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it vibrated fibres which had long been As soon as they descried us from tranquil, that it awoke from profound afar, they always canie to meet us, sleep remembrances attached to hap- and to ask whence we came, whether py days; I perceived a veil between our country belonged to the republic, my heart and my thought, which I or was at war with it, and particularly would have found delightful, per- for what purpose we wanted the haps-sad, perhaps to remove, &c. plants which we collected. Their woI gave myself up with emotion to men, especially, who are not so handthis sweet security, to this profound some as the men, are very inquisitive; sensation of co-existence, which the and I often found myself suddenly regions of our native country inspire." surrounded by several girls who put a

It was the last day that we were to number of questions to me, of which breathe the free air of the Pyrenees, I could not answer to a single one, that we were to view their wondrous because their language, with the only pile, proudly defying the power of exception of the word citoyen, was man, but humbly yielding to that of totally unintelligible to me. Their time, that we were to pluck their economy is extremely simple, and plants, not remarkable for splendour their milk they treat in a very cleanly but for neatness, not large but closely manner. In order to keep it cool, gathered •; it was the last day that we they place the vessel in which it is were to enjoy the friendly, upright, contained in a running brook, which instructive conversation of Ramond. gives it the temperature of the water. In all probability we were never to Such vessels are often found at some see him again, never to revisit these distance from the cottages, and I was regions. It was as if the grandeur of assured that they take no offence at nature made us doubly feel its loss; all, if a thirsty traveller makes free and the warm expressions of Ramond with the milk' in order to slake his respecting the misfortunes of his thirst. For protecting their flocks country, and its disappointed hopes, against wolves, they have a peculiar and the fate of men, made us feel race of dogs, which I have seen no what we were going to lose in him. where else. They are uncommonly More therefore penetrated with in- large, strong, fierce, and have some distinct sensations, than inspired by resemblance to the Newfoundland clear ideas we reached Lac d'oncet, dog. Theniselves, notwithstanding where a shepherd's family had newly their activity and courage, are not raised their cottage, following slowly very fond of going to war, except the blooming plants, as these the against the Spaniards. As all mounmelting snowt: These people are of taineers, they feel an unquiet longing a very distinguished race; active, tall, for their home, whenever they come courageous, sprightly, almost con- down upon the plains; therefore it stantly singing, and extremely cu- happened, during my stay here, that rious.

out of several hundreds of conscripts,

who were marched to Italy, the I have nowhere, not even on greater part returned within a few the luxuriant banks of the Loire, days after. found the plants growing so close, as

We soon came to the Pyrenea on the Pyrenees. On the space of snow-line, which begins between four square feet, one may often count twelve and thirteen hundred toises more than twenty different species, above the level of the sea. Here we and a number of individuals of each. were obliged to wade some distance On the Alps, the same richness is said through the snow, after which we to exist; but in Norway I know it reached the top, which was then does not.

quite bare.

Our expectation was † It is really striking, how imme- raised very high, yet it did not encomdiately the marks of the winter and pass all that lay before us. I was the the spring succeed each other in the first of the company who stood on the mountains. On the borders of the pinnacle of this temple of nature, and melting snow, is always seen a host of did not know whether I should think Ranunculi, Gentianæ, etc. that unfold that my eyes were bewitchied, or that their blossoms, almost while their roots nature was transformed, when, inare yet covered with suow.



stead of an immeasurable level of portion to the space, compared with
country, I discovered an immeasura- the time of vegetation, the richest
ble level of ice below my teet. I flora in the world.—What struck me
could not in the beginning collect my- particularly was the different aspect
self; I knew very well that there was which this mountain presents from
no icy ocean in this place : but that the plain, and from its top. Even
horizontal level which presented itself from Toulouse, where it is already
to my view, that shining whiteness, distinguishable among all the other
those round shells, reclining in the summits, until I stood at its base it
form of tiles upon each other, and appeared to me, at every step, more
appearing to be a little sotier only evidently to be the timest mass
than those which are seen on the fro- upon the earth, defying time, air, aud
zen sea, all combined entirely to weather. From its top on the con-
mock my acquaintance with moun- trary, dreadful ruins prove to the
tain phenomena. Yet, in a little spectators, that those eriemies work
time, I recovered from my surprise, on its destruction. If poets had more
and then I compreliended that a cloud frequently visited the mountains, I
deceived me by covering with a snow- do not think, that they would so ge-
white carpet the whole plain between nerally have adopted rocks as sym.
the Pyrenees and Toulouse, a disco- bols of firmness and strength. Water
very not very pleasant, as by this our rends the firmest marble, and the air
hopes of saluting the lower earth were moulders the hardest granite; time
disappointed. Ramond, however, knows no resistance that can defy its
consoled us, by asserting, that it would power.-Another observation which
soon disappear; and it did not last the view of this mountain must sug-
long before a gentle breeze raised the gest to every one who has his eyes
clouds, and unveiled that magnificent, open for the operations of nature,
extensive plain, which on the north- even though he has not read the
ern side borders upon the Pyrenees. book of Ramond is this, that the
From this point,' the highest on steady, never inactive, course of time
which I ever stood, I looked over so is no where so strongly perceived as
much, that the prospect from the top on the mountains. Here again let
of Brocken, and from the tower at me transcribe a few lines from Ra-
Orleans can bear no comparison with mond; for it is certainly better to
it. Behind us lay, in dreadful forms, borrow his expressions than to steal
mountains on mountains as far as the his ideas, which I could not easily
frontiers of Spain; Vignemale and avoid in writing, upon this subject
Neoveille were distinguished by their after having read his work:-
huge masses of snow, and the moun- “ Time skims with an easy flight
tains near Gavarnie by their bluish over the rest of the earth, but here it
ice. Before us the eye met no bound- imprints deep traces of its passage;
ary, for even beyond Toulouse (more and while elsewhere it disguises to us
than 80 miles), land was taintly dis- the rapidity of its course, by humv-
cerned. The summit of this moun- ing ourselves along more rapidly,
tain is hardly so large as the top of the than the objects around us, in the
Round Tower*; it is through the mounta'n; it displays what is friglitful
greater part of the year covered with in this celerity, by shaking hefore our
snow; it lies exposed to all winds, eves a pile that to our weakness seemed
and the thin mould with which it is un bakeable; and by changing in our
overspread does hardly appear to presence forms, which at a distance
contain any nourishment for plants, we were accustomed to consider as
and scarcely to be compact enough eterral. On the plains a whole year
for their fastening in it; notwith, has hardly a right to advertise us,
standing all this, about a hundred that it plunges itself into the abyss of
different species of plants grow on the çast. Time seems to stop when it
this narrow spot, all of which arrive gives existence, when it developes,
at perfection. It has, perhaps in pro- when it supports it; we do not per

ceive that it passes away, tili we see it The astronomical observatory at de troy its own work. It is not the Copenhagen.-Transi.

spring crowned with its flowers, it is

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not the autumn lavish of its fruits, it and the infirm, from perishing under is not the brilliani succession of beau- the cold band of pinching want, and tiful days, which put us in mind that for the just and equitable teci-ions of the seasons fly away; the meancholy the judges in the different courts of sensation of iheir instability enetrates law; it is then painful to see any glaris for the first time, when the leaf inginconsistencies, or gross eriors, eifalis, when the tree withers, when the ther silently countenanced or carclessdays are shortened, when nature in ly overlooked by tho:e who are legally rourning shuts up the circle of her authorized to prevent abuses in pubreproductions. On these rocks, on the lic stations. contrarv, on these mountains, which The raising noney by taxation on encompass the ice of an eternal winter, the landhoher, the merchant, the nothing dissipates the mind from the manufacturer, and the mechanic, 10 contemplation of the ravages of time. maintain a large part of the commuThe fatai hour-glass runs ou with a uni- nity in idleness, is, I hope, a siugular form rapidity; every minute gives them phænomenon in the political econoa sensible blow; the snow destroys them my of other nations; 'but singular as without intermission, the torrent la- it may appear, we may luarn from cerates them without cessation; their it this important truth, that errors ruins tumble down without interval, and imperfections will float down Thenscires insensible to spring, and to us on the current of time; and in faithful to their only tendency, their their passage, they will gain sufficient sole atiair is to perish, and their front, influence to marihe best human indisgui-ing nothing of the power oi stitution ever yet formed by man, age, speaks to our eyes of nothing but when it is left to the direction of unof deal, while the reet of nature scems skilful hands. intovirated with the illusions of life.” I have already pointed out in a pre

It was through such memorials of ceding letter, on the management of the power and eternal course of time, the aitairs of the poor within the through such irreproductible scenes walls of the metropolis, some of the of nature, that Ramond conducted us many evils arising from the irattenback. Who can write the above, can tion of magistrates, officers, and in:also converse upon the subject; you habitants, to their parochial concerns; will therefore easily conceive, that but I now intend to consider the this excursion was very instructive, subject upon a much larger scale, and the more so, as the structure of and to shew that when an evil is this mountain for the singular form once suffered to take root, it may, of the strata, and the union of the though small at its beginning, become lime with the granite, is a geological a great tree, and overshadow the curiosity. We had now seen the land. winier on the top of the mountain, in It is an established fict published the evening we enjoyed the spring at under the sanction of the late parlia

The next inorning we met ment, from the returns et the parish the summer at Lutz, and the autunn officers, A. D. 1803, that the inlıat Pierresite. So near do the seasons bitants of the manufacturing and of the year approach each other in other counties are as inattentive as

The naize planted two the citizens of London to the indolent montlis ago at Tarbes was now al- state in which their paupers are sufmost ripe; at Toulouse all, fruits fered to live. If there are several were in perfection, and a few days parishes or places in this kingdom, after we found, in Perpignan, Fruc- where they have made feeble ata tidor changed into Vandeniaire. tempts to employ their poor, in houses

provided for vivir reception; there Letter the 10th, on the Management are others where they remain totally of the dairs of the Poor.

idle, to be maintained by the sweat HEN a nation is faned from and the industry of their neighbours.

east to west, for the mildness Is not this an inexcusabi fault in of its government, for it, charitable in- maz states and pari-la officers? and stitutions, for the care that bath been does it not shew that there is but little taken to prevent the aged, the sick, reform to be expected from the pada


these parts.

sied efforts of those who have suffered parishes in each county which made evils to increase under them which returns to parliament; with the numthey should have endeavoured to sup- ber of workhouses in each, and how press by compulsory laws? That many in which the poor were ema general knowiedge of the state of ployed, their number, and how much the kingdom may be seen at one they earned ; and the same of those view, I have given the following who were entirely idle, and lived at table, which contains the number of the public cost.



If any reflecting person should they might do, tere will be a further cast his eye over the foregoing table, deticiency of +1,7301. lus. which he will be struck with astonishment ad led to the foregoing, sum will make at the picture it represents :o him. 193.101. 43. brough idleness only. He will see that 13070 parishes, or If this be not suihcient to rouse the phees, , made retumis vto parlia- attention of flicers, magistrates, legismeni, and of which number there latori, and people to look inio their were 4100 wliich maintained a part parochiai concerns, we must conof dieir poor in workhouses. There sider ourselves as sinking beyond any were also at the time of making the hope of recovery, as it is the natural return 14+6 houses, with 24:57 pau- progress of evils to proceed from very pers, who earned something towards bad to much worse.

When we see their support, and there were 2054 and feel the yearly effects of drunhouses which contained 58069 poor kenness and idleneis, in making persons who were kept in a state of such rapid encroachments on idleness, and did not bring in one landed property, it surely can neilia/fpenny towards their maintenance. ther be prudent mor politic to conThey were fed by the sweat and toil tinue our supine and lethargic inacof others; and indolently dragged on tivity, in doing over an evil which a lite, useless to themselves, and a necessity will compel us, sooner or burden to others. It must be ac- later, tó fice. It might be expected, knowledged, that there were many that in manuficturing counties the laaged, sick, and infirm persons, and bour of the poor would be more proyoung children among them, incapa- ductile, as they may all be constantly ble of earning any thing; but they employed in such work as is suitable might upon an average, without to their strength, from six years to being hurt, have earned eacli one sixty ; but this is very far from being shilling a week.

the case. In the united work house for the In the town of Manchester they had city of Canterbury, they earned one 261 paupers in their house, and their with another, three pounds six shil- earnings amounted to 2281. 15s. and lings and eight peuce haltpenny, the average 178.3.d. each person for within the year.

At the town of Ware, in Hertford- In the workhouse for the borough. shire, the master of the workhouse of Leeds, 245 paupers earned 41ğl. found the raw materials, and gave the 75. 11. in the year, which amountparishioners one hundred pounds for ed to no more than 11. 145. 2d. each the labour of forly paupers for a person. pear; and we may be assured that At Whitney they had in their house he did not over-rate the value of it.

129 poor persons, who produced by What, then, have we been doing? their labour 105l. 15. 4d.; or lộs. 344. The 82,750 paupers, maintained in each person, by the year. workhouses, earned 70,9701. 13s. The workhouse for the city of 1011. which will not average more Coventry contained 129 paupers, and thau 17 5. vid. for each person by the their labour amounted to 3327. 168.4d. Fear, and not quite four pence a week. or 21. 11s. 7d. each person for the The yearly loss to the public, upon year. this calculation, will be very consi- It requires no other proof but the derable.

returns of the officers to parliament, The labour of 59,669 paupers will that a general languor prevails in produce 152,2391. 8 s. ; but as Mr. most of ibe workhouses in the kingPitt

, during his administration, never dom, from east to west, and from counted money by less than millions, north to south; even where they tens of thousands and bundreds of have made some ineffectual attempts thousands will perhaps be thought to employ the poor to advantage. beneath our notice, till we can raise Tue plan which is frequently pur

sued, where they have any, is the It we consider that 24,087, paupers spinning and weaving lines for the earn eight-pence in a week less than use of the house, and making a few

the year.

then no longer.

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