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line and four frigates will be launched in his presence. The fleet in the Black Sea was never so powerful, and is ready for an expedition, of which the Grand Duke Constantine, Grand-Admiral of Russia, is to take the command, having Vice-Admiral Bellinghausen, a distinguished officer, as his second. On the 13th, fourteen vessels laden with corn sailed for Tchoupout-Kali, a port in Georgia, where magazines are being formed. All the Cossacks of the Black Sea, with ten regiments of Cossacks from the Don, are to march immediately to reinforce the army of the Caucasus. The Tcherkesses are constantly harassing the Russian cavalry. It is said that a Pole, named Pietrowski, a deserter from the Russian army, directs the movements of the tribes of Tchetchenzes, the bravest of the Caucasus and the most inveterate against Russia. General Count Witt is gone to Voznessensk, where he will wait for the Emperor, who will review the military colony of the 2d division of Cuirassiers, the 3d of the Lancers, and the 4th of the Hussars. General Rozniecki will precede the Emperor, as Inspector of Cavalry, in order to execute the plan of General Jomini for arming the Cuirassiers and Hussars with lances."
THE PRESENT ARMAMENTS THROUGHOUT
Hardly nine months have elapsed since, in consequence of the hostile preparations of Russia in the Black Sea, England was under the necessity of increasing her naval establishment. by the addition of five thousand men. It was stated at the time, that this force was necessary for the protection of our commerce, and the maintenance of our maritime ascendency, in a ratio corresponding with the increase in the navies of other Powers. France, Holland, Sweden, and Sardinia, imitated our example; and thus the aggressive projects of Russia have imposed on the maritime States the burdensome maintenance of defensive armaments, at a period when every European Government, and England in particular, have repeated to satiety
their unabated desire, nay, their utmost anxiety, for the preservation of peace.
Under what circumstances, then, does Russia call, at this moment, for an army of one hundred and fifty thousand men, and assume a warlike attitude, which, considering the present amount of her fleets in the Baltic and in the Black Sea, is even more imposing than that which she displayed in 1812, when forced to contend for independence against Napoleon, supported by half the Continent? Are the gallant Circassians the sole object of preparations which extend throughout the entire Russian empire, or is it that Poland, the Don Cossacks, the Crimea, Georgia, Mingrelia, Immeritia, Persia, Moldavia, Wallachia, Servia, each and all sigh for the hour of retribution, and feel that their hopes, their sympathies, and their national existence, are inseparably attached to the success of those hardy mountaineers, the mere mention of whose name drew down upon us, eight months ago, from men of education, the charge of imposture?
If such be the grounds of the alarm which agitates the Cabinet of St. Petersburg, why is she not earnestly invited by those of her allies,
whose tranquillity depends upon her stability, to desist from a contest, not only wholly unprovoked on the part of the Circassians, but maintained by them for the preservation of that independence, which is the inalienable birthright inherited from their forefathers?
Looking at the armaments of Russia under the simple point of view of their being intended to act against Circassia, is not England called upon, if not on grounds of humanity, on those of self-interest, and essentially with interests of peace, which are those of commerce, to place herself in a position to render good offices to either of the belligerents, in the event of their being required? So long as the war continues, it not only keeps up alarm in Europe, and is detrimental to the interests of Russia herself, but all the populations bordering on the Euxine, the Marmora, the Sea of Azof, and the Caspian, comprising many millions, of different creeds, languages, habits, and resources, are kept in continual ferment. The industry of man throughout those extensive regions is necessarily held in check by the insecurity arising from the general apprehension of war, and from the in
stability of their Governments, under the evervarying aspect of affairs, and the multifarious action of Russian diplomacy, sowing everywhere the seeds of dissension, revolution, rebellion, distraction, and anarchy.
It is evident from all accounts that the entire military talent of the empire is at this moment put in requisition. All the most distinguished generals of the staff have been ordered to attend the Emperor in the south: General Jomini, the eminent writer on the campaigns of Buonaparte, Marshal Paskewitsch, Prince of Warsaw, General Rosniecki, the best general of cavalry in the Russian service, and celebrated for his military skill and experience, Count de Witt, &c.
We have, however, already shown, in the declaration of Circassian independence, that no forces which the Emperor of Russia can bring into the field will be able to effect any thing against the indomitable tribes of the Caucasus.
"If Russia conquers us," the Circassians say, "it will not be by arms, but by cutting off our communications, and making use of Turkey and
* See Portfolio, Vol. I. p. 194.