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tions-no spies disturb their privacy, and watch over their actions and thoughts. A community of local interests is the vital principle of unity in the empire. It proffers for cultivation one of the noblest fields ever presented to the genius and labours of man; and with us it rests whether it shall flourish in fertility, or be exposed to ravages which

will convert it into a waste.

Turkey stretches out to us her hand; her ports are open to all our products; she demands reciprocity for her own, under a guarantee only that no malignant power, to which her prosperity gives umbrage, shall be allowed to take revenge. Then will her antiquated restrictions on some native productions be removed, and new channels opened for an interchange of commodities, which I scruple not to predict would in five years double our present exports of two millions, without limits to their progressive increase. Then will European civilization indeed be a boon to the East, and the East return the benefit. Then shall we have made to recoil within his congenial regions the northern Briareus, whose arms, like icebergs detached from the polar mass, are extended to invade and chill more benignant climes.





[In our last Number we inserted the Proclamation of Colonel Lazarew, enticing the Armenians of the Province of Azerbijan to emigrate into Russia. The following report shows how this measure was effected. Russia has stated that her policy is explained in her Treaties. In the Treaties of Turcomanchai and Adrianople we shall perceive that her policy consists in sowing treason amongst the subjects of the Powers she attacks, and then enforcing pardon from their outraged Monarchs, thus holding up in perpetuity an encouragement to all the malecontents of neighbouring States to consider foreign interference the greatest of earthly blessings.]

In the year 1827, in the midst of the brilliant victories of the detached Caucasian Corps, your Highness saw the devotedness of the Armenians, who took an extraordinary interest in the success of the Russian arms. When I filled the office of commandant of the City of Tabreez, I employed myself, agreeably to your instructions, in making preparations for the emigration of this people. As an esteemed brother in the faith of the Armenians, I frequently laid before your Highness their feelings of veneration for the holy name of the Russian Monarch, who is the author of the well-being of my brethren.

After the very glorious peace for Russia, concluded by you in the year 1828, your Highness judged me worthy to carry into execution a project most useful to your native country, formed by you, namely, to effect the emigration of the Christians from the Persian dominions into the districts of Nakshivan and Erivan, lately acquired by Russia, and now, through the favour of the monarch, called the Armenian Provinces.

After the subjection under which the Armenians and their church have laboured during nearly four hundred years, the first step towards the union of this people under the protection of the mighty Russia, and of her mild and wise laws, is indeed the commencement of a great event. And this proceeded from you. On me likewise, as a Russian officer, so flattering a commission, given to me by your Highness, confers great honour, and, as an Armenian, perfect happiness.

To me, as well as to many others, the thing appeared at first to be free from all difficulty, particularly as before the conclusion of the peace with Persia some Armenians and Nestorians came of their own free will with entreaties to your Highness to fix them in the Russian dominions. However, subsequently, when they were to bid adieu to their houses and to the graves of their industrious forefathers, who had left to them great and fertile lands, as an inheritance; when the time came to leave their establishments of so many years standing, with all the comforts belonging to them, and to exchange present security for future insecurity; the Nestorians first required that they should receive compensation for the goods they had left behind them, and then the Armenians petitioned that at least a part of the value of their fixtures should be given to assist them in their first establishment in their new home.

Notwithstanding all these impediments, more than eight hundred Armenian families have been conducted by me into the new Russian Armenian dominions. Although I have unceasingly endeavoured to persuade the Nestorians likewise to emigrate, and have offered them more assistance in money; though I afforded two Nestorian meliks,* Sarchoseh and Almerdi, whom I settled, very considerable assistance ;

Thus are now called the Overseers, as well the Armenians as the Nestorians. The word Melik is, without doubt, of Semitish origin, and meant originally as much as King.

yet, out of the numerous resident Nestorians, I only succeeded in persuading about one hundred families to emigrate. The Nestorians distinctly declared that they would not stir from the place until the Russian Government should have indemnified them for the immoveable property they must leave behind them.

For the removal of these impediments and the rapid success of the emigration, I have to thank the confidence of the Armenians and the zealous assistance of the Staff and other superior officers who were with me, and most punctually fulfilled all my directions, and which, at the end of the report, I consider it my duty to mention.

On the 26th of February, 1828, I received from your Highness instructions with respect to the emigration of the Armenians, and of the other Christians residing in the province of Azerbijan, into the districts of Erivan and Nakshivan. According to the instruction, I immediately made a selection of the staff and superior officers, which was also confirmed by your Highness.

Of the sixteen thousand ducats assigned by your Highness for the support of the emigrants, I received in a short time eight thousand, and applied myself immediately to the fulfilment of the orders which had been given to me.

The Lieutenant-Colonel of the 41st Regiment of Chasseurs, Prince Melikow, was to take charge of the emigration of the Armenians from Orim and the surrounding country. The Lieutenant-Colonel of the Georgian Regiment of Grenadiers, Prince Argutinski Dolgoruki, I left in Tabreez, to assist the emigration of the Armenians from that city and from the surrounding villages. Several officers were placed under his orders, and money was given to him for the support of the poor. I myself, with several officers, started on the 29th of February for the Chanat of Maraga, and arrived on the 1st of March in the city of the same


During the whole time I was taking charge of the emigration, several Persian and English agents were with me. The emigration was effected in the following manner. I took pains to assure myself of the real inclination of the Armenians for emigration; and for this purpose I visited all the towns, and the principal villages in which Armenians resided. After I had selected the persons around me best fitted for the purpose, I committed to each of them the charge of conducting a particular division of the emigrants. I put under their command some younger officers, and I gave them a sum of money for the support of the poor, These officers made registers of the families who wished to emigrate, and distributed to them money for their support, taking a receipt for the same. When one division was ready for the journey, the officer who presided over the emigration from the Chanat (according to circumstances) either went with them himself, or appointed one of the officers who were with him to do so. With each division was an escort of Cossacks, or of infantry; failing this, a number of armed emigrants supplied the place of this armed escort.

I was almost always present at the departure of each division, or else I reviewed them on their march. When I received from your Highness, in the little town of Sofiani, a verbal permission to act according to my own discretion with regard to expenses, and when I saw among the emigrants maimed soldiers, burdened with families; when I saw women and widows who had no means to purchase cattle, I gave assistance to these unfortunate persons, which was the largest portion of the expenditure of the extraordi

nary sum.

The overseer conducted the column entrusted to him in perfect order, as far as the frontiers of Russia; he there committed them to the charge of the local officer. As soon as the latter was informed of his arrival, reports of the

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