Page images

daries of the United States. There is nothing that is more attractive to the cheap demagogue than to dwell upon the immense power and authority of the United States as compared with all other nations. We are a great nation; we are a great Power, and we are bound to be an enormous influence in the world; but we live in a world of great Powers, in which there is no one country that can impose its will without the consent of other Powers, and we might as well recognize it, as our children must do.

Furthermore, something ought to be done to make better known to the youth of America the great laws of juridical science and especially of international jurisprudence.

We have heard references tonight to that great man, Hugo Grotius, and I want to say that if ever there was a cosmopolite, it was Hugo Grotius; if there was ever a man who can be claimed in all civilized countries as a part of the literature of their country, it is that man. Aside from the great church fathers, the apostles, the leaders, the great evangelists, there is no body of men in modern times who have so affected the minds of the civilized community as the great publicists.

Now, Mr. Chairman, I feel like the child who was called upon to give a sentence containing a word and to illustrate it; that is, he was asked to define a figure of speech and give an example. He gave the figure of speech as "He blows his own horn," and his explanation was, "This does not mean that he has a horn; it simply means that he blows it."

The TOASTMASTER. I had no idea that I was such a good prophet, but the professor has lived up to even our most high expectations, and they were of the highest. Any of us who were so unfortunate as not to be nurtured on his books will immediately take them up and begin our education over again, I am sure.

Now, gentlemen, we have had a good time; we have enlightened the nation as we should, we have done our full duty, and I think we will have to leave the solution of some problems of international law until next year. We will then come back to take up any difficulties that may have arisen in the meantime.

I thank you.



Concluded and signed at Bogotá December 12, 1846; ratifications exchanged at Washington June 10, 1848.

[blocks in formation]

The United States of America and the Republic of New Granada desiring to make as durable as possible, the relations which are to be established between the two parties by virtue of this treaty, have declared solemnly, and do agree to the following points.

1st. For the better understanding of the preceding articles, it is, and has been stipulated, between the high contracting parties, that the citizens, vessels and merchandise of the United States shall enjoy in the ports of New Granada, including those of the part of the Granadian territory generally denominated Isthmus of Panama from its southernmost extremity until the boundary of Costa Rica, all the exemptions, privileges and immunities, concerning commerce and navigation, which are now, or may hereafter be enjoyed by Granadian citizens, their vessels and merchandise; and that this equality of favours shall be made to extend to the passengers, correspondence and merchandise of the United States, in their transit across the said territory, from one sea to the other. The Government of New Granada guarantees to the Government of the United States, that the right of way or transit across the Isthmus of Panama, upon any modes of communication that now exist, or that may be, hereafter, constructed, shall be open and free to the Government and citizens of the United States, and for the transportation of any articles of produce, manufactures or merchandise, of lawful commerce, belonging to the citizens of the United States; that no other tolls or charges shall be levied or collected upon the citizens


Malloy's Treaties and Conventions between the United States and other Powers, 1776-1909, Vol. I, p. 312.

of the United States, or their said merchandise thus passing over any road or canal that may be made by the Government of New Granada, or by the authority of the same, than is under like circumstances levied upon and collected from the Granadian citizens: that any lawful produce, manufactures or merchandise belonging to citizens of the United States thus passing from one sea to the other, in either direction, for the purpose of exportation to any other foreign country, shall not be liable to any import duties whatever; or having paid such duties, they shall be entitled to drawback, upon their exportation: nor shall the citizens of the United States be liable to any duties, tolls, or charges of any kind to which native citizens are not subjected for thus passing the said Isthmus. And, in order to secure to themselves the tranquil and constant enjoyment of these advantages, and as an especial compensation for the said advantages and for the favours they have acquired by the 4th, 5th and 6th articles of this Treaty, the United States guarantee positively and efficaciously to New Granada, by the present stipulation, the perfect neutrality of the before-mentioned Isthmus, with the view that the free transit from the one to the other sea, may not be interrupted or embarrassed in any future time while this Treaty exists; and in consequence, the United States also guarantee, in the same manner, the rights of sovereignty and property which New Granada has and possesses over the said territory.

[blocks in formation]


Signed at Washington, April 19, 1850; ratifications exchanged July 4, 1850.

The United States of America and Her Britannic Majesty, being desirous of consolidating the relations of amity which so happily subsist between them, by setting forth and fixing in a Convention their

1U. S. Treaty Series, No. 122.

views and intentions with reference to any means of communication by Ship Canal, which may be constructed between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, by the way of the River San Juan de Nicaragua and either or both of the Lakes of Nicaragua or Managua, to any port or place on the Pacific Ocean,-The President of the United States, has conferred full powers on John M. Clayton, Secretary of State of the United States; and Her Britannic Majesty on the Right Honourable Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, a Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Knight Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, and Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Her Britannic Majesty to the United States, for the aforesaid purpose; and the said Plenipotentiaries having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in proper form, have agreed to the following articles.


The Governments of the United States and Great Britain hereby declare, that neither the one nor the other will ever obtain or maintain for itself any exclusive control over the said Ship Canal; agreeing, that neither will ever erect or maintain any fortifications commanding the same, or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume, or exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito Coast, or any part of Central America; nor will either make use of any protection which either affords or may afford, or any alliance which either has or may have, to or with any State or People for the purpose of erecting or maintaining any such fortifications, or of occupying, fortifying, or colonizing Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito Coast or any part of Central America, or of assuming or exercising dominion over the same; nor will the United States or Great Britain take advantage of any intimacy, or use any alliance, connection or influence that either may possess with any State or Government through whose territory the said Canal may pass, for the purpose of acquiring or holding, directly or indirectly, for the citizens or subjects of the one, any rights or advantages in regard to commerce or navigation through the said Canal, which shall not be offered on the same terms to the citizens or subjects of the other.


Vessels of the United States or Great Britain, traversing the said. Canal, shall, in case of war between the contracting parties, be ex

empted from blockade, detention or capture, by either of the belligerents; and this provision shall extend to such a distance from the two ends of the said Canal as may hereafter be found expedient to establish.


In order to secure the construction of the said Canal, the contracting parties engage that, if any such Canal shall be undertaken upon fair and equitable terms by any parties having the authority of the local Government or Governments, through whose territory the same may pass, then the persons employed in making the said Canal and their property used, or to be used, for that object, shall be protected, from the commencement of the said Canal to its completion, by the Governments of the United States and Great Britain, from unjust detention, confiscation, seizure or any violence whatsoever.


The contracting parties will use whatever influence they respectively exercise, with any State, States or Governments possessing, or claiming to possess, any jurisdiction or right over the territory which the said Canal shall traverse, or which shall be near the waters applicable thereto; in order to induce such States, or Governments, to facilitate the construction of the said Canal by every means in their power and furthermore, the United States and Great Britain agree to use their good offices, wherever or however it may be most expedient, in order to procure the establishment of two free Ports,-one at each end of the said Canal.


The contracting parties further engage that, when the said Canal shall have been completed, they will protect it from interruption, seizure or unjust confiscation, and that they will guarantee the neutrality thereof, so that the said Canal may forever be open and free, and the capital invested therein, secure. Nevertheless, the Governments of the United States and Great Britain, in according their protection to the construction of the said Canal, and guaranteeing its neutrality and security when completed, always understand that this protection and guarantee are granted conditionally, and may be withdrawn by both Governments, or either Government, if both Governments, or either Government, should deem that the persons, or com

« PreviousContinue »