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trary, supposed that a quantity of in- sand of consequence would prevent fainiable air was let loose, which as- any blaze. We applied a lighter cancended through the water, and took dle to the mouth of the barrel; as the fire above the surface. Each party held first vapour that flew off would be hiuto his opinion, and the next evening mid, it extinguished the candle; but the experiment was to be made. after applying the candle three or four
“A scow had been stationed in the times, the vapour that issued out bemill-dam, and Gen.Washington, Gen. gan to Aash: we then tied a bladder Lincoln, and myself, and I believe over the mouth of the barrel, which Col. Cob (for Humphries was sick), the vapour soon filled, and then tying and three or four soldiers with poles, a string round the neck of the bladder were put on board the scow: General above the muzzle, took the bladder Wasliington placed himself at one end oft. of the scow, and I at the other; each “As we could not conveniently of us had a roll of cartridge-paper, make experiments upon the vapour, which we lighted and held over the while it was in the bladder, the next water, about two or three inches from operation was, to get it into a phial; the surface, when the soldiers began for this purpose, we took a phial of disturbing the bottom of the river with about three or four ounces, filled it the poles.
with water, put a cork slightly into it, “As General Washington sat at one and introducing it into the neck of end of the scow, and I at the other, I the bladder, worked the cork out, by could see better any thing that might getting hold of it through the bladder, happen from his light, than I could into which the water then emptied itfrom my own, over which I was nearly self, and the air in the bladder ascendperpendicular. When the mud at the ed into the phial; we then put the bottom was disturbed by the poles, the cork into the phial, and took it from air bubbles rose fast, and I saw the fire the bladder. It was now in a convetake from General Washington's light, nient condition for experiment. and descend from thence to the sur- “We put a lighted match into the face of the water, in a similar manner phial, and the air or vapour in it blazed as when a lighted candle is held so as up in the manner of a chimney on fire: to touch the smoke of a candle just we extinguished it two or three times
, blown out, the smoke will take fire, by stopping the mouth of the phial, and the fire will descend and light np and putting the lighted match to it the candle. This was demonstrative again; it repeatedly took fire, till the evidence, that what was called setting vapour was spent, and the phial be the river on fire, was setting the in- came filled with atmospheric air. flammable air on fire, that arose out “These two experiments, that, in of the mud,
which some combustible substance “I mentioned this experiment to (branches and leaves of trees) bad been Nr. Rittenhonse, of Philadelphia, the decomposed by water, in the mud; next time I went to that city, and our and this, where the decomposition had opinion on the case was, that the air been produced by fire, without blazing, or vapour that issued tiom any com- shews, that a species of air injurious to bustible matter, vegetable or other- lite, when taken into the lungs, wise, that underwent a dissolution and be generated from substances wbichi decomposition of its parts, either by in themselves are harmless. fire or water in a confined place, so as “ It is by means similar to these, not to blaze, would be in lammable, that charcoal, which is made by tire and would become fane whenever it without blazing, emits a vapour de came in contact with flame.
structive to life. I now come to apply " In order to determine if this wa these cases, and the reasoning deduced the case, we filled up th: breach of a therefrom, to account for the cause of gun-barrel about five or six inches the yellow fever. with saw-dust, and the upper part with dry sand to the top, and after spiking • The author does not mean to inter up the touch-liole, put the breach into that the inflammable air, or carbureta smith's furnace, and kept it red hot, ted hydrogen gas, is the cause of the so as to consume the saw-dust; the yellow fever; but that, perhaps, it en
* First:-The yellow fever is not a from the river by embankment, there disorder produced by the climate na- are upwards of eighty new wharfs made turally, or it would always have been since the war, and the much greater here in the hot months; the climate is part within the last ten or twelve years; the same now as it was fifty or an hun- the consequence of which has beeu, dred years ago: there was no yellow that great quantities of tilth or comfever then, and it is only within the bustible matter deposited in the mudlast twelve years that such a disorder dy bottom of the river contiguous to has been known in America.
the shore, and which produced no ill “ Secondly:-The low grounds on effect while exposed to the air, and the shores of the rivers, at the cities, washed twice every 24 hours by the where the yellow fever is annually tide-water, have been covered over generated, and continues about three several feet deep with new earth, and months without spreading, were not pent up and the tide excluded. It is subject to that disorder in their natural in these places, and in these only, that state, or the Indians would have for- the yellow fever is produced. saken them; whereas, they were the Having thus shewn, from the cirparts most frequented by the Indians cumstances of the case, that the cause in all seasons of the year, on account of the yellow fever is in the place of fishing. The result from these cases where it makes its appearance, or is, that the yellow fever is produced by rather, in the pernicious vapour issil. some new circumstance not common ing therefrom, 1 go to shew a method to the country in its natural state, and of constructing wharfs, where wharts the question is, what is that new cir- are yet to be constructed, as on the cumstance?
shore of the East River, at Corider's " It may be said, that every thing Hook, and also on the North River, done by the white people, since their that will not occasion the yellow fever, settlement in the country, such as and which may also point out a mebuilding towns, clearing lands, levell- thod of removing it from places aling hills, and filling up vallies, is a ready infected with it. Instead, then, new circumstance; but the yellow fe- of embanking out the river and raising ver does not accoinpany any of these solid wharfs of earth on the mud botnew circumstances. No alteration tom of the shore, the better method made on the dry land produces the would be to construct wharfs on arches yellow fever; we must therefore look built of stone; the tide will then flow to some other new circumstances; and in under the arch, by which means the we come now to those that have taken shore and the muddy bottom will be place between wet and dry, between washed and kept clean, as if they were land and water.
in their natural state without wharfs. “ The shores of the rivers at New “When wharfs are constructed on York, and also at Philadelphia, have, the shore lengthways, that is, without on account of the vast increase of com- cutting the shore cip into slips, arches merce, and for the sake of making can easily be turneil, because arches wharfs, undergone great and rapid al- joining each other lengthways serve terations from their natural state, as buttments to each other: but when within a few years; and it is only in the shore is cut up into slips, there can such parts of the shores, where those be no buttments; in this case, wharfs alterations have taken place, that the can be formed on stone pillars, or yellow fever has been produced. The wooden piles planked over on the top. parts where little or no alteration has In either of these cases, the space 11.been made, either on the East or North derneath will be a cominodious shelter River, and which continue in their or harbour for small boats, which can natural state, or nearly so, do not pro- go in and come out always, except at duce the yellow fever.---The fact low water, and be secure from storms therefore points to the cause. and injuries. This method, besides “Besides several new streets gained preventing the cause of the yellow
fever, which I think it will, will render ters into some combination with miasm the wharts mere productive than the generated in low grounds, which pro- present method, because of the space duces the discase.
preserved within the whart,
“I offer no calculation of the ex. but for the sake of saving the public penceof constructing wharts on arches trouble, we will answer it very briefly. or piles; bit on a general view, I be- “ Had Buenos Ayres continued to relieve they will not be so expensive as main a British possession, the enemies the present method. A very great part of Sir Home Popham, however they of the expence of making solid wharfs might have wished his ruin, would of earth is occasioned hy the carriage not have dared to extend their malice of materials, which will be greatly re. beyond those wishes ; — 110 trial or duced by the methods here proposed, prosecution would have been heard and still more so were the arches to of." be constructed of cast-iron blocks. I To enter into any detail of the trial suppose that one ton ofcast-iron blocks would far exceed our limits, and to would go as far in the construction of abridge or give a garbled detail would an arch, as twenty tons of tone. be acting unfairly aud uncandidly
“lt, by constructing wharts in such perhaps to both parties; suttice it to manner ibat the tide water can wash say, that every page, every line of it, the shore and bottom of the river con contains reiterated proofs of the contiguous to the shore, as they are washed stant attention paid by Sir Home to in their natural condition, the yellow the good of the service, and liis zeal fever can be prevented from generat- for the interests of his country. We ing in places where wharts are yet to cannot, however, pass over the trial be constructed, it may point out a in absolute silence; and, as a collateral method of removing it, at least by de: proof of the disinterested opinion of grees, from places already infected the military commanding officer, tre with it, which will be by opening the must take the liberty to beg the reader wharts in two or three places in each, to refer to the Letter, No. 18. p.57, and letting the tide water pass through; of the Trial published by Mottles of the parts opened can be planked over, Portsmouth, which goes to the fullest so as not to prevent the use of the private confidential explanation of the whart,
views entertained by the Commodore. “In taking up and treating this sub
The peroration of Sir Home Popject, I have considered it as belonging ham, at the close of the business, was to natural philosophy, rather than in the following terms :" I here medicinal art; and therefore I say close my defence, and throw myself nothing about the treatinent of the upon the justice and wisdom of this disease, after it takes place; I leare honourable court. I bare suttered that part to those whose profession it much in my feelings and character; is to study is. “ THOMAS PAINE.” but I do trust and hope your judgment
will relieve the one and rescue the LIFE OF Sir Home Popham.
other. If, in my zeal for the service,
I have exceeded the limits of due dis(Concluded from p. 204.] cretion, I trust it will appear
that I "E certainly think Sir Home was solcly actuated by an anxious de
Popham unadvised in his at- sire to promote the interests, the biotempt to prove that Buenos Ayres nour, and the glory of my country; forniert the same district as the Cape: Aided by my brave followers, and the question turns on a much more under the protectiou of Divine Provi. solid and advantageous basis for him. dence, I was put in the possession of self; and we have no hesitation in capital cities in two different quarters saying, that the man must be scepti- of the globe. Upon an examination cally dishonest to suppose or assert of my letence, I trust it will be found that Sir Home possessed not every that the head and front of my ofpower, authority, and assurance that fending hath this extent--no niore. The VERRAJ. Instructions of a Minister I retire, trusting in your wisdom and could bestow; but candour empels justice for ny hovourable arquittal.”. us to allow he was certainly deficient Sir Home having with his friends in not being properly possessed with withdrawn, the court was cleared written testimony, as we find one of about eleven o'clock, and after four irere honour was rejected with scorn. hours deliberation was again opened,
The third query answers itself:- and Sir Flome having taken bis place
at the foot of the table, the members verable, it arose in consequence of an being covered, the judge-adyocate pro- opinion that the acquittal'in question ceeded to read the sentence as tol- was, even as it stood, not sufficiently lows:
honourable to the merits and disin“This court having maturely con- terested services of the commodore. șidered the nature of the charges, A short time after his return to town, heard all the evidence, and having he accidentally went to Lloyd's coffully deliberated upon the whole of fee-house, attended by Captain King this case, are of opinion, that the and his agent Mr. Lavie, when, after charges have been proved against Cap- having paid his respects to several of tain Sir Home Popham, that the with- the merchants and underwriters, he drawing without orders so to do the was introduced into the subscriptionwhole of any naval force from the room, about three o'clock, and was place where it is directed to be em- welcomed by the subscribers with ployed, and the employing it in dis- three hearty cheers! The room was tant operations against the enemy, unusually crowded ;-as soon as simore especially it the success of such lence could be obtained, Sir Home operations should be likely to prevent addressed them in nearly the followits speedy return, may be attended ing words :with the most serious inconvenience “Gentlemen-It is impossible for to the public service; as the success me to express what I feel on this ocof any plan formed by his Majesty's casion, seeing myself surrounded by ministers for operations against the the most respectable merchants of the enemy, in which such naval force first city in the world, marking permight be included, may by such re- sonally their opinion of my exertions muval be entirely prevented; and the to promote the public welfare; and, court is further of opinion, that the although his Majesty's government conduct of the said Captain Sir Home found it expedient to arraign my con, Popham, in the withdrawing the duct on my return from abroad, I whole of the naval force under his trust my defence will satisfy the recommand from the Cape of Good spectable body to whom I lave now Hope and the proceeding with it to the honour to address myself; that the Rio de la Plata was highly cen- every action of mine was directed to surable; but in consideration of cir- promote the honour and glory of my cumstances the court duth adjudge liim country, and that I shall ever feel myto be only severely reprimanded-and self bound to employ my humble tahe is accordingly hereby severely re- lents for the attainment of any object primanded."
conducive to its prosperity, although The provost-marshal then pro- I feel that the wings of discretion ceeded to the president, and presented have been materially clipped.” the sword of Sir Home Popham to This short speech' was followed by bim, when he was ordered to return three additional cheers, and Sir Honie it. The provost-marshal returned to quitted the room amidst the loudest the bottom of the table, and with a acclamations of applause. The stairs respectful salutation returned the from Lloyd's room and the streets sword to Sir Home Popham, and the were crowded with spectators, who court was dissolved.
followed Sir Home to the Old Jewry, The reception Sir Home met with shouting as he passed, " Sir Home from the public was of the most flat- and Old England for ever!!!" tering kind-it was expressive of the honest sentiments of people possess
CUMBERLANDANA. ing no guile, but who seeined to suf- (Continued from page 109.) Seifende stilles ionserfitheir jame to be M Oncer circBostance for insea insolence of faction. The most pub- of low birth, mean talents, and lic display of joy was exhibited even confined education, that if they can in remote towns throuyh which he buy, good wine, and hire a good passed, and a more popular acquittal cook, with plenty of winter roses, certainly never took place. If any green peas and strawberries out of slight murmur was by chance discos season, they can refresh the bowels
UNIVERSAL Mag. VOL. VII.
of the old nobility, who will walk laxity of talk, conceive it has some into a man's house, form their own aftinity to wit, and think themselves parties when they are in it, and take happy in a familiar' style, which has no more notice of the master of it, all the point of ridicule and the grace than they would of the landlord of the of ease.' Alas! it has nor point, nor in they take post at, or the keeper edge, nor grace, nor ease; in fact, it of the turnpike gate that they pass is no style at all; mere gabble, no through; but there must be luxury thing else. One recommendation it in the glare of lustres to a man who may have, which is, that of being unhas drudged at his desk by the light of answerable, for who can remember a tallow candle, and how much hand. it? and being quite as flimsey as somer must a floor appear to him, Ixion's mistress, who can embrace when splendidly be-chalked by a capi: it? tal designer, than when besprinkled “This is no proof to me that there is with a watering pot by a slip-shod a real dearth of taste or genius in the apprentice!"
age; it only confirms what we knew
before, that false taste and false genius STATE OF Genius." We are just are more obtrusive than true. If ever now, (as I before observed) by no there was a time for this distinguished means in our former character of phi- nation in a more peculiar manner to losophers, but rather living, as crea- maintain her dignity and display her tures should live, who are born for virtue, it is now when the eyes of no other purpose, and devoted to no suffering and degraded Europe are diother uses, but to consume the fruits rected towards her, and she has not of the earth, and leave their names yet been tempted to lay aside her to be carried down to posterity in the arms." culinary records of our public prints. NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE.-" I apThe frivolity of their tables seems in prehend we are fast approaching toa great degree to have overturned wards an awful crisis, when the the solidity of their understandings, minds of men will be too much ocand by the frequency of their deal. cupied to spare a thought for literary ings with confectioners and cooks, objects. Perhaps the Destroyer, wbo they appear to have contracted cer- has been sent on earth for the chastain new, but consentaneous habits tisement of the nations, has already of speech, a sort of huffish puff-paste reached the summit of his power, eloquence, which consists in treating and like Apoleon, shadowed out in grave and serious matters of debate the Apostle's vision, is verging towith a vapid kind of levity, affecting wards extinction, together with those quaint conceits aud doggerel quota- symbolical locusts, who have him as tions, which stand very well in Mother a king over them, and on their heads Goose's Tales; but are rather out of as it were crowns like gold; and I their latitude in St. Stephen's Chapel. doubt not but it will be the destiny of I am sorely afraid that our deluded our brave countrymen to convince senators, who by the flatulency of the rescued world, that these vermin their mental diet have fallen into this are not invincible."
Alone thë jors and woes contain,
How worthless is the lot of man, TUEN will the heart's dire condict Who lives and thinks and hopes in vain. WER cease,
“ Inother and a better world?" By anglish worn, by care distrest?
The awful voice of reason cries : Oh, bear me to the home of peace,
Roligion's ensigns are unfurl d, And lay me where the weary rest!
And point that scene-above the skies! Again the bitter tear-drops fail,
The kingdom, lo! of glory there; [hands, Again the signs of grief a-cend;
There, too, the house not made with Lcall on death in vain I call,
Where faith a mansion shall prepare Death still the foe, but not the friend! For pilgriins in these mortal lands!