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[One of the most unfortunate effects of Mr. Canning's policy in the East was the estrangement which it produced between the cabinet of St. James's and that of Vienna.

It had ever been the policy of England, consecrated by experience, to ally herself firmly with that power in Germany most interested in preserving the independence of the separate states in that empire. We allied ourselves with the Empress Queen to preserve her rights against a formidable confederacy. In the seven years war, we lent our effective assistance to Frederick the Great, when asserting the liberties of Germany in opposition to a formidable league to partition the Prussian monarchy. The power which was most capable of maintaining the independence of the German states, when not engaged in aggressive schemes herself, was Austria.

It was then, we repeat, peculiarly unfortunate that Mr. Canning, by the attractions that innovation ever holds out to a discursive and imaginative mind, abandoned this wise maxim of our forefathers, and repelled the confidence of Austria. In subsequent numbers, we shall produce documents which will prove that the treaty of July, commonly called Mr. Canning's treaty, originated in St. Petersburgh. But the policy of Russia, of making England the instrument of dismembering Turkey, through the advocacy of



constitutional principles in Greece, may be traced as far back as the Congress of Vienna, when a document was presented to the British Plenipotentiaries on the part of Russia, as a protest against the proposed transfer of those islands to the Protectorate of Austria.

The documents which we now present to the public show the helpless state into which Austria was thrown by England's being estranged from her, and how much the administration of the Duke of Wellington, which was framed according to principles which offered every facility for regaining the confidence of Prince Metternich, conceived itself fettered by the engagements entered into by his brilliant predecessor.

But, if the position of Austria in 1829 compelled her, in selfdefence, to abandon all thoughts of supporting Turkey, what prospect can we entertain, in 1836, when Russia has acquired such an augmentation of territory and such wonderful increase of influence, that Austria can maintain even her own independence against Russia?

The Russian quarantines at the mouth of the Danube equally threaten the commerce and the rights of Englishmen, as they do those of Austria; but if England, with her thousand ships, dare not protect her commerce on the only sea in which it is endangered; if her fleet remains to protect her commerce in the British Channel; what is the value of England in the relative scale of nations? What is England to Austria?]

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St. Petersburg, the 10th February, 1829.

Sir, My Brother,

Amongst the letters that Count Ficquelmont has presented to me on the part of your Imperial Majesty, I feel myself more particularly called upon to reply to that in which, in the most confidential terms, your Majesty has made known to me your intentions and your wishes on the subject of the grave circumstances of the moment. M. de Ficquelmont has verbally added such de

Copie d'une Lettre de Cabinet à Sa Majesté L'Empereur d'Autriche, en date de St. Petersbourg, le 10 Fev. 1829.

Monsieur, Mon Frère,

Parmi les lettres que le Comte de Ficquelmont m'a remises de la part de votre Majesté Impériale je me trouve plus particulièrement appelé à repondre à celle où, dans les termes les plus confidentielles, elle m'a fait connoître ses intentions et ses vœux au sujet des graves circonstances du moment. M. de Ficquelmont y a ajouté de vive voix les développements que

velopments as the importance of the questions. indicated in this letter may have rendered necessary. In these explanations your Imperial Majesty has displayed sentiments of friendship and confidence for which I cannot sufficiently express my gratitude. They command the most entire frankness on my part.

No one knows more than I do how to appreciate the grave nature of the circumstances in which we find ourselves; they impose on my people direct charges, material sacrifices, and, as your Majesty says with so much truth, they embrace a whole futurity. If, in such conjunctures, the maintenance of the general peace stands more than ever in need of a guarantee, it can only be found in the union of the principal powers of Europe. It has been my

l'importance des questions indiquées dans cette lettre pouvoit rendre necessaires. A ces explications votre Majesté Impériale à fait présider des sentimens d'amitié et de confiance pour lesquels je ne saurois assez la remercier. Ils commandent la plus entiere franchise de ma part.

Personne plus que moi n'apprécie la gravité des circonstances où nous nous trouvons: elles imposent à mes peuples des charges directes, des sacrifices réels, et, comme votre Majesté le dit avec tant de verité, elles embrassent tout un avenir. Si, dans de telles conjonctures, le maintien de la paix générale a plus que jamais besoin d'une garantie, celle-ci ne peut se trouver que dans l'union des principales puissances de l'Europe. J'ai la conscience de

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