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4. MOTIVE POWER AND CHIEF MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE WORLD'S MERCHANT MARINE-Continued.

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5. TOTAL NUMBER AND TONNAGE OF STEAM VESSELS (OVER 100 TONS) AND SAIL VESSELS (OVER 50 TONS).

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6. CONSTRUCTION.

Vessels built in the world (over 100 tons), according to Lloyd's (including vessels not recorded in Lloyd's).

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7. WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING IN 1894.

[Lloyd's Register.]

LONDON, January, 1895. During 1894, exclusive of war ships, 614 vessels of 1,046,508 tons gross (viz, 549 steamers of 964,926 tons and 65 sailing vessels of 81,582 tons) have been launched in the United Kingdom. The war ships launched at both Government and private yards amount to 31 of 32,971 tons displacement. The total output of the United Kingdom for the year has, therefore, been 645 vessels of 1,079,479 tons. In the notes war ships are excluded from consideration except where they are specially mentioned. The output of the year in the United Kingdom exceeds that of 1893 by more than 210,000 tons, and the proportion of steam tonnage to the total tonnage launched has been much higher. In 1892 sailing tonnage formed no less than 24 per cent of the output, in 1893 it formed 14 per cent, and in 1894 it has formed less than 8 per cent. The large war-ship tonnage shown by the society's quarterly shipbuilding returns to have been under construction, especially during the latter part of the year, has not yet progressed so far as to much affect the returns of vessels launched.

The maximum productive capacity of the shipbuilding yards of the country may perhaps be nearly indicated by the output of the year 1889. That year's production may, therefore, serve as a standard with which to compare the work of 1894. In 1889 595 steamers of 1,083,793 tons, and 95 sailing vessels of 125,568 tons (total, 690 vessels of 1,209,361 tons) were launched. It will be seen that these figures exceed those for 1894 by nearly 12 per cent on the steam tonnage, by more than 53 per cent on the sailing tonnage, and by 15 per cent on the total tonnage. In addition the war tonnage launched in the country during 1889 exceeded that launched during 1894 by about 15,000 tons. It may thus be said that on the basis of tonnage launched, and taking the figures for 1889 as a standard, the shipbuilding facilities of the country have been utilized in 1894 to the extent of about seven-eighths. In 1893 this proportion stood at only two-thirds.

As regards the material employed for the construction of the vessels included in the United Kingdom returns for 1894, it is found that of the steam tonnage 98.6 per cent has been built of steel and 1.2 per cent of iron. The iron steam tonnage includes, this year, two vessels of 1,900 and 1,200 tons, respectively; but, with these exceptions, the total is practically made up of trawlers and comprises no vessels of more than 350 tons. Of the sailing tonnage, 97.9 per cent has been built of steel and 0.5 per cent of iron. Only two sailing vessels have been built of iron during the year, the larger being of 226 tons.

Of the total output, no less than 834,122 steam tons and 74,491 sailing tons, or 908,613 tons in all (nearly 87 per cent) belong to ports in the United Kingdom. In this connection it may be noted that Lloyd's Register Wreck Returns show that the losses, etc., of United Kingdom vessels during twelve months amount to about 264,000 tons (170,000 steam, 94,000 sail). Sales to foreigners for the twelve months ended November, 1894, amounted to 264,000 tons (194,000 steam, 70,000 sail). On the other hand, purchases from foreigners during the same period amounted to 52,000 tons (42,000 steam, 10,000 sail). The sailing tonnage of the United Kingdom would thus appear to have decreased by about 80,000 tons, while the steam tonnage has increased by 512,000 tons. The net increase of United Kingdom tonnage during 1894 is therefore about 432,000 tons.

Over 13 per cent of the total output has been built to the order of foreign and colonial shipowners. This proportion is somewhat smaller than was the case last year. Germany has provided the largest amount of work for British shipbuilders, 14 vessels of 41,730 tons (4 per cent of the total output) having been built for that country. Holland follows with 6 vessels of 17,634 tons (1.7 per cent). Next come Russia and Norway, for each of which about 15,000 tons (1.4 per cent) have been built. Spain has taken 8,200 tons, and Italy, France, and Austria over 5,000 tons each. Of the principal shipbuilding districts of the country, the Clyde takes the lead, with a total output of 331,324 tons. This total includes over 88 per cent of the sailing tonnage launched in the United Kingdom; and in the production of steamers the Clyde has also largely exceeded any other district. After the Clyde come the Tyne (190,601 tons), the Wear (168,257 tons), the Tees (104,071 tons), Belfast (96,810 tons), and the Hartlepools (81,839 tons).

The largest steamers which have been launched in the United Kingdom during the year are the following:

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The largest sailing vessel is the Pitlochry, 3,111 tons gross.

In 1893, 5 steamers were launched which exceeded 7,000 tons each, as compared with only 2 in 1894. On the other hand, 133 steamers, ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 tons, have been launched in 1894, as against only 92 in the previous year.

It may be mentioned that the totals for the year under review include 5 “turretdeck" steamers, 10 vessels for the carriage of petroleum in bulk, 75 steam trawlers and other fishing vessels, 13 dredgers, and 22 yachts.

Of the tonnage launched in the United Kingdom during 1894, excluding that built for foreign and colonial owners, nearly 89 per cent, and of the tonnage built for foreign and colonial owners nearly 80 per cent, has been built with a view to classification by Lloyd's Register. Of the total vessels launched in the United Kingdom, 516 of 914,287 tons (or nearly 88 per cent of the tonnage) have been built under the society's supervision.

As regards the movements of the shipbuilding industry during the course of 1894, Lloyd's Register Returns show that (irrespective of war ships) the total tonnage under construction in the United Kingdom on the 31st of December, 1894, only slightly exceeded that under construction twelve months previously. In steam tonnage there is an increase of 54,000 tons, but this is partly counterbalanced by a decrease of 38,000 tons on the sailing tonnage. At the close of 1893, 641,981 tons (578,026 steam, 63,955 sail) were reported to be under construction. In March and June the quarterly returns showed 725,000 tons and 718,000 tons, respectively, under construction. At the present time the figures are 658,286 tons (632.443 steam, 25,843 sail). It should be added that the war-ship tonnage under construction in the country has risen from 95,000 tons displacement, twelve months ago, to 260,000 tons at the present time. Of the former total, only 13,000 tons were in hand outside the royal dockyards, while of the latter 122,000 tons are being constructed at private establishments.

As regards vessels "preparing" (i. e., ordered but not commenced), it may be noted that in March last the returns reached the exceptionally high total of 271,000 tons. Since then, however, they have steadily declined. The actual figures are quoted in more detail in Lloyd's Register Shipbuilding Returns for the 31st of December, 1894. At the present time 63 steamers of 135,656 tons and 7 sailing vessels of 10,430 tons are reported in this category.

Attention is drawn to the statistics given in Table V, respecting colonial and foreign shipbuilding during 1894. Although it is obviously difficult to publish at so early a date complete figures for the year, probably few, if any, vessels of importance are omitted from the table referred to. No doubt, however, some vessels of small tonnage built in the more remote districts have not been reported. The figures should, therefore, be looked upon as somewhat under rather than over the mark. The table indicates that (excluding war vessels) there have been built abroad during the year 148 steamers of 203,279 tons and 170 sailing vessels of 73,751 tons. If to these figures be added those for the United Kingdom, as given in the preceding tables, the total output of the world during 1894 (exclusive of war ships) appears to have been about 1,324,000 tons (1,168,000 steam, 156,000 sail). Lloyd's Register Wreck Returns show that the seagoing tonnage of all nationalities totally lost, broken up, etc., in the course of twelve months, amounts to about 692,000 tons (278,000 steam, 414,000 sail). It will thus be seen that while the sailing tonnage of the world has been largely reduced during 1894, there has been a net increase in the world's mercantile tonnage of upward of 632,000 tons. Of this total, the net increase in the tonnage of the United Kingdom, as given above, represents about 68 per cent.

Vessels launched in the United Kingdom during 1894.

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