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100,000. If this be, as we believe it will be found, a tolerably close approximation to accuracy, we have, among the peasants, 1 suicide in 16,757; middle class, 1 in 20,833; soldiers, 1 in 3,009; nobility, 1 in 11,111; clergy, 1 in 25,000. Hence it follows, that the clergy and middle classes are the persons most satisfied with life in the Russian empire; that the peasants, though serfs, are not very discontented; that the nobility have a more difficult station; and that the soldiers are in the worst state of all.
With respect to the kind of death, it appears that the rope is the favourite instrument of self-destruction in the middle and lower classes, and the pistol among the nobility and soldiery. Drowning is very rarely attempted; there were but seven cases of it, and of poison only three.
Let us now turn to homicides; the mean terms for the two years are, men 141, women 33, children 874; whence we obtain the following proportions:-men to women as 4 to 1; men to children as 3 to 1; women to children as 1 to 1; both sexes to children as 4 to 1.
The next examination is as to the classes. The mean terms for the two years were, among the peasantry, 101 men, 25 women, 31 children, 158 total; middle class, 194 men, 3 women, 2 children, 25 total; soldiers, 10 men, 14 women, 3 children, 15 total; nobles, 6 men, 2 women, no children, 8 total; clergy, 3 men, woman, 1 children, 51⁄2 total. The principal remark on this statement is, that childmurder is most common among the peasantry, and more rare among the soldiers than might have been expected.
The greatest number of men slain were the victims of anger or intoxication, and were killed by blows of the fist or a cudgel; the number of persons slain by sharp weapons was on the average of the two years 261⁄2 men, 6 women, no children, total 324; being little more than a fourth of those who fell by the fist or cudgel. The number murdered by
fire-arms was only four men and one woman. The cases of poisoning were six in the two years, and three of these are believed to have been accidental.
With regard to family connexions, we must take the two years together. One father was murdered by his son; one mother was murdered by her son; five husbands were murdered by their wives; twenty-three wives were murdered by their husbands; one son was murdered by his father; three men were slain by their brothers. Nearly all these domestic crimes occurred in the class of peasants: three, however, belong to the clergy.
Out of the 413 homicides committed in the two years, the perpetrators of 206 only have been discovered and brought to trial. It is known, however, that there were 127 murders committed by peasants; 20 by discharged soldiers and deserters; 7 by merchants and traders; 6 by the clergy, or persons in their employ; and 4 by noblemen. Further, that 80 murders were committed by women, viz. 72 mothers murdered their children; 5 wives killed their husbands; 3 uncertain cases. Among these murders there were only six of masters by their slaves, domestic or rural.
As far as we are enabled to judge from former inexact statistical tables, it would seem that crimes of violence in this division of Russia are diminishing.
Soldiers' Children. The "St. Petersburgh Journal" states, that 160,105 children of soldiers and recruits were educated at the expense of the Crown in the year 1832. During an interval of eight years, 4,343 such children were brought up as clerks in offices; 2,308 as assistant-surgeons ; 452 as land-surveyors; 586 as shipwrights; and 120 as
Artillery. This branch of the military department has been placed upon the subsequent footing, by virtue of an Order of the Day, issued under the Emperor's sign-manual on the 11th of March last. The "Horse Artillery of the Guard" is to consist of one battery of heavy and two of light guns; and the "Horse Artillery of the Line" of seven brigades, one to each of the seven regiments of light cavalry; besides three divisions of the same arm, to be attached to the three corps of "Cavalry of Reserve," and a separate corps in reserve. The "Foot Artillery of the Guard” to be composed of three brigades; and that of the "Line" to consist of a division of "Grenadier Artillery," of six divisions, each composed of three brigades; of the division of the "Caucasus;" and the nineteen brigades attached to the troops at present quartered in Finland. Major-General Soumarakow is placed in command of the whole corps, excepting the "Artillery of the Guard;" and Colonel Ganitshew of the "Guards," of the "Horse Artillery of the Guard."
Synoptical Table of the State of Education in Russia, ac-
Total 2009 VOL. IV.NO. XXIX.
The University of Kijew, destined to replace that of Wilna, suppressed since the Revolution, has not yet been reorganized.
The kingdom of Poland is not included in the budget of Mr. Uwarow. It is not very probable that the budget of the public instruction of that unfortunate part of Poland will be published; it is to be regretted, for, if it were, it would be a document very little conformable to reality: unique in its kind, the greater part of the data of this table would consist of negations; we should find the following details. The University of Warsaw, the only institution for the high sciences which was given to a population of 7,000,000 of inhabitants, is irrevocably suppressed; as, likewise, all the military schools, viz. that of Artillery, School of Cadets, School of Application, of Cavalry, and of Infantry, &c. &c.
In all the Lyceums, the number of classes are reduced from six to four.
The Primary Institution, suppressed by the Lieutenant du Roi, late General Prince Zaionczek, interdicted as hitherto.
The same document informs us that astronomy, meteorology, and magnetism, are the sciences which occupy particularly the Russian authors.
The following notes we think necessary to throw more light on the actual state of the public education:
1. The University of Kijew, destined to distribute scientific instruction in the governments of Volhinia, and in the ancient Polish provinces of Podolia, is not yet organized.
2. It is the same with the University of Witepsk, destined to replace that of Wilna, suppressed since the last Polish revolution, in which were instructed the Polish youths of the governments of Grodno, Minsk, and Bialystok.
The projected institutions for the instruction of the inhabitants of Caucasus and Siberia are not yet realized. It is
the respective governors who are charged to take the ini
The communications of Mr. Uwarow do not give the necessary explanations for us to form any idea whatever of the system of education adopted by the Russian government, which has felt the laconism of her ministry, and seems desirous that the public opinion should not mistake the tendency of her system and rules, which ought to lead to the point she proposes to attain.
The following article, which was inserted in the Berlin "Gazette d'Etat," lately the Russian "Monitor," has brought to light the good intentions of the Russian government for the instruction of her subjects.
An article sent from St. Petersburgh, and inserted in the Prussian "Gazette d'Etat," explains and unfolds the first communication of Mr. Uwarow, Minister; and, in this point of view, it merits the most serious attention of the philanthropist and statesman.
"To give a national direction to the public instruction, without depriving it of the influence of European civilization, all the establishments of education have undergone eminent improvements during several years, and all the others are being reorganized in the same manner. The Russian youths, debtors to foreign genius, are henceforth to take another direction."
To obtain this end the Russian government has recently taken the following measures:
1. It is formally prohibited to all Russians to frequent foreign Universities. Exceptions to this rule will not be granted but in cases very rare, and the Imperial authorization is indispensable.
2. The sciences, which will be henceforth the object of the public instruction, are the literature and history of Russia, and the geography and statistics of that empire.