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from the question of benefitting who did justice to the beneficence of Prussia, has a reason for marching his disposition, but who could point a great body of its troops to the out no acts of heroism or magnanineighbourhood of Warsaw. His mity which deserved a glorious remajesty has trusted too much in the membrance. His father left behind power of his own troops, let him him coffers full of money, and two not be fatally and finally deceived by hundred and fifty thousand well distoo unbounded a reliance on those of ciplined soldiers, bearing the charachis ally. We shall be anxious to ter of the first troops in Europe. have an opportunity of commending When the present king ascended the his prudence in refusing the prof- throne, the expences of the war, the fered armistice and eventual peace malady of his father, his profusion, from his powerful foe. Does he de- and his mistresses, had so exhausted rive spirits from the reported malady the royal treasury, that he was thinning the ranks of the enemy? Is obliged to commence his reign by nethe destruction among the French gociating a loan at Frankiort. soldiers as general and as rapid as the may be recollected that the late king the havoc made in his father's army was a disciple of the illuminati, by when in Champagne? He cannot whom he was amused with deceitbe ignorant of the tracks which the ful promises of recovering health, till conscripts of France are every day within a few hours of his decease. making from all parts of their empire The ancestors of the present fato the capital of Prussia. But what- mily were of Swabian origin, being ever may be left unseen at this time, counts of Zollern or Hohenzollern. in Frederic William's book of fate, They became Burgraves of Nuremmust shortly be exposed to the eye burg, and in that quality converted of Europe, and then mankind will be a delegated power into a sovereignty, better enabled to sum up his charac- as many other princes have done. ter, and to judge whether from his In 1248 the Burgrave Frederick II. resembling the last king of Navarre obtained possessions in Franconia, he is only worthy to be the last which afterwards became the princiking of Prussia; or like some of those palities of Anspach and Bareuith. great minds which acquire strength The Burgrave Frederick V. in 1415, and wisdom through adversity, he having amassed vast wealth, purrises from his fall with a renewed chased of the Emperor Sigismund vigour or resolution that at first as the margraviate of Brandenburg, and tonishes and at last overcomes his this obtained him the electoral digadversary. But it is time we said nity. The Elector Albert (surnamed something of the birth and ancestry Achilles) ordered by will in 1473, of his Prussian Majesty, and of the that the margraviate of Brandenburg, elevation of the house of Branden- with all its dependencies, should be burg. the indivisible inheritance of the first Frederick William III. is the born; and treachery some time grandson of Frederick II. commonly after obtained new aggrandizements called the Great Frederick, who for this house, by the deceit practised died in the year 1786. Frederick on the Knights of the Teutonic Order William II, father of his present ma- and Templars; by which a succeedjesty, died on the 19th November, ing margrave, who had been appoint1797. The first of these two mo- ed for their security grand master, narchs lived to a good old age by robbed them of East Prussia. as they avoiding all manner of intempe- had been before of the New Mark rance, though of a convivial or social by his predecessor. The Margrave disposition. He was of a literary Sigismund, who married the only turn, but had endured great hard- daughter of Duke Albert, obtained ships in the field. Frederick Wil- the government and investiture of liam II. had made several campaigns, Prussia in 1611, and in 1618 he but his infirmities were the conse- united it to the electorate. quence of excess of pleasures, and a dropsy terminated his life, to the regret of his family, and a few friends UNVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.

Soon after, by the extinction of the right line of the dukes, the Elector of Brandenburg succeeded to the dutchy


of Cleves, as well as the counties of and the district of Netze, a country Mark and Ravensburg. In 1640 then almost lying waste, but since Frederick William, who was called better cultivated, and deriving great the Great Elector, ascended the importance, as opening a communithrone surrounded by ensanguin- cation between ancient Prussia, and ed ruins, the work of his weak Pomerania, and Brandenburg. The predecessor; but after bringing an possessions of Frederick when he died, inauspicious war to a succcessful con- comprized 10,000 square leagues, clusion, he obtained by the peace of 5,800,000 subjects, 2,500,000 of Westphalia the Bishopricks of Min- which he had acquired himself. His den, Halberstadt, and Camin, with revenue was above 5,000,000l. sterother possessions. This prince had ling. His treasury at his death conabout two millions of subjects, from tained upwards of 8.000,000 in whom, according to authentic docu- specie, and in his pay he had a chosen ments, he received the annual sum of army of two hundred and sixicen 1,533 795 crowns. The wars of thousand men!

Louis XIV. drew Frederick William Prussia, by the second and third into many combats, thereby afford- partition of Poland, has been auging him an opportunity of acquiring mented by two new provinces, called the reputation of being a great gene- South Prussia and New West Prussia; ral. Frederick I. a fortunate, but which by the last enumeration were vain prince, crowned himself king found to contain together more than of Prussia, on the 18th January 1701, 1,500,000 inhabitants and successively obtained the acknow- Frederick William II. acquired ledgement of this new dignity by all two millions and a hali of subjects, the courts of Europe except the bat he died without respect, without Holy See. He encreased his sove- glory, and from the causes we have reignty by the principality of Neuf- before mentioned, less rich, and less chatel and the countries of Julenberg powerful, than his predecessor. and Hohenstein.

His present majesty obtained very King Frederick William I. aug valuable acquisitions for Prussia while mented his army to 100,000, and she continued in amity with France, with these and the battle of Pultowa, for although the latter power prehe obtained the wished-for opportu- vailed on him to cede the duchy of nity of driving the Swedes almost en- Cleves and its dependencies, she retirely out of Germany; and the peace ceived in the way of indemnity or of 1720, with the sum of 2,000,000 exchange, the bishoprick of Påderof crowns, secured to him the pos- bern, Hildesheim, and Munster, part session of Hither Pomerania, the of the territories of Erfurt and fortress of Stettin, and the islands of Eichsfeldt, besides six abbeys and Usedom and Wollin, important pos- three small imperial cities; thus obsessions, as rendering Prussia master taining 513,000 inhabitants in lieu of of one of the mouths of the Oder, 133,000 which she had ceded; all thereby opening the Baltic sea to her this was effected in spite of the recommerce. This king left to his monstrances of Austria, and all the successor 2,700,000 subjects, a re- princes of the Empire, venue of 1,250,000l. sterling, and an army of 76,000 men.

The Prussian dominions in 1805 extended 155:6 square leagues, and Frederick II. commenced his reign the population amounted to 9,640,000 in a manner to alarm the house of persons. Four millions are given to Austria with the apprehensions of a Prussia, two millions to Silesia, uprival. His war in Silesia gained him wards of two millions to the Electhat rich province, which after the torate, Pomerania, Magdeburg, &c. havock made in it, contained nearly The remaining million and a half 1,200,000 inhabitants, but which at are in the small provinces in Westhis death had 1,582,000, and now phalia. Franconia, and Lower Saxony. contains by the last census 2,048,000. In the exchange which recently He acquired without force the port took place between Prussia and of Embden in East Friezeland, and France the former gained considerain 1772 he also seized without taking bly, not altogether from the intrina sword in his hand, West Prussia, sic value of the places given her in

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exchange for Neufchatel, Anspach, been the persons who in rapid sucEssen, and Werden, &c. but more cession have been placed at the head particularly by their position, since of the government of France since they connected together the mass of the year 1792, the unvariable and the other Prussian possessions in ruling character of it has been an Germany, giving to Prussia the com- insatiable ambition. That power mand of the Elbe and Weser, the na- alone, which knows in secret what tural channels of her commerce and passeth in the heart of man, can disthat of the contiguous states. cover whether there was any sincerity With these facts and circumstances in Bonaparte's wishes for peace. before us, we cannot but feel a de- This warrior may say, that if at any gree of surprise at the conduct of one period since he has ascended the the court of Berlin. The Prussian throne he had reposed on his arms, a possessions perpetually augmenting coalition would ever have been ready in extent and value; with an increas- to disturb that repose; and conseing influence in the Diet, and a pro- quently that he has been fighting for portional diminution of power in the his own preservation. He would rival of his majesty, we think there add probably, that in every new conmust be some private cause for com- test something has fallen out of his mitting all this to hazard, which has adversaries hand into his own. Whenot yet been guessed at. ther there would be or not, less truth. than speciousness in this kind of defence, it cannot but be lamented that the advice of a great statesman, now no more, was neglected, which was, to leave France to herself, and not make her familiar with her own strength.

For the entering upon this momentous war against a power which Prussia had contributed to exalt at one time, and neglected to abase at another, when equally in its power, his majesty gives the following public reasons in his proclamation, dated at Erfurt, 2d Oct. last. The first is, The memorials of kings are often that the political state of France has but an artful display of words, with been the scourge of humanity for the a very small portion of sound logic. last fifteen years. This abstractedly This of the king of Prussia is of the considered, would be a strong reason above description, and perhaps none for arming against such a govern- has ever been penned that so little ment. It would be more than a interested its reader; for it speaks of chivalrous, it would be at once a the violations committed on Holland noble and a humane reason in the and Switzerland, and of the injuries king for calling his forces into the done the kings of Sardinia and field to check the overbearing sway Naples, as if his Prussian Majesty of so daring and insulting an adven- had ardently essayed to prevent such turer. But with what grace, with wrongs, and had not stood silently what consistency does the mouth of by to witness them. With respect Frederick William III, offer such a to the condition of Portugal, it is not reason? If that king has uniformly amongst the least remarkable pasconsidered the proceedings of the sages in this late declaration, that French government in so detestable his Majesty enumerates its dependa light, why has he observed so ent and precarious state as one among mysterious, and at times so unexpect- the other grievances laid to the charge ed a neutrality; when it was in his of France; since it is well known power at more than one critical mo- that this power had paid for what the ment, to have strengthened the arm king properly enough calls a deceit raised for the purpose of breaking ful security, before the arrival of the scourge? The Abbé Syeyes any one of the last French ministers could offer a secret proof of the un- at Berlin, whom his Majesty received seasonableness of this reproach of the so graciously. It is truly affecting to king of Prussia against the French hear Frederick William say, when government; and that it would bet- we consider by whose hands he has ter become any other crowned head fallen, that Prussia was the first in Europe. His majesty, however, power to acknowledge Napoleon as rightly adds, that whoever may have Emperor, and that during six years

she acted as a friendly neighbour, our polished neighbours never more But it was certainly being too civil by resembled tigers than at the moment half, to one neighbour, to allow him they were anxious to establish an into commit an injustice upon another stitute of scavans. and nearer neighbour; and this was Of the political conduct of the the case in suffering the French to King of Prussia, since the new distake possession of Hanover. The putes in Europe, it is impossible 'manner in which it was afterwards that any impartial man can speak disposed of, implicates his Majesty in with praise. His Majesty has rethis unjust proceeding; for assured solved, he has retracted, he has we must be, that but for an existing wavered, and from this indecision he understanding between the Emperor has fallen without maintaining that of France and King of Prussia, the character which consoles greatness in former durst not have committed this distress. The instances of bad faith violence and insult on the whole in princes throughout this memorable body of the Electors of the Empire, declaration cannot but shock every exhausted as their head or chief might upright mind The criminations and be, after the late arduous and unfor- recriminations which it contains, altunate struggle. Sensible of the most make the reader exclaim, “A weakness of this part of his pleading, plague on both your houses." There and the little title it has to public is one passage we cannot forbear to opinion or approbation, the King is transcribe: it refers to the treaty conobliged to say, in this instance he cluded in Paris with the Russian countenanced an act of injustice, envoy, Mons. d'Oubril. It is as foltherefore was it his view to remedy lows: "By the treaty which the it. Prussia, continues the declara- Emperor of Russia has refused to tion, "offered herself for it instead ratify, France offered, in conjunction of England, and the condition on with Russia, to prevent Prussia from which the latter should cede it." depriving the King of Sweden of his This cannot but remind a reflecting reader of the familiar phrase, to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds.

German territories-Yet, for many months the cabinet of St. Cloud had continually pressed the King to seize those states with the threefold view:

That kings should partake of the First, to revenge himself on the frailties incident to all mankind, is King of Sweden: secondly, to enno more than may be expected; but broil Prussia with all other powers; that the education of a prince should and thirdly, to purchase her silence not teach him to avoid those faults with respect to the subversion of and disgraces which private persons Southern Germany. But the King are careful to shun, is a subject to had long been aware that such were be deeply regretted. The moral the views of France, and his unfortu-character of man suffers materially nate dispute with Sweden was painfrom these odious examples in the ful to him. He had, therefore, been great: a principle of selfishness seems careful to provide against every susto prevail in all classes throughout picion of self-interested motives, and Europe. Society, while it is said to he confided his explanations to the receive a still higher polish, suffers Emperor Alexander--The scene now great deterioration. Its very lustre again changed, and Napoleon, who serves but to dazzle and deceive. If had so long been the enemy of the Rousseau were again alive, he would King of Sweden, was suddenly transmaintain anew, and perhaps with formed into his protector." more energy, the principle upon Such is the little regard paid to the which he obtained the prize" at dictates of probity by crowned heads, Dijon. He would say, refinement whether of the new or ancient order! bas done its best: that polished so- Such duplicity in an English merciety has made man more social and chant towards a correspondent would less valuable. Ovid has said, Inge- unquestionably shut him out from nuas didicisse fideliter artes, emollit the Royal Exchange. But it is promores. We wish we might safely bable that while his Majesty of Prusand truly add, nec sinit esse feros: but sia has incensed his powerful foe, by

thus exposing his deceit and wicked selves, even when on the eve of a cunning, he has not pleased any one war, &c. &c." of his brother kings by holding the The King of Prussia observes that picture up to the view of the world. It troops being marched from the inmay furnish to Republicans a topic terior of France towards the Rhine, whereon to argue against monarchy. cleared away the last doubt, as to the Nor is the language such as we have design of Bonaparte to attack his been accustomed to see used from one kingdom. The King, however, orsovereign to another, though it were ders a note to be transmitted by Geneintended to convey the deepest charges, ral Knoblesdorff, containing the conthe strongest threats. Horace, in his ditions on which he was ready to come Georgics, has been said to throw about to an accommodation. These were, his very dung with grace, and kings 1st, That the French troops should have hitherto abused one another in immediately evacuate Germany. 2d, polished language. The declaration That France would oppose no obstasays, "The king determined to con- cle to the formation of the northern tinue the part he had acted for some confederacy; and that the confede time longer; wishing to preserve his racy might embrace all the larger and force, now more than ever necessary smaller states, not included in the funto Europe, and at least to secure the damental act of the confederation of tranquillity of the North, confirmed the Rhine. 3d, That a negotiation the new treaty. Confidence, how- should immediately be commenced, ever, was now utterly lost. Prussia for the adjustment of all differences was convinced that on the first oppor. still in dispute; a preliminary article tunity to weaken her without danger, of which should be the restoration of she might expect an attack from her the three abbeys, and the separation pretended ally, convinced that there of the town of Wesel from the French is a degree of ambition which nothing empire.


can satisfy, which proceeds without The conditions (the declaration says) intermission, from usurpation to usur- speak for themselves, the term fixed pation; sometimes without a plan, for the decision elapsed without any but ever intent on destruction, care- notice from the cabinet of St. Cloud, less of the choice of means, and em- and the king confided his cause to ploying alike arms or the pen, violence and oaths;" and again, his Ma- If the maxim were true that "Heajesty's declaration asks, "Does any ven fights on the side of the just," one wish to know what was the line then would Prussia have much cause by which it was hoped to gain the for self reproach; for a more decisive elector of Hesse, and what was the augmentation of territory, with which he was flattered? It was the Prince of Orange, the brother-in-law of the king, that Prince who had been twice deceived in the most shameless manner, who was now to be robbed the third time."

battle, and one more fraught with mischief to a state or empire, was never won or lost, than that which took place on the 14th of October last, between the armies of the King and those of the Emperor of France. The Prussians call it the battle of Jena: But the French distinguished it at first by The king of Prussia, even while the name of Auerstadt, because it was penning the declaration, was not in- the place that the French centre, unsensible to the duty which custom im- der the Emperor Napoleon, made the poses upon sovereigns, to adopt a lan- attack. It is not without remark, that guage becoming their rank in the the Prussians and French designated heat of their quarrels; for he says, the bloody conflict of this day by differ"Another contrast of conduct incen- ent names; for with great propriety, it sed the king to the utmost. He re- might be considered as two distinct batceived a letter from the Emperor full tles. That of Auerstadt commenced at of those assurances of esteem, which, six in the morning, the other at Jena certainly when they do not accord began half an hour later. The space with facts are to be considered as between the two fields of battle is nothing, but which the dignity of more than twelve miles, and both sovereigns renders a duty on them- terminated completely in favour of

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