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number up to sixteen trillions, six hundred and sixty-six billious, six hundred and sixty-six millions, six hundred and sixty-five.
frame to stand for one, the two white balls on the next bar, standing each for twenty, the two bars would denote twenty-one. The three white balls on the next stand each for hun- With three toys may be marked dreds, and of course the three first any number up to one sextrillion, six bars on the left in their present state hundred and sixty-six quintrillions, denote three hundred and twenty-one. six hundred and sixty-six quadrillions, The four first bars on the left hand six hundred and sixty-six trillions, six stand for four thousand, three hun- hundred and sixty-six billions, six dred, and twenty-one. The next bar hundred and sixty-six millions, six has no ball moved on the lower part: hundred and sixty-six thousand, six had there been any moved, each ball hundred and sixty-five. would have stood for ten thousand, The Chinese use the decimal arithand of course the white ball moved metic, and their accounts are not peron the upper part stands for fifty plexed as ours, with a variety of dif thousand, and the five first bars on the ferent scales for money, weights, and left hand, in their present state, denote measures. Their frames are in this fifty-four thousand, three hundred respect found exceedingly useful; for and twenty-one. The six first bars on the middle lower bar in the plate the left hand denote six hundred thou- being taken for the unit bar, the bars sand fifty-four thousand, three hun on the right hand may denote tenths, dred, and twenty-one. The seven hundredths, &c.; and on the left first bars in the same manner stand hand side, tens, hundreds, thousands, for seven millions, six hundred and &c. Thus, the frame in its present fifty-four thousand, three hundred, state would denote twelve thousand, and twenty-one. The eight first bars three hundred, and forty-five, six for eighty-seven millions, six hun- tenths, seven hundredths, eight thoudred and fifty-four thousand, three sandths. and nine ten thousandths. hundred, and twenty-one. The nine bars in their present state denote, nine hundred and eighty-seven millions, six hundred and fifty-four thousand, three hundred and twenty
Mr. Frend, in his Tangible Arithmetic, has suggested the propriety of introducing the same method of counting in this country, and has shewn the advantages by an easy instance and a simile, which all may understand. Our present mode of counting drags on as heavily as a broad wheel waggon with twelve horses, carrying only a fifth part of the load which a couple of horses drag on a canal at an easy trot. If the alteration suggested were introduced, then the pound would be divided into ten shillings, the shillings into ten pence, the penny into ten farthings; and, if the bar near the right hand side of the frame in the plate stood for farthings, then the frame in its present state would be thus read: one hundred and twentythree thousand four hundred and fifty-six pounds, seven shillings, and
To know the power of any one frame, we should move all the lower balls up to the division, and the upper balls down to it, and the frame in the plate would then have been represented with all white balls. In this case the frame would denote one hundred and sixty-six millions, six hundred and sixty-six thousands, six hundred and sixty-five, and any number up to this may be marked on the frame.
The Chinese frame on the table before the writer has thirteen bars, and its power of course extends to one trillion, six hundred and sixty-six billions, six hundred and sixty-six eight pence, nine farthings. millions, six hundred and sixty-six All the operations in arithmetic thousands, six hundred and sixty-five. are performed with great ease by Mr. Frend's arithmetical, toy has these frames in China. The inhabitseven bars, and of course its power ex- ants of that country move about the tends to one million, six hundred and balls with a dexterity scarcely to be sixty-six thousand, six hundred and conceived by those who have not sixty-five. seen them. They are used to it from their childhood; and in a counting
With two toys may be marked any
house a column of numbers is added ations of law, and religion, and taxby means of the frame, as fast as a ation, by which people in other counperson can read them. In this re- tries are annoyed. But it is curious, spect the Chinese have great advan- the nation, that writes from the top tage in checking the books; for, to the bottom of the page, and conwhilst one person reads the account, sists of about three hundred and another adds it up, and the result is thirty millions of people, do not becompared with the same sum, added lieve one word of this, but think us a up by the figures. If they do not poor mongrel race, without laws, agree in their accounts, the operation without manners, and without the must be repeated, but it would be a knowledge of liberty. They are ingreat reflection on the Chinese, if the deed a very curious people, and much error was found to be on the frame. allowance must be made for their igThe facility of counting in this man- norance, for they know nothing of mer will be easily apprehended by Latin and Greek, and derive their any one who considers with what ra- knowledge from the writings of a pidity the fingers of an expert player vast number of men of science and move on the harpsichord, and how business, beginning at a time long much fewer bars there are on the before that when the Latins and frame than keys in the harpsichord. Greeks first began to learn to write
Though they write from the top to the bottom of the page, they can write just as fast as we do; and they can read their writing just as well as an Englishman can do his own lan
Under the frame in the plate are and read. They have also this singu the Chinese numerals; the three larity among them, that they esteem first of which, namely, the numbers what they call learning and science, one, two, three, will easily far above money or lands, or birth. be known. They are under the Indeed as to the latter circumstance, frame to the left. The other num- they cannot conceive what we mean bers have not such a resemblance to by it, and they laugh exceedingly at our figures; but the figure for five our idea of qualifying a man for an may easily be imagined to have a office in the state, by making him go common origin with our figure for through a religious ceremony. five, if we round off the corners at the bottom. The figure for seven, excepting the curve at the bottom, is such as is frequently made in this country by persons not expert in writing. The figure for four is more guage. This will not appear very difficult to bring to a resemblance strange to one who compares their with ours; but it is by no means im- columns with similar propositions, probable, that, if we had copies made written after our manner, at the end of the Chinese and Arabic figures, of Mr. Frend's Tangible Arithmetic. about three thousand years ago, we In his book the propositions are writshould find that they bore a nearer ten in a line, parallel to the top of the resemblance to each other, and their page: the Chinese plate gives them deviation might be traced to some ob- in a line parallel to the side of the vious causes. page; yet they are both read with Under these figures are columns equal case. But, as Mr. Frend inin a direction from the top to the bot- tended his plate for a little amusetom of the page. This is the mode ment for his readers, in decyphering of writing in China, and this is by it, and we have copied it into our no means the only thing in which magazine only through his indulthey difler from us: their language, gence, we shall not anticipate by any custom, and manners are in a nun- remarks of our own, the discoveries, ber of respects the exact opposite to which the inspectors of the plate will ours. Every body in England knows, make by their own skill and attention. that the English constitution is the summit of perfection; that our laws are the best devised and best executed ever known; that the people enjoy a liberty, which no other nation ever possessed, being free from all those vex
Singular Predictions, from a prophetic
FRENCHMAN of rank travelling
ago, possibly by desire of his court, too lofty not to be seen at a great dismade the following communications tance, and to shew by its wide cirto a friend (who has fallen by the cumference the so far contracted dcaxe of the revolutionary guillotine), minions of its late master. This will but which it is obvious, were never be an incentive to his revenge, unless intended for the public eye. The he can assuage it by making up his
writer himself is since dead, and as loss in the inoffensive territories of the paper was preserved, there can Poland. The emperor, it is true, has be no impropriety in laying its con- but little money, but then he has four tents before the public. There is hundred thousand soldiers, some offi.every reason to believe that the tra- cers, and the fatal power of commitveller sent dispatches to the govern- ting both, to the last man, to be swalment of his country, whether diplo- lowed up in the abyss of war. All matically or secretly employed, as his engagements, public and private, well as occasional packets to his con- tend to realise and cement the vast fidential friend. system which is become the ruling passion of Catherine II.-Her general Suworow and her lieutenant-general Potemkin are to be the prosperous and happy means of obtaining all her head can conceive and her heart can wish for. This dazzling system the emperor will never take his eyes from, unless they should be turned to an invasion of Poland; a country whose productive soil yields immensi
The abruptness in the beginning of this letter, and the discernment manifested in the course of it, prove its author to have possessed a mind of some strength and magnitude.
"The King of Prussia is about to die; perhaps he is dead at the moment I am writing. It is impossible, however, that he can live many days. The same instant his eyes are closed a new scene begins to open to all Eu- ties of grain for the sustenance of rope! This catastrophe ends a great man, and is not without the seeds of political drama; and as on the stage liberty to give him the erect posture of life there is no interval like the which nature designed for him. The histrionic, a new one more inter- Turk too, against whom the Prince esting, more important will com- de Cobourg is going to be employed, mence. With Frederick will fall the must pay smart money, or the Divan key stone which supports the political will be distracted by new menaces. arch of Europe!! His genius will not Moldavia and Wallachia will not lodge in his successor. It will not be alone satisfy the emperor, who seems found in the territories of Branden- determined to obtain indemnification burg. The Emperor has for some somewhere. Nothing however is time engaged his most skilful state done, nothing is even thought of, in physicians to feel the pulse of the new the courts of the continent, that Engking of Prussia, before he ascends the land does not know, does not interest throne. Kings have not only the herself about. Her ambassador at faults and vices common to other men, the Porte is closeted as often with the but they have some which are pecu- grand Vizir as her ministers have conliar to their elevated station; almost ferences with those of Vienna and concomitant with unlimited power. this court. In short, nothing can, The
very peccadillos of these person- nothing must be done, without her ages are dreadful to their subjects. concurrence. The diplomatic ascenTheir grand vice is ambition. To in- dancy she has gained in Europe, and dulge it they play a destructive game. I may say in Asia too, is prodigious; The men they move are not chess- and it ought to alarm the cabinet of men, but their fellow creatures; and Versailles. But we are sunk in apato obtain their own object, be it great thy. We are flattered by the secuor small, they sacrifice those, some- rity, which extent of dominion offers times without calculation, always us. It appears large, because it is without remorse. In one of these near us: but England acquires twice terrible contentions, the house of the political strength from her aisAustria lost Silesia, which the treaty tant possessions. Her eastern posof Breslaw gave to that of Branden- sessions, though comparatively new, burg. The mountain of Zotenberg is form another, and the strongest, prop
to her greatness. When we speak of personal merit, reasons ill. To talk of this in counsel, the Count dethe gratitude of the Americans, is not names St. Domingo and the Isle de to talk like a statesman. What do Bourbon as a set off against those set- our very coffec-house politicians say tlements, and reckons on the regain- of this quixotic adventure? As it caning our footing once more in Hin- not be from affection to the Ameridoostan. Before we can rationally ex- cans, that we send our squadrons with pect to name Pondicherry and the other troops across the Atlantic, it must be settlements on the coast of Coroman- from hatred to the English. Now del among the French possessions, they reason wisely by saying, that the we must have a navy in the condition same force opposed to them in anoof that which baffled Keppel and ther quarter, would have annoyed made Sir Charles Hardy retire into them more! But the most forcible port. Without this, St. Domingo it- point of all, is the conclusion drawn self is precarious. I know of no from the successful issue of the conoversight so unpardonable in our go- test-that the example is ominous to vernment, as allowing us to be cir- the French colonies and to France itcumvented in every court where we self!! Again, I say that the fate of have an ambassador or envoy. We Europe is ready to undergo a vast do no good by dispatching them to change! When the sceptre drops the native powers in the peninsula of from Frederick's hand, the scales the East. We, in vain, aid those which weigh the power of Europe so chiefs: for unless we could assist nicely at this moment will vacillate, them with troops, (which we cannot till the uncertain libration excites the do with our weakened navy), we had ambition and hopes of the one half better not arouse them to action. concerned, and the anxiety, dread, Their movements will but serve as and ultimate ruin of the other half. pretence to the wily Islanders, to France must rise or fall! She canmake war on them; to subjugate not long remain stationary. There is them; and thereby to strengthen too much distress and discontent the British power still more, where within the realm, to leave it long no sovereign or nabob holds his sway without a shock. The ostentation but by its permission. If the veil which the wealthy display is a conwere removed from the eyes of *** tinued insult on those who live in *, the relative situation of our poverty: the privileges granted to the nation and its rival would be seen in nobility shock the honest and modeall its terrors: while our finances are rate; and will determine them (take running into confusion, if not to utter my word for it), whenever the ferruin, the British funds are rising mentation bursts into a flame, to take from fifty-two to seventy-four per vengeance without mercy on their cent. Their sinking fund too (Caisse oppressors. The post not coming d'amortissement), ought of itself to from Berlin to the place whence I shew us what we have to dread on write this, I suspect the couriers have the score of that sinew of war, money. been stopped to announce the exWith this, or (which is the same pected event! but if the Great Frething), their credit enabling them to derick still breathes, he cannot be borrow with ease, they will always said to reign. There is a mixture of outbid us in purchasing the favour of greatness and weakness in the minds those powers who have troops to dis- of those who will henceforward pose of. What will, what can, have the rule in their hands. Alarouse us from this lethargy? the ready we hear of the house of AusPorte is threatened by Austria and tria having swayed the Germanic Russia; and we are incapable of as- sceptre long enough; and that the sisting her. The ships and force in house of Brandenburg ought not to men we lent to America would have despair of grasping it. But how is enabled the Ottoman government to this change to be brought about; unkeep her covetous neighbours by land less some unknown power rises up, quiet, and have prevented a single and takes side with one against the Russian ship from sailing through the other, till both being weakened, and Dardanells. La Fayette, with all his the political fabric of the German
constitution tottering or thrown to the ground, a new order becomes the effect of that change? We are not a little surprised that the old one has stood so long. Now is the time for France to employ her most sagacious knows that; but, to divert her from the pursuits which patriotism might point out, she has courteously sent her a stud of running horses, and the plain de Sablons are to complete the disgrace of the plains of Minden. The Spartans would banish
An Account of the Manufactures and
[We propose to select a few more of these interesting papers for translation; and lay them before our readers in the succeeding numbers of our work.]
UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL, VII.
[From Mr. Colebrooke's Remarks on the Husbandry and Internal Commerce of Bengal 1
COTTON piece goods are the sta
ple A rapid sketch of the various sorts, fabricated in different provinces, from the north of Hindostan to the southern extremity of the peninsula, will convey some notion of the various manufactures distributed through the districts of Bengal and the adjacent provinces.
Plain muslins, distinguished by va rious names, according to the fineness and to the closeness of their texture, as well as flowered, striped,
any family who should thus institute or encourage amusements and fashions destructive to the liberties of their country. Capua, with its luxuries and diversions, was the gulf into which the Romans were near or chequered, muslins, denominated falling, and which actually did swal- from their patterns, are fabricated low up Hannibal and his companions. chiefly in the province of Dak'ha. Nothing but a Lacedemonian spirit The manufacture of the finest sorts can restore our effeminate country- of thin muslin is almost confined to men to their wonted character. They that province; other kinds, wove are as easily to be made valorous as more closely, are fabricated on the voluptuous; but where shall we look western side of the Delta or the for models? Not at (it is Ganges; and a different sort, displain the writer means at court); and tinguished by a more rigid texture, if examples rise up elsewhere, they does not seem to be limited to par will be ominous to all those about ticular districts. Coarse muslins, in the - I have detained my the shape of turbans, handkerchiefs, dispatch till I learned what was the &c. are made in almost every pro cause that I had not letters as usual: vince; and the northern parts of it was not what I suspected. The Benares afford both plain and flow. king still lives; nay, I hear that his ered muslins which are not ill_adapt= physicians have set him on horseback, ed to common uses, though incapa They cannot, however, put armour ble of sustaining any competition on him. They advise him to ride, with the beautiful and inimitable fa with a sword-in his feeble hand. brics of Dak'ha, He has a complication of ails; but as his dropsical part of the distemper gains on his infeebled worn-out constitution hourly, his doom is hastening and certain. No longer is he consulted on business. I therefore communicate my opinion on the probable effects of this change; and I add, that (if the genius of France is not dying also), our country may avail itself of this critical juncture to raise an influence on the continent, which may counterbalance the Le viathan-like preponderance of Great Eritain on the ocean!!!"
Under the general appellation of calicoes, are included various sorts of cloth, to which no English names have been affixed. They are for the most part known in Europe by their Indian denominations. Khásahs are fabricated in that part of Bengal which is situated north of the Ganges, between the Mahanada and Isámaté rivers, from Malda to Berbázú. Cloths nearly similar in quality, and bearing the same name, are made near Tanda in the Vizier's dominions. Bastas are manufactured in the southwest corner of Bengal, near Lack'hipúr; and, again on the western frontier of Benares, in the neighbourhood of Alababad; and also in the province of Bihar, and in some other districts. Sanas are the chief fabric of E