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TABLE 8.-Vessels under construction on June 30, 1894.
From the returns compiled by Lloyd's Register of Shipping it appears that, excluding warships, there were 398 vessels of 718,201 tons gross under construction in the United Kingdom at the close of the quarter ended 30th of June, 1894. The particulars of the vessels in question are as follows, similar details being given for the corresponding period in 1893 for the purpose of comparison:
The returns of steamers are the largest received since March, 1891.
The following table gives the total figures for vessels under construction at the principal shipbuilding centers:
The following table shows the number and tonnage of vessels, excluding war ships, under construction at various foreign ports, according to the latest returns which have been received at Lloyds. Vessels of less than 100 tons are not included in these figures.
The following tables illustrate the progress and changes of American shipping for the decade ended June 30, 1894.
Table 1 shows the composition of the merchant marine of the United States according to motive power and material for the various years named. While a few steel vessels were built in this country in 1882, steel construction on a considerable scale practically began in 1884, and 1885 is thus the first year available for a comparative tabulation. Comparing 1885 with 1893, it will be noted that all descriptions of vessels noted show an increase in number and tonnage except wooden sailing vessels. In 1885 our merchant fleet included 18,558 wooden sailing vessels, of 2,765,506 gross tons, while in 1893 the number was 17,911 of 2,596,624 gross tons.
The most notable increase is in steel steam vessels. In 1885 we had but 8, of 5,622 gross tons, while in 1893 our fleet of steel steamers numbered 198 vessels of 284,888 gross tons. Included in these are most of the foreign-built steamers which have been admitted to American registry.
Iron construction, which is rapidly giving way to steel in other countries, not only holds its own but shows progress in the United States.
Table 2 shows the distribution of our sailing and steam tonnage in foreign and domestic trade during 1884 and 1894, and also shows the growth of the marine of our several great geographical divisions.
In number and tonnage the wooden vessels, both steam and sail, in foreign trade in 1894 were but little over half the number and tonnage so employed ten years ago, while the iron and steel vessels in foreign trade (both included under iron) are double in number and tonnage those so employed ten years ago.
The growth of the merchant marine of the Great Lakes is the salient feature in the progress of our merchant marine, an increase of 500,000 tons, or about 45 per cent, being noted during the decade. The increase in the amount of iron and steel steam tonnage is even more noteworthy, rising from 27,000 tons in 1885 to 260,000 tons last year. While in 1885 the lakes had less than 7 per cent of the country's iron and steel steam tonnage, in 1894 the lakes have 30 per cent of that tonnage.
Table 3 gives the total tonnage and the registered tonnage of the country by States for 1884 and 1894. The decline in the total and registered tonnage of the New England States will be noted: Maine, for example, during the decade having lost twothirds of its registered tonnage, while Michigan and Ohio have doubled their tonnage during the ten years.
Table 4 shows the sailing tonnage by States for 1884 and 1894, and indicates the portion of our merchant fleets which is declining.
Table 5, on the other hand, shows the iron and steel steam tonnage by States, for the two years, and indicates the geographical distribution of the growing portion of our merchant marine. Both the registered and total tonnage of this description in New York have more than doubled during the decade, the increase being due in part probably to the State's liberal tax laws. The increase of this tonnage in Ohio from 2,000 tons to 80,000 tons, and in Michigan from 9,000 to 83,000 tons, are further evidences of the great progress of lake shipping.
Table 6 shows the construction of all kinds of vessels by States during 1884 and 1894, and illustrates in geographical detail the facts already referred to.
Table 7 shows the construction of iron and steel vessels at all points at which they were built during 1884 and 1894, and illustrates both the growth in volume of this industry, and more particularly its expansion over the country.
Table 8 shows the geographical distribution of tonnage for each of the past eleven years. During this time the tonnage of the lakes has increased from one-fifth to one-third of the total.
TABLE 1.-Material and motive power of the merchant fleet of the United States.
TABLE 2.-Distribution by occupation and geographically of the American merchant
Canal boats are classified with the enrolled and licensed sail vessels, as are most of the barges. In 1894, however, 15 barges, of 4,500 tons, are classified with registered sail vessels.
a Including 256 canal boats, 27,549 tons, and 740 barges, 145,826 tons.
e No canal boats or barges were documented on the Pacific coast for 1884.
e Including 756 canal boats, 68,581 tons, and 126 barges, 34,099 tons.