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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Present state of American over-sea navigation.
Substitution of steam and steel for sail and wood.
Increa se in ocean-carrying trade, consequent upon the new tariff act
Operation of the registry law.
American ownership under foreign flags.
Free registry and subsidies not conflicting or alternative propositions.
Subsidies and mail compensation..
Forms of bounties and subsidies.
Discriminating taxes on shipping.
Not a practical measure.......
Purpose of such taxes in early American history
Average valuation of merchant steamships.
Cost of operation and maintenance.
Operation of reciprocity section..
Disadvantages of net tonnage as basis of tax.
Advantages of gross tonnage as basis of tax.
United States shipping commissioners
Purpose, extent, and cost of service..
Increase of facilities and powers desirable.
Decisions of U. S. Supreme Court..
Nature and effect of taxes on shipping
State taxation of shipping-Continued.
Taxes paid at representative American ports.
Comparison of domestic and foreign taxes.
Features of the year's construction
Tonnage and construction for 1894 compared with 1893, with statistical sum-
Progress during the past decade.
Increase in steel and iron construction..
Decrease in registered tonnage, with comparison at ten-year periods..
Reports of steamship companies.
Proposed department of commerce.
Advantages of both secured by proposed concentration of bureaus
Shipments before collectors of customs.
Shipments before U. S. consuls......
1. Shipments before U. S. commissioners.
Table of number of crews and men shipped on steam and sail vessels
Foreign element in British merchant marine..
Foreign element in German merchant marine.
Table of nativity of seamen shipped, by ports.
3. Available seamen, classed by nationality, in American ports.
4. Discharges of seamen, expenses of commissioners..
Table showing discharges of crews in foreign and coasting trade,
Table of average number of crew and average number of men per
100 tons shipped on steam and sail vessels in foreign and coasting
6. Report of New York shipping commissioner.
Crews and parts of crews for registered steamships
13. Advantages of American vessels..
15. Suggestions upon legislation for shipment of seamen.
C. Wages of seamen (American and foreign).
Comparative wages on American and British vessels.
Tables showing monthly wages paid at American ports on Amer-
ican steam and sail vessels of various tonnages to able seamen,
boatswains, carpenters, first and second mates, firemen, first and
second engineers on voyages to Great Britain, continent of Europe,
South America, West Indies and Central America, Atlantic and
Gulf coasting trade, Atlantic and Pacific coasting trade, Asia,
Australia, Pacific coasting trade, and Hawaii..
Rise and decline of British wages.
Table (1) showing maximum, minimum, and ordinary wages for
1893 of able seamen, first mates, second mates, and boatswains on
British sailing vessels, cargo steamers, and passenger steamers on
voyages to the several continents
Table (2) showing wages as in table (1) of first and second engi-
neers, firemen and trimmers on British steam vessels
Table (3) showing wages paid to British able seamen on steam and
Table (4) showing British wages, as in Table (3), of first and sec-
ond mates, boatswains, carpenters, sailmakers, quartermasters,
3. Table of wages in the German and French merchant marine.
4. Wages paid crews of foreign vessels at American ports..
Southampton: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for Ameri-
can vessels, and British wages
Liverpool: Wages and nationality of crews shipped for American
Hamburg: Condition of American merchant marine
Victoria, British Columbia: Wages on American vessels, on British
vessels to Australia and China, fare on American vessels..
Panama: Shipments for American vessels, wages and nationality of
Curaçoa: Shipments for American vessels.
Valparaiso: Wages paid on British steamships, nationality of sea-
Hong Kong: Wages paid on American steamships
French subsidy report on net tonnage, and French law.
British, German, and Danube measurement rules.
Gross and net tonnage and percentage of deduction of various nations.
Tonnage certificates of type steamships
Changes in French, German, Belgian, Dutch, Spanish, and Russian ton-
Net tonnage law of the United States (text).
Net tonnage law of Great Britain (text).
Net tonnage law of Norway (text)
Net tonnage law of Denmark (text).
E. Tonnage-tax collections for the fiscal year.
Annual tonnage taxes since 1884
Collections for 1893-'94 by flag, steam, or sail, and 6-cent or 3-cent rates
F. State taxes on shipping.
Laws of the States arranged in order of customs districts from Maine
H. Foreign taxation of shipping....
Synoptical table of taxes on shipping as property, port charges, object
I. American shipping entered during the last fiscal year at 45 principal sea-
K. Ocean mail compensation, subsidies, admiralty subventions, and foreign
Mail compensation for fiscal year ended March 31, 1894.
Relative land and sea mail expenditures of Great Britain.
Genesis of British mail payments (extract from article on subsidies
Statistics of British merchant marine
Statistics of German merchant marine.
Domestic construction and foreign purchase.
Statistics of Norwegian and Swedish merchant marines.
Construction with and without bounties..
Extracts from French parliamentary report (M. Siegfried) on opera-
tions of bounty law of 1881.
Navigation and bounties paid.
Statistics of French merchant marine
L. Reports of principal steamship companies....
Number, gross tonnage, horse power, and value of merchant steam fleets.
L. Reports of principal steamship companies-Continued.
Dividends, value per ton, receipts from passengers, freight, and mails..
Expenditures for coal, wages, provisions, depreciation, repairs, insur-
M. Steam communication with foreign countries, showing established steam-
ship lines, ports of entry and clearance, nature of service, average
period of voyage, with lists of steamships, gross tonnage, flag,
year and material of construction, approximate number of crews,
Shipping employed in export of grain from New York..
American ownership under foreign flags....
Shipping employed in import of fruit from Central America and West
1. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1890, 1892, by
2. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1893-'94, by countries (Bureau
3. World's steam and sail tonnage for 1894, by countries (Lloyd's Reg-
4. Total tonnage, and proportions of steam and sail as power, wood,
iron, and steel as material of construction in world's tonnage, for
1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894 (Lloyd's Register), with British, French,
5. Total tonnage and proportions of steam and sail, and potential ton-
nage from 1886 to 1893 (Bureau Veritas).
6. Annual construction of the world, steam and sail, wood, iron, and steel,
for 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, and 1893 (Lloyd's Register).
7. Details of world's construction, output of foreign yards for 1893,
P. Progress and changes of American shipping during the decade 1884-1894...
1. Composition of American merchant fleet, classed by motive power
(steam or sail) and material of construction (wood, iron, steel), for