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the French. The Emperor bad un- army, with the concurrence of a Saxder bim Marshals Landes, Ney, Al- on artillerist of great eminence. Algereali, and Soult, the former of whom though some of the causes which conopened the tirst tire, against which tributed to the disasters of this day, the Saxons made an intrepid stand. may never be known, yet it is obviThey were led on under ibeir own ous to the least di-cerning eye, ihat an generals, but the Prussians were com- unity of plan for the disposing of such manded by Prince Hohenloe, with a vast body of forces was wanting. Count Tauenzien under hin). Gene. It is said that on the morning of the ral Buchel had a reserve of tifteen baule, when a thick fog favoured the thousand men engaged at Capellen- attacks of the French, the plan was dorf, where the battle terminated essentially altered by the Duke of about half atier three o'clock in the Brunswick, and thereby much conafternoon. Auerstadt is nine English fusion was created in the first inmiles from Naumberg. The King of stance. Bonaparte appears to posPrussia and Duke of Brunswick, with sess so creative a genius in the militheir army, posted themselves be- tary science that he brings a war to tween the villages of Poppelt, Trutch- an end in seven days, which formerly witz, and Rehhausen. The first at- took up as many years. The disora tack on the part of the Prussians was der into which the Prussian infantry from the right wing under Count was thrown, by this new mode of Wartensleben, whose onset was at- attack, rendered a retreat to the re. tended with considerable success; but gular and orderly vanquished army, he was soon constrained to relinquish afier the battle, utterly impossible. these advantages. The Emperor Na- It was a total rout which subjected poleon and the King of Prussia were the miserable Prussian soldiers, to be not opposed to each other, as the cen- cut down by the victorious French catre of the army of the former was en- valry, like corn before the sickle. The gaged at Jena, and that of the latter at loss, according to the French acAuerstadt.

counts, was bei ween thirty and forty Some days previous to the battle, it thousand prisoners, among. whom was evident that the Prussian army were twenty generals and thirty pair was too much extended; it concen- of colours, three hundred pieces of trated itself from thetwo wings, draw- cannon and immense magazines. The ing nearer to the centre. By this killed and wounded were estimated at morenent it fell into an error of the twenty-tive thousand. Above a fortopposite extreme, and to this misfor- night after the action, the bodies of tune may be attributed the facility the slain lay piled in heaps for want with which the French turned their of burial, as the neiglibouring villages flanks. It was the same calamitous were all burnt or destroyed. circumstance that decided the battle These losses in the first act of the at Presburgh; for the Prussians have tragedy, diminished the confidence and in this instance allowed the French arduur of the Prussian troops, throughto practise a similar manquvre against out the whole kingdom, as is manithem, as defeated the Austrians in the fested by the spiritess defence evinsame month and almost on the same ced by the commanders of the strongday the preceding year. This advan- est garrisons. The battle of one day tage was calculated upon by the may be said to have almost annihiFrench, previous to the action with lated the whole Prussian armies, since the Prussians; and a degree of irreso- there have been three towns only lution, paralysing the army of the lat- which have made a decent resistance ter at the decisive monient, opened to the besiegers. the way to the complete overthrow Through what prism of hope the which followed. There was a hesi- King of Prussia looked, when he retation among the con manders, whe- fused Bonaparte's terms of an armisther to attack or wait the assault of tice, we cannot guess. No doubt, the French. The order of battle was his Majesty was apprised that Lord not generally approved of; and it is Hutchinson and other military comsaid a better was offered by a General missioners, from England, were on of the first distinction in the Prussian the road to him, with offers from our


He counts, likewise, tal like truth. The conduct of Freno doubt, on the co-operation of a derick William II. to the Poles has rast Russian army, the numbers of been a chief cause of the downfal of which, we hope, will not liave been his throne in his successor. Success nianified beyond the reality. The may give a momentary lustre to vioaitance we can afford the King in lence and rapine; may throw a brilhis dificulties, is only by a loan, and liant lustre over injustice; but no the counsel of a few spirited warriors, force can, for a long time, controul who conquered in Egypt: of the re- public opinion: esteem, alone, renliance he inkes on the Russians we ders authority permanent and tranhope he will be justified. The thread quil, and glorv solid and substantial. of his political existence is in the The case of Frederick William is, handso: Alexander; and if monarchs however, not so desperate but that it like other men could be treacherous is possible it may be recovered. He and insensible to pity and the dictates has gained much experience. He has of honour, a weighty bribe might oc- shewn something like a firmnesss in casion it to fall to the ground, never adversity. Some of his friends dread m.'re to be taken up. But Bona- that portion of rashness which marks parte and Turkey have projects of liis dispositio). For our part we see inagnitude before them! Ori rather, nothing to apprehend on that score. Turkey is a game which Napoleon Let bim but consent to restore what proposes to play ott with boao::rs. his predecessor unjustly seized, and His first designs, in which Egypt was he has hitherto unlawfully retained ; included), will never be given up. and we shall applaud that temerity However gigantic, and even roman- which often, in the midst of perils, is tichis Eastern speculation may appear exemplary wisdom. to many, we have no doubt, he will The king of Prussia is in his 37th at no great distance of time, re- year, being born on the 3d of August sume is.

1770. His Majesty is of the issue of Such is the unfortunate condition the late king, bi- bis second marriage, of the grandson of the greatest crown- with the Princess Frederica of Hesse ed head in Europe, so far as respected Darmstadt; he is consequently haifhis own achievements. The most brother to ber Roval Highness the antient subjects of the monarchy Duchess of York, who is by the same cordially syinpathise with Frederick father, by his espousal of the Princess III. The newly acquirei opes in Elizabeth of Brunswick WolfenbutPuland repose on the justice of Hea- tle. His Lajesty biaself has fourchilVn, an !, perhaps, expect and inroke dren by the Princess Louisa of Meckfron it the same fate og Frederick as lendurs-Sireliiz,to whom he was marS:20islaus experienced.

There are ried December 24th 1793 ; 1st, Fresuch crimes as an odioas perfidy, an derick William horn October 15th, oppressive injustice, and a sa yuinary 1735; 2:1, freslerick William Lewis, ambition in hing;, as well as there born March 221, 1797; 3d, a Pri are or hers, peculiar to inferior ranks ceas, born July 14th, 1798; 4th, of mankind. Monarchs should re- Chules Alexander, born June 29th, manber that the general interest is 1801. j412, which is in its nature immor

ORIGVIL, COMMUNICATIONS. To the Elitor of the Universal Ing. would have derived from the learnSin,

ing and genius of Dr. Jobuson; yet IR BOSWELL, in his life of an attempi to pursue a purpose which

Dr. Johnson, I recollect, in- his mind entertained, will carry with forms is, that among other pablica- it a recommendation from bis inteninns which the Doctor had intended, tions; and may hope to interest the wasa tagaslation of many of the anec- public mind. dots in Elian's Various History. "Thewriter of this would, without the Toough that design cannot be exe. parade of proposing a separate work, cul20 with the advantages which it oder some translations from wliau, to



occupy a place in your instructive and dotes : the best editions of which are entertaining iniscellany, for the infor- those of Perizonius in 1701; of Gronomation and amusement of your readers vius, in 1731. “ An excellent book," through the months of the ensuing says the just cited author, that sold at year.

Dr. Askew's sale for 11. 10s.; and that It may raise an idea of the utility of Scheiter, in 1085, which he characani moment of such a design, if your terises as “by far the best, and containreaders are told, that two selections ing a treatise of crudition and good of this nature have been given in the criticism." original Greek, by eminent scholars, Jan. 7, 1807. JOSHUA TOULMIN. in their day, for the instruction of A SELECTION FROM ALIAN'S VAyouth: one, and very copious, by the learned Upton, for the use of Eton No. 1.-Socrates represses Alcibiades' School, in 1775 ; the other by the

Pride. distinguished Grecian Professor Dal

Socrates observing that Alcibiades zel, for the students at the University was elated by his wealth and was proud of Edinburgh, 1785. From the for- of the extent of his estate, placed mer it is proposed to make the trans- before him a map of the earth, and lations for your Miscellany, as in- desired him to point out Attica: bavcluding all the pieces given in the ing done this, he directed him to look latter, besides many others.

for his own lands. On his replying, Ælian, wliose first

was that they were not marked out there, Claudius, was born at Præneste in “ Yet how proudly you boast," says Italy, about the year 80 of the Chris- Socrates, " of wbať has no place in tian æra, and died at sixty years of the delineation of the world.' age, in the 140. He professed rhe- No. 2.The Mitylenians' Punishtoric at Rome and sustained also the

ment of Revolt. office of a priest. He was never out When the people of Mitylene were of Italy, nor ever in a ship: yet he masters at sea, they enacted, by way attained to such skill in the Greek, of punishing the revolt of their allies, that he wrote it with the purity of " That their children should not be a native Athenian. The title of a instructed either in literature or muSophist was conferred on him at a sic:" for they deemed it the severest period, when that name was deemed of all punishments to be obliged too á literary honour and held in great pass lite away in ignorance of lanestimation : but he received it with- guages and of the liberal arts.* out any elevation of mind, or con- No. 3.- Socrates drinks the Hemlock. tidence in his powers : and thinking When the ship, which usually them not equal to the declamations sailed every year against the celebraof the schools, he applied himself to tion of the games returned from composition and historical works; Delos, and it was known that Socrates in which he raised admiration by the must die, his friend Apollodorus went unaffected simplicity and elegance of to the prison, and took to him a nicely his style: so that he gained the name woven and costly woollen coat and of the honeyed tongue. He had at- a cloak of the same sort ; he for tended the lectures of Pausanias the thought it was fit that he should drink historian : and afterwards, by, his ad- the poison clothed with that coat and herence to the customs and laws of with the cloak brown on his shoulhis native country,gained great weight and influence at Rome: where he * “ The most illiberal of the methods died, leaving no family, as he was that Julian took to loiver the credit and never married. His works were col- prevent the spread of Christianity, a lected and published by Gesner, at measure exclaimed against by the HeaZurich in 1556. An edition, says thens themselves," observes Dr. Priestly, Dr. Harwood, very correct and valu- " was, that he would not allow the Chris able, and of rare occurrence. He tians to teach the Greek poets and orawrote a treatise on animals and ano- tors.History of the Christian Church, ther on tactics; but his most cele- vol. ii. p. 251. The saine fact is inenbrated work is his “ Various His- tioned by Kraneus and Upton, in their tory,” a curious collection of anec- notes on the above passage of Elian.


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ders, saying, that if he died thus ha- Alexander, wrote thus to him: “Suburel, he would not want a hand- periors, and not equals, are the some burial; and there would be proper objects of passion and anger; nothing indecorous in a corpse lying but thou hast no equal.” along drissed with such ornaments.

No. 9.-On Old Age. Thus Apollodorus addressed Socrates, but without etrect; for he, turning when he was very old,* sitting in an

They relate, that Epicharmus, to tho-e about him, Crito, Simmias, open portico with some of his conand Plæ ion, said, “What a tine opinion of me hl, Apollodorus, it he into conversation on ihe length of

temporaries, the company entered persuade himself, ibat when the life.. One said, that he should be sadibenans bute banded the cup to tisfied to live five years longer : anonie and I shall have drank the poison, ther said, three would content him : le shall see Socrates any more! If

a third replied, that he wished for he think that the form which will sou lay stretched out at his feet is 1 perceiving their diiterence of senti

more than four. Epicharmus mrit, it is very clear that he does

ment, said ; My excellent friends, nut - 10w me."

why do you diifer and disagree about 1.3. Ac ording to the Socratic

a tew days? The sun of each of us, the buity was not a part, who are now met together, is, under but the prison of a man.

a certain destiny, about to set : the Nu. 4.—Themistocles' greatness of time of our departure will soon armmd.

rive to us all, before we shall have As Themistocles was returning experienced the evil of old age.” from school, when a boy, he was met by Paistratus; the pedagogue An ercursion to Pie de Midi, by J. told him to turn a little out of the

W. Hornemann, Lecturer of Bopah, for the king was coming. Themistocles with freedom replied:

tany at Copenhagen. From a letter. Is not the road wide enough ?”

Translated from Danish. discovering, even at that early age,

OU know Ramond from his traa trait of a great and generous mind. vels in the Pyrenees. In the

No. 5.-The Cretan Gouts. company of this gentleman, whom I The Cretans are skilful archers; must introduce a little nearer to your and can strike the goats as they leap knowledge, I made the excursion to from the tops of the mountains. These Pie de Midi. There are few men animals, on being pierced with the whose acquaintance I have more arrow, immediately eat the herb eagerly courted, or the loss of whose Dittany; on tasting of which, the friendship would cause me more redarts entirely drop out of the wounds. gret. As you find him in his book,

so he is in his ordinary converse, No. 6.-On Tyrants, from Æsop warm, vigorous, acute, and stored The following is a Phrygian tale: with knowledge. His reflections on for Esop, was à native of Phrygia: the Pyrenees are not the fruit of an He says, that a sow, on being touched inflamed imagination, or of airy fanby any one, will instantly grunt, and cies; they are like his ordinary that with design; for as it can offer thoughts and conversation, and he zieither wool, nor milk, nor any thing riscourses on every interesting snbbut its flesh, it immediately antici- ject on which conversation may turn, pates and dreams of its death, know- with the same judgment and taste, as ing to what valuable uses this will be in his narrative, he describes the most converted. Tyrants, like to Esop's beautiful regions. I know no man sow, are suspicious and fear every better qualified than he to realize that thing: for they are conscious, as is that animal, that their life is due to great idea conceived by himself; on

* Epicbarmus was a poet, the first No.7.- Aristotle soothes Alexander's writer of comedy, and a philosopher of Anger.

the Pythagorean school, who lived to Aristotle being desirous of calming be go, or as some say, 97. He died in the mind and stopping the wrath of 15th century before Christ. UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.


all men.

the summit of the highest mountains an elevation of 662 toises above the
to fix his winter-abode, there to wit- level of the sea, we soon reached the
ness the alternate victories of the beight of the alp-rose", which is sel-
winter and the summer, and all dom found lower than 900 toises,
those phenomena of which we know and enjoyed through the fragrant
so little, because we never viewed exhalations of this and numberless
them in their real home. He is en- other alpine plants a sympathetic re,
dowed with all the corporal as well as collection of our native regions and
mental qualities requisite for the exe- their pleasures, which is more torci-
cution of such a plan. He is active bly roused by sensation than by me-
and nimble as a hunter of chamois, mory, and which Ramond describes
possessed of more penetration than is so beautifully, that I cannot with-
generally suspected in a Frenchman, stand the temptation of transcribing
and has both an unspeakable ardour him :-
for investigating nature, and an un- “ There † is, I know not what, in
conceivable steadiness in following the odours, that torcibly awakes the
her tract. But to my excursion, remembrance of the past. Nothing

Almost every considerable city in recalls so strongly to the mind che-
the Pyrenean valleys has its Pie de rished spots, regretted situations, mi-
Midi; so has Pau, Asson, and Bag- nutes, the fight of which has left
neres. Among these, Pie de Midi at as deep traces on the heart, as it has left
Bagneres is the largest. It was long few on the memory. The perfume
looked upon as the highest in this of a violet restores to the mind the
chain of mountains ; but it has now enjoyment of many springs; I do not
been ascertained by the measurings of know which of the sweetest moments
Vidal and Reboul, that its height is of my life the lime-tree in bloom
only 1506 toises, and that it is sur- was a witness of, but I lively felt, that
passed by Neoirelle (old snow), Vig-
nemale, Pie long, Maladetta, Mar- • Rododendron Alpinum, which,
boré, and especially by Mont Perdu, by the way, I must observe is very
the height of which is 1763 toises. inaplly called the Alp-rose, the more

This mountain stands pretty much so as there is a real rosa alpina. I detached,and the neighbouring heights know not whether this plant in all and plains unfold all their majesty and mountains chooses a certain height beauty to the spectator on its sum- for its abode, but in that part of the mit; the uncommon mixture also Pyrenees which we visited, we found and the form of the rock, its firmness it confirmed by our experience. Se on one side and fragility on the other, veral other plants may likewise serve make it no less interesting to the ge- as barometers, by which to ascertain, ologist, than its vegetable riches and in some measure, the height of the feruility to the botanist; therefore, as mountains. Ranunculus alpestris, for the ascent is very easy on the western instance, we did not find lower than side, no visitor of the springs, who is 1200 toises ; Rumex digynus pot inmore curious than indisposed, omits der 1500 toises, and Ranunculus glamaking a pilgrimage to its top; and cialis we did not reach at all. In the no naturalist will content himself northern coupuies, of course, these with considering it at a distance. Till plants are found in lower situations. this time the greater part of it had Ranunculus glacialis is found in Norbeen covered with snow, which ren- way on mountains that do not by far dering our excursion more difficult and equal the height of Mount Perdy; less useful to us by concealing both pre- and Azalea procumbens, which in cipices and plants, and had induced us the Pyrenees is not found lower than to put it off as long as possible. The day 1300 toises, in Finmarken, (the most preceding our departure was therefore northern part of Norway), grows on fixed upon for the expedition. the beach.

We set out at the dawn of day + This and a succeeding passare from the bathing place Barege, ac- from the same author, are quoted in companied by our dear Ramond and the original French; but they are the guide Lorenzo, who is a disciple here given in English, for the conve. of Ramond. As Barege stands on nience of the reader.-Transl.

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