The Simplest of Signs: Victor Hugo and the Language of Images in France, 1850-1950
Must we learn how to read pictures? Or are pictures viewed, and texts read? If both pictures and texts are read, what theory accounts both for this reading and the manifest differences that exist between the two sign systems? In response to such questions, Timothy Raser traces the evolution of simple signs from the Romantic moment to the recent past, showing how a desire for direct signification informs both canonical Romantic texts and the art-critical texts of subsequent generations. Employing semiotic analyses, he isolates the devices used by poetry, plays, novels, and art criticism to produce effects of immediacy. So doing, he describes the rhetoric of art criticism as it evolved over the nineteenth century in France. The tropes of this genre are particular to it - resurrection is a favored metaphor - and these tropes, when deconstructed, explain arguments, evaluations, and choices that saturate the field. Timothy Raser is a Professor of French at the University of Georgia.
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action ęsthetic appears argues argument art criticism artist Barthes Baudelaire Baudelaire's beautiful becomes c'est called certainly chose citation claim Claudel comes concept connotation consider Contemplations course criticism dates death denotation describe discussion Dutch effect essay example existence expression fact fiction figure France Fromentin Further hand Hugo Hugo's images imagination implies indicate judgment language later less live loss meaning ment narrative nature never novel object painter painting Paris performative perhaps person poem poet poetry portrait possible present prison produce promise Proust question reader reading reference relation represent representation Ruskin Saint Salon Sartre sculpture sense signified story structure suggest things thought Tintoretto tion tout translation turn Victor writing written