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in particular to the overbearing attrac- air, is also equally heavier or lighter; tion of a great body to a little one; what weighs a pound therefore at oné and the truth of this opinion seemis time, always weighs the same at anoto me to be fairly and sufficiently ther. It also confirms my argument, proved by the common barometer. that the barometer also proves the gra
To elucidate this, I must premise dual diminution of the weight of airthat it is a general received rule, when carried upward by the mercury founded on many experiments, that in the long tube sinking moreand more the mean weight of the air is equal to as the barometer is carried higher, a column of water twenty-seven feet which it does in so regular a manner in height; of which even the com- that it is generally used by geometrimon pump-makers are convinced, cians to measure the exact height of as they find it impossible to raise mountains, by comparing the height water higher by suckage, and there- of the mercury at the top with that at fore always take care io fix the box their foot: and it is manifest that if it of their pumps considerably less than were possible to ascend to such height that distance abore the water of the that the mercury in the long tube dewell. Now as the mercury in the scended to a level with that in the rebarometer is about fifteen times spe- servoir abovementioned, every thing cifically, according to its volume, would there entirely lose its weight. heavier than the water; and the long
VELLEIUS PRODUTURUS. tube wherein the column of mercury is observed to rise and fall according Lord SOMERVILLE's or the Spring to the different weight of the atmos-. CATTLE Shew.-Monday 'March pherical air at different times, being 20, 1807 about two feet long, and so closed at THIS was, beyond all question, the top, as to be impervious to atmospherical air; the mercury is therefore tant exhibition of the kind which the always at the height that it can be public has ever witnessed, on the foldrawn up to by suckage according to lowing grounds. Two grand objects the weight of the air at the time; of the noble Lord's patriotic solicitade and the little air at the top of the were definitively proved: his Spanish tube being no ways affected by the sheep and lambs, bred in this country, atmospherical without, to which the have arrived at a form and size, proglass is impervious but not so to the gressively, which fully evinces the étherial, is encreased or diminished certainty of their emulating, in these according as the heavier or lighter respects, the best breeds of this coun. atmospherical air presses more or less try; and in the opinion of an Italian on the mercury, which is exposed gentlenian, who has lately visited the to it in the open reservoir below, and finest Merino tlocks of Spain, those which makes the mercury near the which Lord Somerville has bred in top of the tube rise or fall. The Englard have improved in fleece, and greater or less weight of the air, there in all respects, upon their Spanish profore, makes the mercury in the recr- genitors ranging over their native voir heavier or lighter proportion- suil. As to size, several of the pure ably, which is indicated by the rise Anglo-Merino wedders slauglitered or fall of that in the tube; the whole for the dinner, weighed upwards of weight of the air, therefore, consti- eight stone the carcase, and it is obtutes the whole weight of the mer- vious from the improving nature of cury, and consequently every thing our soil, the breed will continue to else; and althoughevery thing weighis increase in weight. The e, it ought more or less at one time than another, to be remarked, were the heavie t according to the diterent pressure of Merinos ever slaughtered, perhaps in the air at the time: yet that is no in- Europe; and were the breed never to convenience, or even perceivable ; reach a larger size, it would be für because, though a pound weight, for enough from a disadvantageous cir: example, weighs more when the air cumstance. The rams were highly is heavy than when it is lighter, yet improved in forin, and of tull size in whatever is weighied with it being get stock for any possible purpose', equally affected by the weight of the whether upon upland or marslı soil. UNIVERSAL Mic. VOL.III.
The other object alluded to, is the est degree of handiness and docility. cloth manufaciured from Spanish They certainly appeared too low in wool, the growth of this country: condition to be capable of that quanthis cloth, from the first, a beautiful tity of labour and exertion which they and durable fabric, and fit for any might otherwise be enabled to permarket, has progressively improved, form; and thereby hangs a question until the present exhibition, when of no little importance to the interests Lord Somerville's pattern was judged of husbandry. superior in fineness, and equal in sub- Amongst the English sheep, there stance, to the best which could be was nothing particularly noticeable
, procured in the metropolis, manufac- except a very beautitúl thorough tured from the highest priced import- shaped South-down belonging to Sir ed Spanish wool. Thus this great Thomas Carr. The Spanish crosses, question is finally at rest, and the Ryeland, and South-Down, were tine, Emperor Napoleon may, in future, the wedders slaughtered being full of issue as many edicts as shall please proof, and weighing from ten to him, against the importation of fine iwelve stone upwards. Of the Me. wool from the continent. The great rino rams sold and let by Lord SomerBritish staple will remain secure and ville, tive produced the sum of 830. unatłected thereby.
three of them being sold for 500l. The show was held at Sadler's Re- Of these, two were purchased by the pository,Goswell-street, and the num- Earl of Breadalbane for the use of liis ber of cattle, we think, larger than on flocks in the Highlands of Scotland, any former occasion; the spectators, and one by Mr. Buncombe, in Yorkalso, were very numerous, notwith- shire. standing the coldness of the weather ; A printed paper was given out, and the place is extremely commo- containing the particular conditions dious; indeed, we think more so than on which Lord' Somerville lets his the other Repository where the rams; also an account exhibited of meeting was formerly held. The cat- the amount of his Lordship's clip tle in general were an excellent com- of Merino wool for the last year; modity for the butcher, none being being 32281b. pure Merino, sold for excessively fattened, the pigs except 4931 13s, 6d.' The value of each ed, and held out a good grazing ex- Merino fleece being 11. 45. Three ample; at the same time, it must be parts bred do. 175. 10d. Half do. acknowledged, there was nothing to 14s. 2!d. Ryland wool not included. attract particular attention, but the The pigs exhibited were, as usual, Merino sheep and another article or all of the squab species, and the gentwo. We flattered ourselves to have tlemen exhibitors, it is understood, diseovered an improvement in the assume to themselves no small portion form of the Sussex oxen, which were of improving sagacity, in having disnot so flat and leggy as usual. The covered that this breed, so full of Yorkshire or Holderness cattle also meaning, is the handsomest, the best, made a good figure, and a heiter and and inost productive of all possible cow of ihat superior breed belonging breeds, and that flesh, whether in to Lord Braybrook, were generally pork or mutton, is a mere expletive; adipired There was also a remark- and all this new light has been obably well-shaped Italian cow, small, tained cheaply, and without the troushort-horned, very fine in the bone, ble of one single experiment. Can and of great docility and temper, which fame and the best pork be enjoyed at had been tattened by Lord Somer- a cheaper rate? ville; and a tine sized and well fed The judges appointed this year bullock, berween the Indian and were, Sir John Sebright, Messrs
. Devon breeds. A good cart stallion Frost, Walker, Norton, and Bond; was shewn from the hundreds of the two last, respectable butchers. It Essex, very likely to get useful, boney, is probable, that the patience and skill and well-shaped stöck. A pair of of judges in this business were never full-sized Sussex oxen were exhibited before put to a severer test, not only in yoke, and driven up and down the from the very numerous objects, but paid in diecrowd, proving the high- the equal rights of so many; and turther, the various considerations to be dred guests, amongst whom were combined. According to the noble many of high rank, both British and founder's instructions, due regard was foreign. Prince Paul Esterhazy, to be had, in the award, to the quality, Count Poniatowski, Baron Reventz, age, and tood, of the animals, as well Count Reventz, Count Stahremberg, as to their size and weight; to the M. Cotenho, M. Smirnove, Duke of labour perforined by the oxen, and Argyle, Marquises of Sligo and to the fleece of the sheep. These Lansdowne; Earls of Bristol, Derby, gentlemen took a whole day for the Essex, Fortescue, Hardwicke, Macperformance of their task, nor aid clestield, Winchelsea, Selkirk, Cholthey conclude, until no light was left mondley, Bridgewater, &c. Viscounts to direct their judgment.
Sackville, Bulkeley, Palmerston, A considerable variety of agricul- Grimstone, Primrose; Lords Wm. tural implements was exhibited, Russell, Heathfield, Kinnaird, Crewe, which furnished a good deal of con- De Dunstanville, Grantley, King, versation. Gibbs and Co. had a very Braybroke, Elliott, Boringdon, St. tine collection of meadow grass seeds, John, Henry Petty, &c.
Sirs John and also of those of the various win- Sinclair, Sebright, W. Curtis, R. ter catile crops, yellow Swedish tur- Milbank, W. Leighton, D. Weddernip, Hungarian turnip cabbage, Man- burne, J. Carr, H. Cox, &c. The gel Wurzell, and thousand headed cab. Bishop of Landaff. Professors War. bage. This last is a new article from berg and Davy. Messrs. M. Burthe South of France, there called goyne, T. W. Coke, C.C. Westerne, choux a mille teles; and tioin various R. Byng, Hon. S. Wortley, W. Lytexperiments, upon a considerable tleton, Hon. G. Elliott, S. Whitbread, scale, during the last year in Herts, H. B. Dudley, E, L. Loveden, A. Berks, Somerset, and the midland Young, G. Villiers, Col. Mitford, counties, promises to be a great acqui- Cullen Smith, Garrard, Wakefield, sition to the country. It has succeed- &c. ed on poor hungry soils, both wet and The toasts given were:-The King. dry, resisting the hardest frosts, and The plough worked by good Oxen. is very convenient to come at in deep The illustrious strangers present. snow, from its height above ground, The fleece corering a good carcase proving also superior in point of quan- with plenty of fat. The tarming Sotity to the common cattle cabbage. cieties of Ireland, and their worthy Three gatherings are taken from it at associate the Duke of Bedford. Husdifferent peroids, and it lasts until bandry and Commerce, and may their May.
interests be inseparable! The judges, Bridge and Parsons a variety of with thanks for the care and imparseeds, and a sample of successful spring tiality with which they had made wheat.
their award. On which Sir John Pieces of the broad cloth manufac- Sebright arose, and in a very beat and tured from Lord Somerville's Anglo- handsome speech, on behalf of hinSpanish wool were shewn, as has self and coadjutors, thanked the coinbeen stated, with a remarkably fine pany, assuring them that any errors sample of kersymere from ram tleeces: in their decision should be interpret. also a very strong and substantial ed rather to a defect in judgment, piece of cloth entirely from English than to a want of attention or imparSouth-Down wool. Mr. Tollet's tiality. Mr. Selby proposed the health broad cloth from Merino-Ryland and of Lord Somerville, which was given South-Down wool, obtained the ge- rapturously, and most sincerely on neral approbation of the trade: and all hands, with three times three! his sheep-skins dressed in various His Lordship, resuming the chair, glossy and beautiful colours, in iinita- gave Protessor Davy: Mr. Arthur tion of Spanish leather, were much Young: afterwards, the memory of admired.' Mr. Tollet also exhibited those excellent busbardinen, the late an account of last year's clip of wool. Mr. Ducket and Mr. Culley.
On the Tuesday, Lord Somerville Lord Somerville, on opening the gave his annual dinner at the Free- award of the judges, adverted in the mason's Tavern, to nearly three hun- great difficulty which they had expe
rienced, on account of the nearly and which is wholly divested of the
“ A great deal has been written reprize for Merino shear hogs having specting the Yellow Fever. First, with reverted to Lord Somerville, his Lordship presented the cup to Mr. Met respect to its cause, whether domestic ford, of Hants, out of respect 10 Mr. or imported. Secondly, on the mode
of treating it. M.'s perseverance in the fine wool
" What I am going to suggest in improvement. The remaining cup this essay, is, to ascertain some point was given to Mr. Sully, for his white to begin at, in order to arrive at pig. On account of the great quan- the cause, and for this purpose some tity of business this meeting, the preliminary observations are necesclaims of that meritorious class of men, the shepherds, were necessitated
• The yellow fever always begins in to stand over until next year., An the lowest part of a populous mercanextra cup was presented to Mr. Furn- tile town near the water, and continues comb, on account of his five South there, without affecting the higher Down ewe hogs'; and another to Mr. parts. The sphere, or circuit it acts Tollet, accompanied by the most flat- in is small, and it rages most where tering testimonies, by the noble donor, large quantities of new ground have of that gentleman's high desert, com- been made by banking out the river, pared with the trifling value of the for the purpose of making wharfs
"The appearance and prevalence of the Two small sheaves of Sicilian, or yellow fever in these places, being those the real Spring Wheat, which Lord where vessels arrive from the West Somerville had lately received from Indies, has caused the belief that the his relation Mr.Somerville, at present yellow fever was imported from thence: in Italy, his Lordship put into the but here are two cases acting in the hands of Lord Winchelsea and Mr. same place! the one, the condition of Adams, to be sown, and the merits of the ground at the wharfs, which being its produce to be reported at a future new made on the muddy and ilthy meeting. The Smithfield club bill of bottom of the river, is different from premiums and regulations for the next the natural condition of the ground in Christmas show, the Duke of Bed- tbe higher parts of the city, and conford's proposals to let and sell cattle sequently subject to produce a difat Woburn-park farni, in June, and ferent kind of eiluvia or vapour: the Lord Somerville's account of pre- other case, is the arrival of vessels from miums for next year, were delivered the West Iudies. to the compatiy.
“Tu the State of Jersey, neither of
these cases has taken place; no stipPAINE on the Yellow FEVER. ping arive there, and consequently WITHOUT attempting to enter, there has been no embankment for the of Mr. Paine's political merits, the ver has never broke out in Jersey, public will not be displeased to peruse This, however, does not decide the the following production; which em- point, as to the immediate cause of the braces a subject of peculiar interest, fever; but it shows that this species of
fever is not common to the country in body of air moves off, it will impregits natural state; and I believe the same nate eyery succeeding body of air, was the case in the West Indies, betore however pure it may be when it arembankments began, tor the purpose rives at the place. of making wharts, which always aiter “ The result from this state of the the natural condition of the ground; case is, that the impure air, or vapour, no old history, that I know of, men- that generates the vellow fever issues tions such a disorder as the yellow from the earth, that is, from the new ferer.
made carth, or ground raised on the “A person seized with the yellow muddy and filthy bottom of the river; . fever in an affected part of the town, and which impregnates every fresh
and brought into the bealthy part, or body of air that come over the place, e into the country and among heaithy in like manner as air becomes heated
persons, does not communicate it to when it approaches or passes over tire, the neighbourhood, or to those imme-' or becomes ofl'usive in smell when it diately around linn: Why then are we approaches or passes orer a body of to suppose it can be brought from the corrupt vegetable or animal matter in West Indies, a distance of more than a a state of putrefaction. thousand miles, since we see it cannot “ The vruddi bottom of lives Con. be carried from one town to another, tains great quanti:ies of impure, and nor from one part of a town to another, otten inflammable air', (Carbureited at home? Is it in the air :-ihis ques. Fiydrogen gas) injmious to lite; anid tion on the case, requires a minute which remains entangled in the mud examination. In the first place, the till lei loose from thence hy some acditterence between air and wind is the cident. This air is produced by the same as between a stream of water dissolution and decomposition of any and a standing water. A stream of combustible matter falling into the water, is water in inotion; and wind, is water and sinking into the mud, of air in motion. In a gentle breeze, the which the following circumsiance will whole boily of air, as far as the breeze serve to give some explanation: (stends, moves at the rate of even or “In the fall of the vear that New cight miles an hour; in a high wind, York was evacuated (1783), Generai at the rate of seventy, eighiv, or an Washington hard his head quarters at hundred miles an hour: when we see Mrs. Berrians, at Rocky-till, ia Jer. the shadow of a cloud gliding on the sey, and I was there: -- the Congress surface of the ground, we see the rate then sat at Prince-'l'own. We had at which the air moves, and it must be several times been told, that the river a good trotting horse that can keep or creek, that runs near the bottom of pace with the shadow, even in a gentle Rocky-Hill, and over which there was breeze; consequently, a body of air, a mili, miglit be set on fire, (tor that that is in and over any place of the was the terin the country people used); same extent as the aliected part of a and as General Washington bad a city may be, will in the space of an mind to try the experiment, General hour, even at the moderate rate I speak Lincoln, who was also there, underof, be moved seven or cight miles to took to make preparation for it against Leeward, and its place, in and over ihe the next evening, Nov. 5th. This was city, will be supplied by new borty of to be done, as we were told, by disaircoming from a healthy part seven or turbing the mud at the bottom of the eight miles distant the contrary was, river, and holding something in a and then on in continual succession. blaze, as paper or staiv, a little above The disorder, therefore, is not in the the surface of the water. air considered in its natwaistata, and “Colonels Humphries and Cob were bever stationary. This leads to an- at that time Aides-de-l'amp of Gen. other consideration of the case. Washington, and those two gentlemen
An impure effiuvia, ariving from and myself got into an argument resome cause in the ground, in the marr- specting the cause; their opinion was ter that fermenting liquors produce that, on disturbing the bottom of the an oftluria near its surface that is fatal river, some bituminous matter alene tolite, will become mixed with the air to the surface, which took tire whe: çontiguous to it, and as fast as that the light was put to it; 1, on the con