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the French. The Emperor bad un- army, with the concurrence of a Sax[JANUARY der him Marshals Lannes, Ney, Au- on artillerist of great eminence. gereau, and Soult, the former of whom though some of the causes which conAlopened the first fire, against which tributed to the disasters of this day, the Saxons made an intrepid stand. may never be known, yet it is obviThey were led on under their own ous to the least discerning eye, that an generals, but the Prussians were com- unity of plan for the disposing of such manded by Prince Hohenloe, with a vast body of forces was wanting. Count Tauenzien under him. Gene- It is said that on the morning of the ral Buchel had a reserve of fifteen battle, when a thick fog favoured the thousand men engaged at Capellen- attacks of the French, the plan was dorf, where the battle terminated essentially altered by the Duke of about half after three o'clock in the Brunswick, and thereby much conafternoon. Auerstadt is nine English fusion was created in the first inmiles from Naumberg. The King of stance. Bonaparte appears to posPrussia and Duke of Brunswick, with sess so creative a genius in the militheir army, posted themselves be- tary science that he brings a war to tween the villages of Poppelt, Trutch- an end in seven days, which formerly witz, and Rehhausen. The first at- took up as many years. The disor tack on the part of the Prussians was der into which the Prussian infantry from the right wing under Count was thrown, by this new mode of Wartensleben, whose onset was at- attack, rendered a retreat to the retended with considerable success; but gular and orderly vanquished army, he was soon constrained to relinquish after the battle, utterly impossible. these advantages. The Emperor Na- It was a total rout which subjected poleon and the King of Prussia were the miserable Prussian soldiers, to be not opposed to each other, as the cen- cut down by the victorious French catre of the army of the former was en- valry, like corn before the sickle. The gaged at Jena, and that of the latter at loss, according to the French acAuerstadt. thousand prisoners, among whom counts, was between thirty and forty

Some days previous to the battle, it was evident that the Prussian army were twenty generals and thirty pair was too much extended; it concen- of colours, three hundred pieces of trated itself from thetwo wings, draw- cannon and immense magazines. The ing nearer to the centre. By this killed and wounded were estimated at movement it fell into an error of the twenty-five thousand. Above a fortopposite extreme, and to this misfor- night after the action, the bodies of tune may be attributed the facility the slain lay piled in heaps for want with which the French turned their of burial, as the neighbouring villages flanks. It was the same calamitous were all burnt or destroyed. circumstance that decided the battle at Presburgh; for the Prussians have in this instance allowed the French to practise a similar manoeuvre against them, as defeated the Austrians in the same month and almost on the same day the preceding year. This advan- est garrisons. The battle of one day tage was calculated upon by the may be said to have almost annihiFrench, previous to the action with lated the whole Prussian armies, since the Prussians; and a degree of irreso- there have been three towns only lution, paralysing the army of the lat- which have made a decent resistance ter at the decisive moment, opened to the besiegers. the way to the complete overthrow which followed. There was a hesi- King of Prussia looked, when he reThrough what prism of hope the tation among the commanders, whe- fused Bonaparte's terms of an armisther to attack or wait the assault of tice, we cannot guess. No doubt, the French. The order of battle was his Majesty was apprised that Lord not generally approved of; and it is Hutchinson and other military comsaid a better was offered by a General missioners, from England, were on of the first distinction in the Prussian the road to him, with offers from our

tragedy, diminished the confidence and These losses in the first act of the ardour of the Prussian troops, throughout the whole kingdom, as is manifested by the spiritless defence evinced by the commanders of the strong

The case of Frederick William is,

government. He counts, likewise, tal like truth. The conduct of Freno doubt, on the co-operation of a derick William II. to the Poles has vast Russian army, the numbers of been a chief cause of the downfal of which, we hope, will not have been his throne in his successor. Success magnified beyond the reality. The may give a momentary lustre to vioassistance we can afford the King in lence and rapine; may throw a brilhis difficulties, is only by a loan, and liant lustre over injustice; but no the counsel of a few spirited warriors, force can, for a long time, controul who conquered in Egypt: of the re- public opinion: esteem, alone, renliance he makes on the Russians we ders authority permanent and tranhope he will be justified. The thread quil, and glory solid and substantial. of his political existence is in the hands of Alexander; and if monarchs however, not so desperate but that it like other men could be treacherous is possible it may be recovered. He and insensible to pity and the dictates has gained much experience. He has of honour, a weighty bribe might oc- shewn something like a firmnesss in casion it to fall to the ground, never adversity. Some of his friends dread more to be taken up. But Bona- that portion of rashness which marks parte and Turkey have projects of his disposition. For our part we see magnitude before them! Or, rather, nothing to apprehend on that score. Turkey is a game which Napoleon Let him but consent to restore what proposes to play off with honours. his predecessor unjustly seized, and His first designs, in which Egypt was he has hitherto unlawfully retained ; included, will never be given up. and we shall applaud that temerity However gigantic, and even roman- which often, in the midst of perils, is tic his Eastern speculation may appear exemplary wisdom. to many, we have no doubt, he will at no great distance of time, resume it.

The king of Prussia is in his 37th year, being born on the 3d of August 1770. His Majesty is of the issue of the late king, by his second marriage,

Such is the unfortunate condition of the grandson of the greatest crown- with the Princess Frederica of Hesse ed head in Europe, so far as respected Darmstadt; he is consequently halfhis own achievements. The most brother to her Royal Highness the antient subjects of the monarchy Duchess of York, who is by the same cordially sympathise with Frederick father, by his espousal of the Princess III. The newly acquired ones in Elizabeth of Brunswick WolfenbutPoland repose on the justice of Hea- tle. His Majesty himself has four chilven, and, perhaps, expect and invoke dren by the Princess Louisa of Meckfrom it the same fate on Frederick as lenburg-Strelitz,to whom he was marStanislaus experienced. There are ried December 24th 1793; 1st, Fresuch crimes as an odioas perfidy, an derick William born October 15th, oppressive injustice, and a sanguinary 1795; 2d, Frederick William Lewis, ambition in kings, as well as there born March 224, 1797; 3d, a Prinare others, peculiar to inferior ranks cess, born July 14th, 1798; 4th, of mankind. Monarchs should re- Charles Alexander, born June 29th, member that the general interest is 1801. justice, which is in its nature immor

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

To the Editor of the Universal Mag. would have derived from the learning and genius of Dr. Johnson; yet

SIR,

a

care Dr. Johnson, I recollect, in- his mind entertained, will carry with forms us, that among other publica- it a recommendation from his intentions which the Doctor had intended, tions; and may hope to interest the was a translation of many of the ance- public mind. dotes ia Elian's Various History. Though that design cannot be executed with the advantages which it

The writer of this would, without the parade of proposing a separate work, offer some translations from Æliau, to

occupy a place in your instructive and dotes: the best editions of which are entertaining miscellany, for the infor- those of Perizonius in 1701; of Gronomation and amusement of your readers vius, in 1731. “An excellent book," through the months of the ensuing says the just cited author, that sold at Dr. Askew's sale for 11. 10s.; and that year. It may raise an idea of the utility of Scheffer, in 1685, which he characand moment of such a design, if your terises as "by far the best, and containreaders are told, that two selections ing a treatise of erudition and good of this nature have been given in the criticism.” JOSHUA TOULMIN. original Greek, by eminent scholars, Jan. 7, 1807. in their day, for the instruction of A SELECTION FROM ELIAN'S VAyouth: one, and very copious, by the learned Upton, for the use of Eton No. 1.-Socrates represses Alcibiades' School, in 1775; the other by the distinguished Grecian Professor DalSocrates observing that Alcibiades zel, for the students at the University was elated by his wealth and was proud of Edinburgh, 1785. From the for- of the extent of his estate, placed mer it is proposed to make the trans- before him a map of the earth, and lations for your Miscellany, as in- desired him to point out Attica: havcluding all the pieces given in the ing done this, he directed him to look latter, besides many others. for his own lands. On his replying, that they were not marked out there, "Yet how proudly you boast," says Socrates, "of what has no place in

RIOUS HISTORY.

Pride.

name

No. 2.-The Mitylenians' Punishment of Revolt.

Elian, whose first was Claudius, was born at Præneste in Italy, about the year 80 of the Christian æra, and died at sixty years of the delineation of the world." age, in the 140. He professed rhetoric at Rome and sustained also the office of a priest. He was never out When the people of Mitylene were of Italy, nor ever in a ship: yet he masters at sea, they enacted, by way attained to such skill in the Greek, of punishing the revolt of their allies, that he wrote it with the purity of "That their children should not be a native Athenian. The title of a instructed either in literature or muSophist was conferred on him at a sic" for they deemed it the severest period, when that name was deemed of all punishments to be obliged to a literary honour and held in great pass life away in ignorance of lanestimation but he received it with- guages and of the liberal arts.* out any elevation of mind, or con- No. 3.-Socrates drinks the Hemlock. When the ship, which usually fidence in his powers: and thinking them not equal to the declamations sailed every year against the celebraof the schools, he applied himself to tion of the games returned from composition and historical works; Delos, and it was known that Socrates in which he raised admiration by the must die, his friend Apollodorus went unaffected simplicity and elegance of to the prison, and took to him a nicely his style: so that he gained the name woven and costly woollen coat and of the honeyed tongue. He had at- a cloak of the same sort; he for tended the lectures of Pausanias the thought it was fit that he should drink historian: and afterwards, by his ad- the poison clothed with that coat and herence to the customs and laws of with the cloak hrown on his shoulhis native country,gained great weight and influence at Rome: where he died, leaving no family, as he was never married. His works were collected and published by Gesner, at Zurich in 1556. An edition, says thens themselves," observes Dr. Priestly, Dr. Harwood, very correct and valu- "was, that he would not allow the Chris He tians to teach the Greek poets and ora able, and of rare occurrence. wrote a treatise on animals and ano- tors."-History of the Christian Church, ther on tactics; but his most cele- vol. ii. p. 251. The same fact is inerbrated work is his "Various His- tioned by Kraneus and Upton, in their tory," a curious collection of anec- notes on the above passage of Zlian.

* "The most illiberal of the methods that Julian took to lower the credit and prevent the spread of Christianity, a measure exclaimed against by the Hea

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ders, saying, that if he died thus ha- Alexander, wrote thus to him: "Subited, he would not want a hand- periors, and not equals, are the some burial; and there would be proper objects of passion and anger; nothing indecorous in a corpse lying but thou hast no equal." along dressed with such ornaments. No. 8.-On Old Age. Thus Apollodorus addressed Socrates, but without effect; for he, turning when he was very old,* sitting in an They relate, that Epicharmus, to those about him, Crito, Simmias, open portico with some of his conand Phæsion, said, "What a fine temporaries, the company entered opinion of me has Apollodorus, if he into conversation on the length of persuade himself, that when the life.. One said, that he should be saAthenians have handed the cup to tisfied to live five years longer: anonie and I shall have drank the poison, ther said, three would content him: Le shall see Socrates any more! If a third replied, that he wished for he think that the form which will no more than four. Epicharmus perceiving their difference of sentiment, said;"My excellent friends, why do you differ and disagree about a few days? The sun of each of us, who are now met together, is, under a certain destiny, about to set: the time of our departure will soon arrive to us all, before we shall have As Themistocles was returning experienced the evil of old age." from school, when a boy, he was

mind.

met by Pistratus; the pedagogue An excursion to Pie de Midi, by J. told him to turn a little out of the pah, for the king was coming. Themistocles with freedom replied: "Is not the road wide enough?” discovering, even at that early age, a trait of a great and generous mind. No. 5.-The Cretan Goats.

soon lay stretched out at his feet is 1 myself, it is very clear that he does

no cow me."

N.3. According to the Socratic philosophy the body was not a part, but the prison of a man. No. 4.-Themistocles' greatness of

W. HORNEMANN, Lecturer of Botany at Copenhagen. From a letter. Translated from Danish.

Y

VOU know Ramond from his travels in the Pyrenees. In the company of this gentleman, whom I The Cretans are skilful archers; must introduce a little nearer to your and can strike the goats as they leap knowledge, I made the excursion to from the tops of the mountains. These Pie de Midi. There are few men animals, on being pierced with the whose acquaintance I have more arrow, immediately eat the herb eagerly courted, or the loss of whose Dittany; on tasting of which, the friendship would cause me more redarts entirely drop out of the wounds. gret. As you find him in his book, so he is in his ordinary converse, with knowledge. His reflections on warm, vigorous, acute, and stored the Pyrenees are not the fruit of an inflamed imagination, or of airy fancies; they are like his ordinary thoughts and conversation, and he discourses on every interesting snbject on which conversation may turn, with the same judgment and taste, as in his narrative, he describes the most beautiful regions. I know no man sow, are suspicious and fear every better qualified than he to realize that

No. 6.-On Tyrants, from Æsop. The following is a Phrygian tale: for Esop was a native of Phrygia, He says, that a sow, on being touched by any one, will instantly grunt, and that with design; for as it can offer neither wool, nor milk, nor any thing but its flesh, it immediately anticipates and dreams of its death, knowing to what valuable uses this will be converted. Tyrants, like to Esop's

thing: for they are conscious, as is that animal, that their life is due to

great idea conceived by himself; on

all men.

No. 7.-Aristotle soothes Alexander's
Anger.
Aristotle being desirous of calming
the mind and stopping the wrath of
UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.

Epicharmus was a poet, the first writer of comedy, and a philosopher of the Pythagorean school; who lived to be 90, or as some say, 97. He died in 15th century before Christ.

C

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the summit of the highest mountains an elevation of 662 toises above the to fix his winter-abode, there to wit- level of the sea, we soon reached the ness the alternate victories of the height of the alp-rose, which is selwinter and the summer, and all dom found lower than 900 toises, those phenomena of which we know and enjoyed through the fragrant so little, because we never viewed exhalations of this and numberless them in their real home. He is en- other alpine plants a sympathetic re-dowed with all the corporal as well as collection of our native regions and mental qualities requisite for the exe- their pleasures, which is more forcicution of such a plan. He is active bly roused by sensation than by meand nimble as a hunter of chamois, mory, and which Ramond describes possessed of more penetration than is so beautifully, that I cannot withgenerally suspected in a Frenchman, stand the temptation of transcribing and has both an unspeakable ardour him:for investigating nature, and an un- "There is, I know not what, in conceivable steadiness in following the odours, that torcibly awakes the her tract. But to my excursion. remembrance of the past. Nothing recalls so strongly to the mind cherished spots, regretted situations, minutes, the flight of which has left as deep traces on the heart, as it has left few on the memory. The perfume

Almost every considerable city in the Pyrenean valleys has its Pie de Midi; so has Pau, Asson, and Bagneres. Among these, Pie de Midi at Bagneres is the largest. It was long looked upon as the highest in this of a violet restores to the mind the chain of mountains; but it has now enjoyment of many springs; I do not been ascertained by the measurings of know which of the sweetest moments Vidal and Reboul, that its height is of my life the lime-tree in bloom only 1506 toises, and that it is sur- was a witness of, but I lively felt, that passed by Neoirelle (old snow), Vignemale, Pie long, Maladetta, Marboré, and especially by Mont Perdu, the height of which is 1763 toises.

* Rododendron Alpinum, which, by the way, I must observe is very inaptly called the Alp-rose, the more so as there is a real rosa alpina. I

This mountain stands pretty much detached,and the neighbouring heights know not whether this plant in all and plains unfold all their majesty and mountains chooses a certain height beauty to the spectator on its sum- for its abode, but in that part of the mit; the uncommon mixture also Pyrenees which we visited, we found and the form of the rock, its firmness it confirmed by our experience. Seon one side and fragility on the other, veral other plants may likewise serve make it no less interesting to the ge- as barometers, by which to ascertain, ologist, than its vegetable riches and in some measure, the height of the fertility to the botanist; therefore, as mountains. Ranunculus alpestris, for the ascent is very easy on the western instance, we did not find lower than side, no visitor of the springs, who is 1200 toises; Rumex digynus not unmore curious than indisposed, omits der 1500 toises, and Ranunculus glamaking a pilgrimage to its top; and cialis we did not reach at all. In the no naturalist will content himself northern countries, of course, these with considering it at a distance. Till plants are found in lower situations. this time the greater part of it had Ranunculus glacialis is found in Norbeen covered with snow, which ren- way on mountains that do not by far dering our excursion more difficult and equal the height of Mount Perdy; less useful to us by concealing both pre- and Azalea procumbens, which in cipices and plants, and had induced us the Pyrenees is not found lower than to put it off as long as possible. The day 1300 toises, in Finmarken, (the most preceding our departure was therefore northern part of Norway), grows on fixed upon for the expedition. the beach. We set out at the dawn of day This and a succeeding passage from the bathing place Barege, ac- from the same author, are quoted in companied by our dear Ramond and the original French; but they are the guide Lorenzo, who is a disciple here given in English, for the conve of Ramond. As Barege stands on nience of the reader.-Transl.

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