute in the court below,
(A rose is caught in ner dusky hair.)
Night, and the stars, and the scented air;
Silence faint-stirred with the cricket's note: The soft breeze, forth from its secret lair,
Breathes shadow songs from a shadow throat
The Land of the Afternoon
BY BURTON MCKNIGHT
AND of the Afternoon" it is called-land of the setting sun it is. The brilliant coloring of the evening sky, with its riots of pink and green, purple and crimson, may be well thought an intensified reflection of the myriad hues which are found in tree and flower, on plains and mountains. The Hawaiian Islands have about them. a charm which whispers romance and forgetfulness, of the silver moon and the shining sea, and so great is their hold, so tence their grip on the heart-strings, that he who once has felt their spell, walks forever as in a dream, and perfect peace comes again only under the shadow of the palms and within the sound of the surf. Hawaii, whose story is told with pathos and bathos as well, has ever been the alluring perspective, and now that travelers turn their eyes to the West, its manifold advantages claim the attention of the world.
Honolulu is to-day more definitely the mid-ocean capital than ever before, as traveled on the Pacific, increasing with great leaps, draws new ships and capital to it. globe-circler now sees a wideawake, thrifty, well-groomed and rather attractive city, where a few years ago there was only a fringe of good business houses along the beach. Its harbor is deep and fairly wide. Three battleships, four cruisers and two colliers, added to the normal merchant marine, failed to crowd either fair way or dock room. The greatest ships afloat may come up alongside the wharves. Its commerce claims the best steamers, the largest sailers fly the American flag, and cries for more, since 25 per cent of its output passes through the
Golden Gate for trans-shipment for New York.
So much for the commercial side of the city treated superficially. There is another. Scenic Honolulu is one of the gems of the world. Perhaps nowhere else, certainly nowhere within the environment of a great city, exists such a natural sight as the Nuuanu Pali. This is the cliff over which the first Kamehameha drove thousands of his enemies, after a pitched battle. It lies at the head of a valley at the back of Honolulu, and this narrow pass makes a funnel for the trade winds of the north, so that the constant thing is to find a gale blowing in the Pali, no matter how light the airs down town. The story of the scene of blood enacted there reads like a fairy tale. We sight a narrow gap to the sea of the north coast, across a stretch of ranches, and the impression made is one of peace and happiness.
Encircling the city are the mountain chains of the backbone of the island of Oahu, and these, with their many peaks and cutting valleys, combine to form changing pictures as the rainbows arch over them, or the clouds hang low, glowing in the sun and giving a color to the soft skies rivaling that of Italy.
The foliage of Honolulu is distinctive. It is impossible to convey in words, the impression made by the combinations of many greens of the flowering trees and vines, the brilliant yellows and purples and reds, which shine through the mass of palms everywhere. Looking toward the mountains, the shades in the foliage are many, and yet blend exquisitely. Varieties of palms are encountered throughout the city
and its surroundings, while tropical shrubs and northern neighbors, which have become glorified by their transplanting, make jungles of the house-yards and public squares.
In Kapiolani Park there are examples of tropical arborculture, which are not excelled in any known tropical or sub-tropical ground. All over the city may be found avenues of royal palms, date palms, of cocoanuts, acacias, ironwoods, and eucalyptii, with cocoanuts nodding here and there in the background. The culmination of the display of tropical verdure is found. in the
Mounalua estate, a few miles west of the city, reached by a fine road. This estate is threaded by boulevards. There, too, is the polo field and golf grounds, the former in a natural amphitheatre and the latter rolls over the hills near by.
On the mountains back of the city are clustered villas where the Honoluluans take their outing in summer, seeking the higher levels for change of air. Tantalus at 1600 feet elevation bears on a plateau a score of attractive summer places which are delightful rendezvous for a day's outing. The winding road up the mountain's backbone passes through a forest of eucalyptus, and here and there are afforded glimpses of the mountain tops, of valleys on either side, of the blue sea stretching away to the south, making the drive one of exquisite beauty.
Along a line of railroad extending seventy miles northward there are grouped series of sugar plantations, the most productive on earth. The railroad swings through the United States military and naval reservations, around Pearl Harbor, and then by a jutting hill to the Waianae coast, along the base of whose cliffs it extends, its embankments often reaching to the surf, and thence to Waialua, where there is a beautiful resort hotel, with golf links, tennis court, boating, bath
ing, shooting and all the pleasures of a modern summer place.
Away from Honolulu, on Maui, the beauties of Ino Valley beckon, and Haleakala summons the sightseer to witness a sun-rise from the 10,000 feet elevation. On Hawaii the 60 miles of cane fields along the Hamakua Coast, seem like hanging gardens in their splendor. The road to Kilauea, through its jungle, entrances with its pleasurable surprises. Kauai has the wealth of verdure that has given it the name "Garden Isle," and the charm is as deep as lasting. Mountains rise 14,000 feet above the sea, and hold their snow-clad heads in the clouds. Along their uneven sides the forests show varied colorings and form striking pictures.
The restfulness of such when one has been harassed by the cold, the fog, the snow, the scorching heat, cannot be described. They tell of a year of spring time, the perennial season of bud and flower. When the sun comes north and stands overhead, the trade winds from Behring Sea blow constantly, fanning the cheek of nature, bringing grateful showers. It is always cool. A maximum of ninety grees for the hottest summer day has not been exceeded, while the average for no one month has been above seventy-eight degrees for years. The average rainfall for 16 years has been 27.40 inches, with a maximum below 40 inches. In fact, the daylight rains are usually so soft and gentle that one pays no attention to them. Tne air is filled with crystalline drops, and over the green valleys arch bright rainbows. The sun is seldom lost, the average number of days when the sky is obscured being not above eleven in recent years. As a direct result, there is a depth of blue in the sky colorings, a piling up of cumulus clouds into effects which are exceeded nowhere on earth.
These effects, so brilliant and striking, are not only for the sun