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head, visible all around the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or flare-up lights at suort intervals, which shall never exceed fifteen minutes.
On the near approach of or to other vessels they shall have their side-lights lighted, ready for use, and shall flash or show them at short intervals, to indicate the direction in which they are heading, but the green light shall not be shown on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard side.
A pilot-vessel of such a class as to be obliged to go alongside of a ressel to put a pilot on board may show the white light instead of carrying it at the masthead, and may, instead of the colored lights above mentioned, have at hand, ready for use, a lantern with a green glass on the one side and a red glass on the other, to be used as prescribed above.
Pilot-vessels when not engaged on their station on pilotage duty shall carry lights similar to those of other vessels of their tonnage.
That article nine [act August 19, 1890], be hereby repealed.-[Act of May 28, 1894.] [ART. 9.] [Art. 10, act March 3, 1885.]"Open boats and fishing-vessels of less than twenty tons net registered tonnage, when under way and when not having their nets, trawis, dredges, or lines in the water, shall not be obliged to carry the colored side-lights; but every such boat and vessel shall in lieu thereof have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass on the one side and a red glass on the other side, and on approaching to or being approached by another vessel such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side.
"The following portion of this article applies only to fishing-vessels and boats when in the sea off the coast of Europe lying north of Cape Finisterre:
"(a) All fishing-vessels and fishing-boats of twenty tons net registered tonnage or upward, when under way and when not having their nets, trawls, dredges, or lines in the water, shall carry and show the same lights as other vessels under way.
(b) All vessels when engaged in fishing with drift nets shall exhibit two white lights from any part of the vessel where they can be best seen. Such lights shall be placed so that the vertical distance between them shall not be less than six feet and not more than ten feet, and so that the horizontal distance between them, measured in a line with the keel of the vessel, shall be not less than five feet and not more than ten feet. The lower of these two lights shall be the more forward, and both of them shall be of such a character and contained in lanterns of such construction as to show all around the horizon, on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, for a distance of not less than three miles.
"(c) All vessels when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind of drag nets shall exhibit, from some part of the vessel where they can be best seen, two lights. One of these lights shall be red and the other shall be white. The red light shall be above the white light, and shall be at a vertical distance from it of not less than six feet and not more than twelve feet; and the horizontal distance between them, if any, shall not be more than ten feet. These two lights shall be of such a character and contained in lanterns of such construction as to be visible all round the horizon, on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, the white light to a distance of not less than three miles and the red light of not less than two miles.
"(d) A vessel employed in line fishing, with her lines out, shall carry the same lights as a vessel when engaged in fishing with drift nets.
(e) If a vessel, when fishing with a trawl, dredge, or any kind of drag net, becomes stationary in consequence of her gear getting fast to a rock or other obstruction, she shall show the light and make the fog signal for a vessel at anchor. "(f) Fishing vessels and open boats may at any time use a flare-up in addition to the lights which they are by this article required to carry and show. All flare-up lights exhibited by a vessel when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind of drag net shall be shown at the after part of the vessel, excepting that if the vessel is hanging by the stern to her trawl, dredge, or drag net they shall be exhibited from the bow.
"(g) Every fishing vessel and every open boat when at anchor. between sunset and sunrise shall exhibit a white light, visible all round the horizon at a distance of at least one mile.
"(h) In a fog a drift-net vessel attached to her nets, and a vessel when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind of drag net, and a vessel employed in line fishing with her lines out, shall, at intervals of not more than two minutes, make a blast with her fog horn and ring her bell alternately." [Art 10, act March 3, 1885, reenacted August 13, 1894, so far as lights on fishing vessels are concerned. For open boats see identical provision in article 7, third.]
ART. 10. A vessel which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned vessel a white light or a flare-up light.
The white light required to be shown by this article may be fixed and carried in a lantern, but in such case the lantern shall be so constructed, fitted, and screened that it shall throw an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of twelve points of the compass, namely, for six points from right aft on each side of the vessel, so as to be visible at a distance of at least
one mile. Such light shall be carried as nearly as practicable on the same level as the side. lights.
ART. 11. A vessel under one hundred and fifty feet in length, when at anchor, shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeling twenty feet above the hull, a white light in a lantern so constructed so as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least one mile.
A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upwards in length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not less than twenty and not exceeding forty feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward light, another such light.
The length of a vessel shall be deemed to be the length appearing in her certificate of registry.
A vessel aground in or near a fairway shall carry the above light or lights and the two red lights prescribed by article four (a).
ART. 12. Every ressel may, if necessary in order to attract attention, in addition to the lights which she is by these rules required to carry, show a flare-up light or use any detonating signal that can not be mistaken for a distress signal.
ART. 13. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the government of any nation with respect to additional station and signal lights for two or more ships of war or for vessels sailing under convoy, or with the exhibition of recognition signals adopted by shipowners, which have been authorized by their respective governments and duly registered and published.
ART. 14. A steam vessel proceeding under sail only, but having her funnel up, shall carry n daytime, forward, where it can best be seen, one black ball or shape two feet in diameter.
SOUND SIGNals for FOG, AND 80 FORTH.
ART. 15. All signals prescribed by this article for vessels under way shall be given— 1. By "steam vessels," on the whistle or siren.
2. By "sailing vessels and vessels towed," on the fog horn.
The words "prolonged blast," used in this article, shall mean a blast of from four to six seconds' duration.
A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle or siren, sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and with an efficient fog horn to be sounded by mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell. [In all cases where the rules require a bell to be used a drum may be substituted on board Turkish vessels, or a gong where such articles are used on board small sea going vessels.] A sailing vessel of twenty tons gross tonnage or upward shall be provided with a similar fog horn and bell.
In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain storms, whether by day or night, the signals described in this article shall be used as follows, viz:
(a) A steam vessel having way upon her shall sound, at intervals of not more than two minutes, a prolonged blast.
(b) A steam vessel under way, but stopped, and having no way upon her, shall sound, at intervals of not more than two minutes, two prolonged blasts, with an interval of about one second between them.
(c) A sailing vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, when on the starboard tack one blast, when on the port tack two blasts in succession, and when with the wind abaft the beam three blasts in succession.
(d) A vessel when at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.
(e) A vessel at anchor at sea, when not in ordinary anchorage ground, and when in such a position as to be an obstruction to vessels under way, shall sound, if a steam vessel, at intervals of not more than two minutes, two prolonged blasts with her whistle or siren, followed by ringing her bell; or, if a sailing vessel, at intervals of not more than one minute, two blasts with her fog horn, followed by ringing her bell.
(f) A vessel when towing shall, instead of the signals prescribed in subdivisions (a) and (c) of this article, at intervals of not more than two minutes, sound three blasts in succession; namely, one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A vessel towed may give this signal, and she shall not give any other.
(g) A steam vessel wishing to indicate to another "The way is off my vessel, you may feel your way past me," may sound three blasts in succession; namely, short, long, short, with intervals of about one second between them.
(h) A vessel employed in laying or picking up a telegraph cable shall, on hearing the fog signal of an approaching vessel, sound in answer three prolonged blasts in succession.
(i) A vessel under way, which is unable to get out of the way of an approaching vessel through being not under command or unable to maneuver as required by these rules, shall,
on hearing the fog signal of an approaching vessel, sound in answer four short blasts in
Sailing vessels and boats of less than twenty tons gross tonnage shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned signals, but, if they do not, they shall make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than one minute.
SPEED OF SHIPS TO BE MODERATE IN FOG, AND SO FORTH.
ART. 16. Every vessel shall, in a fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain storms, go at a moderate speed, having careful regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.
A steam vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until danger of collision is over.
STEERING AND SAILING RULES.
PRELIMINARY-RISK OF COLLISION.
Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be ascertained by carefully watching the compass bearing of an approaching vessel. If the bearing does not appreciably change, such
risk should be deemed to exist.
ART. 17. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other as follows, namely:
(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close hauled.
(b) A vessel which is close hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close hauled on the starboard tack.
(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.
(d) When both are running free; with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to the windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward. (e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other vessel. ART. 18. When two steam ressels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.
This article only applies to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of each other. The only cases to which it does apply are when each of the two ressels is end on, or nearly end on, to the other; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each ressel sees the masts of the other in a line, or nearly in a line, with her own; and by night, to cases in which each vessel is in such a position as to see both the side lights of the other.
It does not apply by day to cases in which a ressel sees another ahead crossing her own course; or by night, to cases where the red light of one ressel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light, or a green light without a red light, is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.
ART. 19. When two steam vessels are crossing, so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other.
ART. 20. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.
"Article twenty-one. Where, by any of these rules, one or two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course and speed.
"Note.-When, in consequence of thick weather or other causes, such vessel finds herself 80 close that collision can not be avoided by the action of the giving-way vessel alone, she shall also take such action as will best aid to avert collision." (See articles twenty-seven
and twenty-nine.) [Act of May 28, 1894.]
ART. 22. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.
ART. 23. Every steam vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or
ART. 24. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, every vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.
Every vessel coming upwith another vessel from any direction more than two points abaft her beam, that is, in such a position, with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking, that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side lights, shall be deemed to be an overtaking vessel; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally past and clear. As by day the overtaking vessel can not always know with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this direction from the other vessel, she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel, and keep out of the way,
ART. 25. In narrow channels every steam vessel shall, when it is safe and practicable, keep to that side of the fairway or mid-channel which lies on the starboard side of such vessel.
ART. 26. Sailing vessels under way shall keep out of the way of sailing vessels or boats fishing with nets, or lines, or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fairway used by vessels other than fishing vessels or boats. ART. 27. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.
SOUND SIGNALS FOR VESSELS IN SIGHT OF ONE ANOTHER.
ART. 28. The words “short blast" used in this article shall mean a blast of about one second's duration.
When vessels are in sight of one another, a steam vessel under way, in taking any course authorized or required by these rules, shall indicate that course by the following signals on her whistle or siren, namely:
One short blast to mean, "I am directing my course to starboard.”
Three short blasts to mean, "My engines are going at full speed astern."
NO VESSEL, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, TO NEGLECT PROPER PRECAUTIONS. ART. 29. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel or the owner or master or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookont, or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.
RESERVATION OF RULES FOR HARBORS AND INLAND NAVIGATION.
ART. 30. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule, duly made by local authority, relative to the navigation of any harbor, river, or inland waters.
"Article thirty-one. When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or from the shore the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely:
In the daytime
"First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute. "Second. The international code signal of distress indicated by NC.
"Third. The distance signal, cousisting of a square flag, having either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball.
"Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus.
"First. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute. "Second. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil barrel, and so forth).
"Third. Rockets or shells throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a time, at short intervals.
"Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus.” [Act of May 28, 1894.] SEC. 2. That all laws or parts of laws inconsistent with the foregoing regulations for preventing collisions at sea for the navigation of all public and private vessels of the United States upon the high seas, and in all waters connected therewith navigable by sea-going vessels, are hereby repealed.
SEC. 3. That this act shall take effect at a time to be fixed by the President by proclamation issued for that purpose.
Approved, August 19, 1890.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas an act of Congress entitled "An act to adopt regulations for preventing collisions at sea," was approved August 19, 1890, the said act being in the following words:
And, whereas an act of Congress entitled "An act to amend an act approved August nineteenth, eighteen hundred and ninety, entitled 'An act to adopt regulations for preventing collisions at sea,'" was approved May 28, 1894, the said act being in the following words:
And, whereas it is provided by section 3 of the act approved August 19, 1890, that it shall take effect at a time to be fixed by the President by proclamation issued for that purpose;
Now, therefore, I, Grover Cleveland, President of the United States of America, do, hereby, in virtue of the authority vested in me by section 3 of the act aforesaid, proclaim the first day of March, 1895, as the day on which the said act approved August 19, 1890, as amended by the act approved May 28, 1894, shall take effect.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, this thirteenth day of July, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and nineteenth.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That in every case of collision between two vessels it shall be the duty of the master or person in charge of each vessel, if and so far as he can do so without serious danger to his own vessel, crew, and passengers (if any), to stay by the other vessel until he has ascertained that she has no need of further assistance and to render to the other vessel, her master, crew, and passengers (if any) such assistance as may be practicable and as may be necessary in order to save them from any danger caused by the collision, and also to give to the master or person in charge of the other vessel the name of his own vessel and her port of registry, or the port or place to which she belongs, and also the name of the ports and places from which and to which she is bound. If he fails so to do, and no reasonable cause for such failure is shown, the collision shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been caused by his wrongful act, neglect, or default.
SEC. 2. That every master or person in charge of a United States vessel who fails, without reasonable cause, to render such assistance or give such information as aforesaid shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be liable to a penalty of one thousand dollars, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; and for the above sum the vessel shall be liable and may be seized and proceeded against by process in any district court of the United States by any person; one-half such sum to be payable to the informer and the other half to the United States. SEC. 3. That this act shall take effect at a time to be fixed by the President by proclamation issued for that purpose.
Approved, September 4, 1890.
SHIPBUILDING IN THE UNITED STATES.
[From the Eleventh Census.]
The tabular statements presented herewith include reports made by establishments whose principal products consisted of the building or repairing of iron, steel, or wooden sail or steam ships, barges, canal, or other boats, masts, or spars. The year covered by the report is the census year ending May 31, 1890.