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PILOTAGE LAWS AND CHARGES.
Following are the laws of States, as far as ascertained, discriminating against American sailing vessels in the coasting trade, together with the rates of pilotage at various ports, and in some instances the aggregate receipts:
When any master of a vessel not having a pilot on board, coming over the bar into Cape Fear River or being in the river and going out of either of the inlets, shall refuse a pilot across the bar, then each pilot so refused shall be entitled to the same pilotage as if he had been actually employed to pilot and had piloted such vessel. And when any master of a vessel shall refuse a pilot either up or down the Cape Fear River, then each pilot so refused shall be entitled to the full pilotage, in the same manner as he would have been had he been actually employed for the purpose of piloting such vessel. (Code of North Carolina, sec. 3502.)
Under State law vessels of over 60 tons burden are required to employ a pilot while passing through the inlets of North Carolina at the rate of 10 cents per ton. Wilmington. The pilotage charges from sea to Wilmington, and vice versa, are as follows:
Every vessel coming into Southport seeking or for orders, and every vessel coming in for harbor and needing a pilot, shall pay half the rate of pilotage from sea to Wilmington, in and out.
Beaufort.-Pilotage: Vessels over 60 tons arriving with or for cargo, if drawing 8 feet or under, $1.50 per foot; 9 feet, $1.75; 10 feet, $2; 11 feet, $2.25; 12 feet, $2.50; 13 feet, $3; 14 feet, $4, and 15 feet and over, $6 per foot.
The pilot ground of the bar of Charleston shall extend from the said bar 30 miles eastward, southward, and northward, and any master or commander of a vessel bearing toward any harbor or bar (all coasters and other vessels trading between any ports in this State excepted) who shall refuse to receive on board a licensed pilot for the said bar and harbor who shall offer to board, shall be, and is hereby, made liable on his arrival at the said port to pay such pilot who first offered to go on board and take charge of such vessel the rates and fees allowed and established as hereinafter mentioned, as if such pilot had actually brought in such vessel to such port. (Gen. Stat. of South Carolina, sec. 1272.)
Charleston. The collector of customs at Charleston makes the following comprehensive and precise statement of charges on navigation imposed at that port: (1) Pilotage is compulsory, and the charges are as follows:
For taking a vessel around to Ashley River, if requested by the master, $8; for taking letters from the city of Charleston to vessels outside of the bar and waiting orders and delivering them on board, the amount of inward pilotage of such vessel's draft.
The receipts from pilotage for the past year amounted to $57,343.20.
Beaufort. The receipts from pilotage for the year ending June 1, 1894, were $17,373, the rates being as follows:
Georgetown.-Pilotage proceeds for twelve months ending May 31, 1894, $6,481.50,
Be it further enacted, That any person, master, or commander of a ship or vessel, except vessels exempt by United States laws, and vessels while licensed under the provisions of this act, and vessels of less than 100 tons burden bearing toward any of the ports, rivers, or harbors of this State and who refuse to receive a pilot on board, shall be liable on his arrival in such port, river, or harbor in this State to pay the first pilot who may have offered his services outside the bar and exhibited his license as pilot, if demanded by the master, the full rates of pilotage inward and outward established by law for such vessel. (Acts of Georgia, 1886, part 1, title 6, sec. 4, p. 41.)
SEC. 3. They (the commissioners of pilotage) shall allow vessels running coastwise under United States license to pay, after paying the inward pilotage for that trip, an annual license of 25 cents per registered ton, which shall belong to the pilot entitled to the inward pilotage fee, and the payment of said license fee shall exempt at that port said vessel for twelve months thereafter from the compulsory employment of a pilot either inward or outward or payment therefor, unless services of a pilot are accepted.
Savannah.-Pilotage: Average annual receipts, $47,000, at the following rates:
Brunswick.-Pilotage: Annual receipts, $42,000, at the following rates: Bar of St Simons and Turtle River and the bar of St. Andrews and Great St. Illa River:
Rates for the bar of St. Simons and Turtle River and the bar of St. Andrews and Great St. Illa River from $1 to $8 higher.
SEC. 1396. Any master of a vessel bearing toward the port or harbor of Mobile, except coasters and other vessels trading between the ports of Mobile, New Orleans, and Pensacola, who refuses to receive a pilot on board, is liable on his arrival in the bay or harbor of Mobile to pay the first pilot who offered his services outside the bar and exhibited his license as pilot, if demanded by the master, one-half the rate of pilotage allowed a vessel of such draft. (Code of Alabama.)
The laws of Mississippi exempt all American vessels not exceeding 150 tons register from the payment of compulsory pilotage. (Acts of 1876, chapter 107.)
Biloxi (Ship Island).-Pilotage: Vessels 18 feet draft or under, $3 per foot; over 18 feet draft, $4 per foot. Receipts for the year 1893, about $6,000.
Pascagoula.-Pilotage: Vessels of 300 tons burden or over, $4 per foot; vessels under 300 tons, $3 per foot. Aggregate receipts for 1893, $11,000.
Vicksburg. No charges for pilotage.
Natchez.-No charges under the heads named.
SEC. 948. Rates of pilotage.-The board of pilot commissioners of each port may fix the rates of pilotage which shall be paid by any vessel entering their port; but in no case shall they fix the rates greater than the rates now provided by law, as follows: All steamers or vessels entering any port, or leaving the same, shall be subject to pay any licensed pilot performing duty on board, or to the pilot who shall first speak to such steamer or vessel, the following rates of pilotage: vided, That all steamers or vessels carrying the regular United States mails shall pay half pilotage only: Provided further, That all steamers or vessels drawing less than six feet of water, and having a coast wise license, shall be exempt from paying whole or half pilotage, unless they employ a pilot.
Pilotage under State law: Vessels drawing 2 feet or less, $2 per foot; 6 to 10 feet, $3 per foot; 10 to 14 feet, $4 per foot; 14 to 20 feet, $5 per foot; over 20 feet, $6 per foot. Vessels carrying United States mails, half pilotage. Vessels drawing less than 6 feet with coastwise license are exempt.
Cedar Keys.-Pilotage, 5 to 7 feet, $2 per foot; 7 to 10 feet, $3 per foot; 10 to 12 feet, $4 per foot.
St. Augustine.-Pilotage, $2 per foot up to 10 feet; over 10 feet, $3 per foot.
SEC. 2. The pilots of the port of New Orleans shall be entitled to ask and receive pilotage at the rate of $3.50 for every foot of water drawn by any ship or vessel piloted by them drawing 10 feet of water or less, and $4.50 per foot for vessels over 10 feet of water up to 18 feet of water, all vessels drawing over 18 feet of water to pay same rate as vessels drawing 18 feet and no more. Vessels of 100 tons and under, lawfully engaged in the coasting trade of the United States, shall not be required to take pilot unless the master of such vessel demands the pilot service.
Pilotage: Bar, per foot draft each way, $4.50; river, regular rate, $60; under contract, sometimes done for $40.
Brashear.-Pilotage, no charges fixed by law.
Any vessel going in or out of a port in Texas shall be liable to the first pilot whose services she declines to one-half pilotage in and one-half pilotage out. (Revised Statutes of Texas, art. 3649.)
Galveston.-Pilotage, $1 per foot draft.
Corpus Christi.—Pilotage, $2 per foot; channel tolls on all vessels over 4 feet draft, 15 cents per ton.
Brazos de Santiago.-Pilotage, $4 per foot.
Collectors of customs at El Paso and Eagle Pass report no charges.
Baltimore.-Pilotage under State law is compulsory. Vessels drawing 12 feet and under are charged $3.50 per foot. Those drawing over 12 feet but less than 15 are charged $4 per foot, and those drawing 15 feet and over are charged $5 per foot. This service covers the Chesapeake Bay from Cape Henry to Baltimore, a distance of 165 miles.
Newport News.-Pilotage under the State law of 1887 is fixed at the following rates:
"For every vessel owned by a citizen of the United States, and for every vessel owned by a citizen or subject of any foreign State whose vessels are by treaty placed on the same footing as vessels of the United States, if the vessel be spoken or boarded to the eastward of Cape Henry, there shall be paid for each foot the vessel draws as follows: From sea to Smiths Point, West Point, Newport News, Norfolk, or any place between Smiths Point, West Point, Newport News, or Norfolk, vessels drawing ten feet and under, two dollars and fifty cents; vessels drawing thirteen feet and over ten feet, three dollars; vessels drawing fourteen and over thirteen feet, three dollars and fifty cents; vessels drawing sixteen feet and over fourteen feet, four dollars; vessels drawing over sixteen feet, four dollars and fifty cents. If the vessel be boarded or spoken twenty miles or more eastward of Cape Henry, twentyfive cents per foot shall be added to the foregoing rates. There shall be paid the same pilotage from Smiths Point, West Point, Newport News, or Norfolk, or any intermediate point to sea, as from sea to those places; and from Newport News to Jamestown, or any place between Newport News and Jamestown, one dollar and thirty-five cents per foot; from Newport News to Richmond, or any place between Jamestown and Richmond, two dollars and fifty cents per foot; and the same rates of pilotage shall be paid from said places, respectively, down. Vessels coming from sea to Hampton Roads and thence to any port in Maryland shall be subject to the same rate of pilotage as vessels bound from Newport News to sea. All vessels coming to Hampton Roads, seeking, in ballast, shall only pay one-half pilotage in and one-half out: Provided, however, That if such vessels coming to Hampton Roads, seeking, is afterwards chartered to load in any port or place in this State, she shall pay the usual pilotage in and out as though she had come to a direct port. All steamers calling in any port or place in this State for the sole purpose of coaling shall only pay one-half pilotage in and one-half pilotage out. All vessels that go from Norfolk to Newport News to load or to finish loading, and all vessels that go from Newport News to Norfolk to load or finish loading, shall, if they take a pilot (which shall be optional with the master) pay a fee of ten dollars to the pilot for transporting any such vessel to or from either place."
The receipts for pilotage for the year ending June 1, 1894, at Newport News were $36,995.
Norfolk.-Pilotage as stated above.
Following is a statement of the essential provisions of the laws of Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Italy regulating the deduction to be made in those countries from gross tonnage in the ascertainment of net tonnage. The report of the Bureau for last year contained the laws of Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, and Sweden upon the same subject. These laws are printed for the guidance of customs officers. The law of the United States is now in accord with that of Great Britain, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and the law of no other nation, except France, now permits deductions which are not permitted by the law of the United States. Except in the case of French vessels it will seldom be necessary to measure in the United States vessels of the nations already enumerated, or of the Netherlands, Russia, Hawaii, and Portugal, unless there is reason to believe that the national certificate does not accurately represent the measurement under the law of the nation to which the vessel belongs, or that the deductions are greater than permitted by the laws of the United States. In such cases the vessel is to be remeasured according to the laws of the United States.