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coarse articles for sale. This is so work from their house; and they distenaciously adhered to, that it will covered a deficiency in the amount of require more trouble than an indi- their earnings, when it was too late to vidual will undertake, in the present remedy it. Twenty children might state of things, to introduce any inno- have earned, at this work, one hunvation. The master, who is gene- dred pounds a year; which is, prorally and very properly a weaver, bably, more than they now average in the kingthinks that there cannot be any thing in any workhouse so productive as the spinning-wheel, dom.

It is

and the loom; and when he who is The visitors, guardians, and goto execute sets his face against any vernors of workhouses, ought to be new employment being introduced, compelled by the strong arm of the and puts impediments in the way to law, to avail themselves of local situarender it unprofitable, there can be tions. In the neighbourhood of linen, but little hope of succeeding with any woollen, and cotton manufactories, the children should be trained to such new plan. I will add a recent case to corrobo- branches of thein as they can easily rate what I have asserted. A gentle- learn, and readily execute; and at man I am acquainted with wanted which they can be regularly, and conNear maritime between twenty and thirty children stantly employed. to spin goats'-hair, whom he could towns, where fisheries are establishemploy constantly; and he was con- ed, they should be taught the knitfident that they might earn at the ting of nets for the fishermen; they rate of one, hundred pounds a year. would gladly employ them. and it is For certain reasons he applied to the a profitable work for children. Committee of a neighbouring work- needless to multiply instances, to house, instead of his own; and at prove a self evident proposition, for every meeting he found some new they who are blind will not see any impediment started, to prevent the better by offering them additional adopting of the plan; but it was at light. last determined to try the experiment. The hair was sent, and in a short time he received a summons to attend the Committee, who told him that the hair he had sent filled the children with vermin. He reasoned against the improbability, and the impossibility of what they said; but reason may err, and it must yield to the fact. The master had provided the committee with several lice in hair, folded up in papers, ready to shew the employer. When he opened the papers, he was obliged to yield to the evidence of his senses; and they thought their triumph complete: but he said, "Gentlemen, this is not goats', and if we call

If annual officers are to be left to direct the affairs of the poor, at their pleasure, without any active power to advise and control, or fixed rules to guide them; and if our legislators are determined to suffer those evils to remain unmolested, which time hath brought down to us; then we may judge from the passed, what we are to expect from the future; that our poors' rates will increase from a du̟plicate to a triplicate ratio, and we must, as long as we can, support the burden.

HERE are certain anec

the children, and examine them separately, we shall soon discover

dotes, or curious particulars, re

from whose head the vermin were lative to the characters of eminent taken."

This plan was adopted, and when the right child was called, he confessed the truth; and the whole proved to be a scheme of the master's to save himself a little trouble. The gentleman, disgusted with the con- fore-lock, is the object of the present duct of the committee, withdrew his address to those, who are capable of

public men, about which the world is extremely eager to enquire-after it has become too late, and that nothing farther than mere probable guesses, can be formed. To obviate this difficulty, and to take old time by the

An Enquiry respecting the late
Mr. Fox.

missed, or the circumstance being noticed, by his nearest and most familiar friends. Moreover, he is not represented by them, at any period of his life, as a studious character, otherwise than by his rapid conceptions, laying hold, quickly and with little labour, of a part of most subjects, and in such mode, attaining a sort of general knowledge, to be converted indeed to oratorial, but never intended for literary use. His well-known love of luxurious ease; of the world, in his early, and of the joys of select

It is notorious, that during two or three years last past, or longer perhaps, occasional paragraphs have appeared in the public papers, stating, that Mr. Fox was engaged in writing a History of England, or at least, a history of the country during the reign of the Stuarts, and that the booksellers had actually waited on him), at St. Ann's Hill, in order to make him an offer for the purchase of his work; society in his latter days, totally preand farther, that the sum offered a- cluded the possibility of literary lamounted to a considerable number of bour; nor could any thing in nature thousand pounds. This undertaking, arouse him, but those seemingly par also, was assigned as the chief induce- amount and darling objects of his ment for Mr. Fox's last journey to soul-the command of a political parFrance, where he might examine the ty, and the pilotage of the vessel of archives, and consult the Stuart pa- State. Those even were but seconpers. dary; for whatever may have been his professions in the ardour of temporary enthusiasm of debate, the whole

Now these paragraphs were so timed, and came out in so peculiar a way, that it is difficult to conceive they tenor of his life was a continued could be published without some proof, that for no earthly object stronger motive, than the mere idle would he compromise his personal whim of an uninformed and uninter- ease and security. These opinions of ested person; neither are such the the extent of Mr. Fox's literary acusual stuff of the common paragraph quirements are fully borne out by manufactory. The present seems his relics in verse, consisting of smooth a very proper time, for clearing up and elegant trifles; and by his single this mystery, since the thing is re- prose essay, the pamphlet addressed cent, and in every one's recollection. to the electors of Wesminster, in Perhaps the first step should be, who which critics pretended to have diswere the booksellers alluded to?-If covered the elegant, plausible, and any will say, that ever they had such rational effusions of moderate talent, a business in hand, an important, al- rather than the emanations of prothough not decisive, part of the infor- found and transcendant genius. His mation required will be obtained; al- studies, during his retirement, if they though it be true, that Mr. Fox might ought not rather to be styled amusehave been engaged in literary busi- ments, (for no proof exists that he ness, without having advanced so far ever studied laboriously throughout as to have encouraged the application life) were chiefly. of the refined and amusing kind, in which modern trifles, under the name of novels, had no small share and in this, although in a less degree, he resembled his great competitor Mr. Pitt, whose total disuse and even aversion to learned studies are so well known.

of booksellers.

affording the needful information, and who are willing thereby to oblige va rious readers of the Universal Maga


But Mr. Fox's biographers, and I find, his most intimate friends, gave this matter up, as a thing totally without the sphere of their knowledge; enough, one would suppose, to quash this story altogether: since it appears nearly impossible, that a man, immersed as Mr. Fox always was in political business and convivial connections, could spare the hours and days necessary for the prosecution of a most laborious study, without being UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.

A strong and curious motive may be added for the elucidation of this question on Mr. Fox's supposed historical attempts. It is well known, that the vanity of authors and public men has sometimes prompted them


to announce to the world great lite- expert, have proved themselves torary attempts, which they had not the tally incapable of profound speculaindustry, perhaps not the capacity, to tion as writers, even on those subexecute. Such a maneuvre may be jects which seem to have exercised suspected, however unjustly, in Mr. their minds through life. All statesFox. That he occasionally honoured men are not Clarendons or Bolinthe editorial columns of a certain brokes. The great orator Chatham, newspaper, with political specula- the thunder of whose eloquence retions adapted to the immediate crisis, sounded throughout all Europe, was is no longer doubted: and it is aver- the veriest driveler upon paper, a few red, that the first announcement of madrigals and letters of business exMr. Fox's historical engagement ap- cepted. His favourite son William, peared in that paper; that he saw who also raised himself to such an such announcements is out of all exalted pitch of greatness by his question. Ead he disliked them, a tongue, would, for any thing that single hint from him would have has yet appeared, have been starved been sufficient; his silence proved, at by his pen. The few literary scraps least, that he did not wish to dis- which are preserved of the silvercourage such impressions on the pub- tongued orator, the greatest lawyer lic mind. of his age, only serve to leave us in a doubt, whether their matter or style be most execrable.

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Another most curious speculation presents itself. Had Mr. Fox's indolence of mind, or his various avocations, permitted him to write an historical work of length and consequence, what kind of a history would he probably have produced? If Johnson had much profundity of intellect, he surely did not evince it, when he declared that moderate talents only were required for historical compositions. The opiniated Doctor probably thought with certain modern booksellers, that nothing farther was required in a historian, than to transcribe the gazettes and public registers, and tack esquire to his name. Without detracting from the probable literary merits of Mr. Fox, and even agreeing with the popular opinion of his great compass and powers of mind, it must be allowable able impartiality and self-denial, reto state indisputable facts. Nature, linquished the task. The historical sparing of her choicest gifts, seldom specimen left by Mr. Wilkes would bestows on an individual, a variety of do honour to the smartest newspaper talents of the first order. The ex- historian, even of the present day: amples are too recent and obvious to But it is not intended to degrade Mr. need pointing out, of great practical Fox by comparisons, only to ascerlawyers, who were yet mere pigmies tain an important feature of his chaor infants in political or even legis racter. Far less is it intended to burlative science. As men of profound lesque his memory, by fulsome and meditation, and writers of the highest totally unappropriate panegyrics, as eminence, are often the most einbar- has been lately done in the Morning rassed and uninteresting orators; so Chronicle, by an eminent writer, and

But for such multitudinous proofs of acuteness, it would not have been unfair to question the sanity of that man's intellect, who, towards the conclusion of the eighteenth century, could write a panegyric on the feudal system, as the wisest and most advantageous of political constitutions! To cite but one more example-the celebrated John Wilkes, the great political oracle of his day, the writer of witty verses, and essays in prose, which both charmed and convinced the public, and struck terror into the hearts of kings and ministers, found himself totally incapable of writing a history of his country, even in the independent leisure of a prison, and therefore, with the most commend

on the other hand, those orators who, in some of the most insipid English, by their eloquence, have led a nation to which that writer's name was ever captice, and those public men who affixed. have been most successful and most


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Description of the


Chinese Plate.

Frend, in his observations upon this

HIS plate is taken, with the con-science, took the opportunity of shewsent of the author, from a plate ing his readers the manner in which in Mr.Frend's Evening Amusements, it is taught in a very extensive emfor the present year, published last pire, and by a frame similar to that month. The work is the fourth in which accompanies his book, entitled the series of an annual publication, Tangible Arithmetic, published last to shew the appearances in the hea- year, and which he has recommended vens for every night of the year, with to, and which has been adopted by, various observations and expériments many masters for the instruction of tending to make astronomy a familiar their children in the art of numberand popular science. As the know-ing.

ledge of arithmetic is necessary in At the top of the plate is a reprefinding the places of the planets or sentation of the Chinese table or moon among the fixed stars, Mr. frame for numbering, which is an ob.

long of various sizes, according to the ball stands for nothing unless it is purposes for which it is designed. moved towards the division. Thus The writer of this article has one now in the plate the bar on the left hand before him, which was used for a long shews by the white and black circles time in the counting house of an emi- what balls are moved, and what are nent Chinese merchant: it is fourteen not. The white circle near the diviinches long and seven inches wide. sion denotes, that one ball is moved, Mr. Freud designing his frame for and the bar in this position stands for children, has made it of much smaller one: the black circle standing for nodimensions; and he has given to it thing. the name of the arithmetical toy. The next bar has two white circles They are made of various dimensions; near the division, and this bar, supand one, designed for the counting posing the other to have no ball house, would be both too large and moved upon it, would denote two. too expensive for the use of schools. The next bar has three white circles In this frame is a division, as may near the division to represent the be seen in the plate, dividing it into balls moved, and this bar supposing two unequal parts, by a line parallel no balls to have been moved upon to the longer side. This division is the other bars would stand for three. of the same dimensions as the longer Four white circles upon the next bar side and through it are passed small denote four, no balls being moved pieces or bars of wood, and fixed at upon the other bars. The next bar their ends in the longer sides. These has five black balls on the lower, are seen in the plate, noted by the and one white on the upper part lines parallel to the shorter sides. with the black above it. This deUpon these bars are small balls, notes that of the upper balls, one is marked in the plate by the circles of brought down to the division, and the black and white upon them: and other bar in this case, no other balls these balls are larger or smaller ac- being moved elsewhere, stands for cording to the dimensions of the five." The reader will easily see by frame. Those on the frame upon the same process, that the next bar my table, resemble in great measure stands for six, the next for seven, the a turnip, being flat at the ends and next for eight, the next for nine. round in the middle. The diameter But in these cases we consider only of the middle is about nine-tenths of one bar at a time, without reference an inch, and the breadth of the ball to the other bars; and then the in the middle is little more than half lower balls stand for units, the upper an inch. These balls move easily balls for fives; and, if we bring down upon the bars; as the bars which pass to the division the two upper balls, through them are much smaller in and up to the division the two lower breadth than the holes of the balls balls, then the bar denotes fifteen. through which they pass. The bars Then with seven balls, separated in are made of small slips of bamboo, the manner above described, any the sides of the frame of a hard wood number up to fifteen may be delike mahogany, the balls of a hard noted: and it is not uncommon to wood resembling box. see a Chinese boy with a skewer

In each bar are seven balls; two run through seven balls made of carbetween the division and the upper rots or turnip parings, counting his side, and five between the division and numbers up to fifteen. the lower side of the frame. The The bars hitherto have been contwo balls at one end of the bar count sidered separately, but there is aneach for tive times as much as each other and much more important way of the five balls at the other end of of considering them: and in this the bar. These, if we take the left mode, if the balls on the lower part hand bar in the plate, and suppose of one bar stand for units, then the each ball upon the larger end, when balls on the next bar in the lower moved, to stand for one, then each of part stand for tens, in the next for the two balls on the shorter end will hundreds, in the next for thousands, stand for five. Any bar at pleasure and so on. Thus suppose the single. may be taken to count upon, but a white ball on the left hand of the

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