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frame to stand for one, the two white number up to sixteen trillions, six balls on the next bar, standing each hundred and sixty-six billions, 6ix for i wenty, the two bars would de- hundred and sixty-six millions, six note twenty-one. The thiree white hundred and sixty-tive. kulls on the next stand each for hun. With three toys may be marked dreds, and of course the three first any number up to one sextrillion, six birs on the left in their present state hundred and sixty-six quintrillions, denote three hundred and twenty-one. six hundred and sixty-six quadrillions, The tour first bars on the left hand six hundred and sixiy-six trillions, six stand for four thousand, three hun. hundred and sixiy-six billions, six dred, and twenty-one. The next bar hundred and sixty-six millions, six bas no ball moved on the lower part: hundred and sixty-six thousand, six, had there been any moved, eachi ball hundred and sixty-five. would have stood for ten thousand, The Chinese use the decimal arith.' and of course the white ball moved metic, and their accounts are not peron the upper part stands for fifty plexed as ours, with a variety of difthousand, and the tivefirst bars on the ferent scales tor money, weights, and left hand, in their present state, denote measures. Their frames are in this fifty-four thousand, three hundred respect found exceedingly useful; for and twenty-one. The six first bars on the middle lower bar in the plate the left hand denote six hundred thoni- being taken for the unit bar, the bars sand fifty-four thousand, three hunc on the right hand may denote tenths, dred, and twenty-one. The seven hundredths, &c.; and on the left first bars in the same manner stand hand side, tens, hundreds, thousands, for seven millions, six hundred and &c. Thus, the frame in its present fifty-four thousand, three hundred, state would denote twelve thousand, and twenty-one. The eight first bars three hundred, and forty-five, six for eighty-seven millions, six hun- tenths, seven hundredths, éight thoudred and fifty-four thousand, three sandths, and nine ten thousandths. hundred, and twenty-one. The nine Mr. Frend, in his Tangible Arithbars in their present state denote, metic, has suggested the propriety of nine hundred and eighty-seven mil. introducing the same method of lions, six hundred and fifty-four counting in thiscountry, and has shewni thousand, three hundred and twenty- the advantages by an easy instance and

a simile, which all may understand. To know the power of any one Qur present mode of counting drags frame, we should move all the lower on as heavily as a broad wheel wagballs up to the division, and the upper gon with twelve horses, carrying only balls down to it, and the frame in ihe a fifth part of the load which a couplate would then have been repre- ple of horses drag on a canal at an Sented with all white balls. In this easy trot. If the alteration suggested case the frame would denote one were introduced, then the pound hundred and sixty-six millions, six would be divided into ten shillings, hundred and sixty-six thousands, six the shillings into ten pence, the penny hundred and sixty-five, and any num- into ten farthings; and, if the bar near ber up to this may be marked on the the right hand side of the frame in framé.

the plate stood tor farthings, then the The Chinese frame on the table frame in its present state would be before the writer has thirteen bars, thus read: one hundred and twenty: and its power of course extends to three thousand four hundred and one trillion, six hundred and sixty-six fitty-six pounds, seven shillings, and billions, six hundred and sixty-six eight pence, nine farthings. millions, six hundred and sixty-six All' the operations in arithmetic thousands, six hundred and sixty-five. are performed with great ease by

Mr. Frend's arithmetical toy has these frames in China. The inhabitseven bars, and of course its power ex: ants of that country move about the tends to one million, six hundred and balls with a dexterity scarcely to be sixty-six thousand, six hundred and conceived by those who have not sixty-five.

seen them. They are used to it from With two toys may be marked any their childhood; and in a counting

obe.

house a column of numbers is added ations of law, and religion, and taxby means of the franje, as fast as a ation, by which people in other counperson can read them. In this re- tries are annoyed. But it is curious, spect the Chinese have great advan- the nation, that writes from the top tarve in checking the books; for, to the bottom of the page, and conmbilst one person reads the account, sists of about three' huuired and another adds it up, and the result is thirty millions of people, do not becompared with ine same sum, added lieve one word of this, but think us a up by the figures. If they do not poor mongiel race, without laws, agree in their accounts, the operation without wanners, and without the must be repeated, but it would be a knowledge of liberty'. They are ingreat reflection on the Chinese, if the deed a very curious people, and much error was found to be on the frame. allowance must be made for their igThe facility of coming in this man- norance, for they know nothing of mer will be easily apprehended by Latin and Greek, and derive their any one who considers with what ra- knowledge from the writings of a pidity the fingers of an expert player vast number of men of science and move on the barpsichord, and how bul:iness, beginning at a time long much fewer bars there are on the before that when the Latins and frame than keys in the harpsichord. Greeks first began to learn to write

Under the frame in the plate are and read. They bave also this singuthe Chinese nunerals; the three larity among them, that they esteem first of which, namely, the numbers what they call learning and science, one, two, three, = = will easily far above money or lands, or birth. be known. They are under the lodeed as to the latter circumstance, frame to the left. The other num- they cannot conceive what we mean bers have not such a resemblance to by it, and they laugh exceedingly at our figures; but the figure for five our idea of qualifying a man for an may easily be imagined to have a orice in the state, by making hiin go common origin with our figure for through a religious ceremony. tive, if we round off the corners at Though they write from the top to the bottom. The figure for seven, the bouom of the page, they can excepting the curve at the bottom, is write just as fast as we do; and they such as is frequently made in this can read their writing just as well as country by persons not expert in an Englislıman can do his own lanwriting. The figure for four is more gnage. This will not appear very diificult to bring to a resemblance strange to one who compares their with ours; but it is by no means im- columns with similar propositions, probable, that, if we had copies made written after our manner, at the end of the Chinese and Arabic figures, of Mr. Frend's Tangible Arithmetic. about three thousand years ago, we In his book the propositions are writshould find that they bore a nearer ten in a line, parallel to the top of the resemblance to each other, and their page: the Chinese plate gives them deviation might be traced to some ob- in a line parallel to the side of the vious causes.

page; yet they are both read with Under these figures are columns equal case. But, as Mir. Frend inin a direction from the top to the bot- tended his plate for a little amusetom of the page. This is the mode ment for his readers, in decyphering of writing in China, and this is by it, and we bave copied it into our no means the only thing in which magazine only through his indulthey ditier from us : their language, gence, we shall not anticipate by any custom, and manners are in a nun- remarks of our own, the discoveries, ber of respects the exact opposite to which the inspectors of the plate will ours. Every body in England knows, make by their own shill and attention. that the Englishi constitution is the summit of perfection; that our laws Singular Predictions, from a prophetic are the best devised and best executed Letter upon the situation of Europe, ever known); that the people enjoy a in the year 1780. liberty, which noother nation ever pos

A

FRENCHMAN of rank travelling sessed, being free from all those vex- through Germany twenty years

ago, possibly by desire of his court, too lofty not to be seen at a great dismade the following communications tance, and to slew by its wide cirto a friend (who bas fallen by the cumference the so far contracted dcaxe of the revolutionary guillotine), minions of its late master. This will but which it is obvious, were never be an incentive to bis revenge, unle:s intended for the public eye. The he can asrage it by making up his writer himself is since dead, and as loss in the inoffensive territories of the paper was preserved, there can Poland. The emperor, it is true, has be no impropriety in laying its con- but little money, but then he has four tents before the public.

There is hundred thousand soldiers, some otfi.every reason to believe that the tra- cers, and the fatal power of commitveller sent dispatches to the govern- ting both, to the last man, to be swalment of his country, whether diplo- lowed up in the abyss of war. All matically or secretly emploved, as his engagements, public and private, well as occasional packets to his con- tend to realise and cement the vast fidential friend.

system which is become the ruling The abruptness in the beginning of passion of Catherine 11.-Her genethis letter, and the discernment ma- ral Suworow and her lieutenant-genebitested in the course of it, prove its ral Po:emkin are to be the prosperous author to have possessed a mind of and happy means of obtaining all her some strength and magnitude. head can conceive and her heart can

“ The King of Prussia is about to wish for. This dazzling system the die ; perhaps he is dead at the mo- emperor will never take his eyes ment'I am writing. It is impossible, from, unless they should be turned however, that he can live many days. to an invasion of Poland; a country The same instant his eyes are closed whose productive soil yields immensia new scene begins to open to all Eu- ties of grain for the sustenance of rope! This catastrophe ends a great man, and is not without the seeds of political drama; and as on the stage liberty to give him the erect posture of life there is no interval like the which nature designed for him. The histrionic, a new one more inter: Turk too, against whom the Prince esting, more important will com- de Cobourg is going to be employed, mence. With Frederick will fall the must pay smart money, or the Divan key stone which supports the political will be distracted by new menaces, arch of Europe!! His genius will not Moldavia and Wallachia will not lodge in his successor. It will not be alone satisfy the emperor, who seems found in the territories of Branden- determined to obtain indemnification burg. The Emperor has for some somewhere. Nothing however is time engaged his most skilful state done, nothing is even thought of, in physicians to feel the pulse of the new the courts of the continent, that Eng. king of Prussia, before he ascends the land does not know, does not interest throne. Kings have not only the herself about. Her ambassador at faults and vices common to other men, the Porte is closeted as often with the but they have some which are pecu- grand Vizir as her ministers have conliar to their elevated station; almost ferences with those of Vienna and concomitant with unlimited power. this court. In short, nothing can, The very peccadillos of these person- nothing must be done, without her ages are dreadful to their subjects, concurrence. The diplomatic ascenTheir grand vice is ambition. To in- dancy she has gained in Europe, and dulge it they play a destructive game. I may say in Asia too, is prodigious ; The men they move are not chess- and it ought to alarm the cabinet of men, but their fellow creatures ; and Versailles. But we are sunk in apato obtain their own object, be it great thy. We are flattered by the secuor small, they sacrifice those, some. rity, which extent of dominion offers times without calculation, always us. It appears large, because it is without remorse. In one of these near us: but England acquires tuice terrible contentions, the house of the political strength from her aisAustria lost Silesia, which the treaty tant possessions. Her eastern posof Breslaw gave to that of Branden- sessions, though comparatively new, burg. The mountain of Zotenberg is form another, and the strongest, prop to her greatness. When we speak of personal merit, reasons ill. To talk of this in counsel, the Count de

ihe gratitude of the Americans, is not Dames St. Domingo and the Isle de to talk like a statesman. What do Bourbon as a set off ag.iust those set- our very coffee-house politicians say tlements, and reckous on the regain- of this quixotic adventure! As it caning our footing once more in Hin- not be from affection to the Ameridoostan. Before we can rationally ex- cans, that we send our squadrons with pect tonamePondicherry and theother troops across the Atlantic, it must be settlements on the coast of Coroman- from hatied to the English. Now del among the French possessions, they reason wisely by saying, that the we must have a navy in the condition same force opposed to them in anoof that which batlled Keppel and thier quarter, would have annoyed made Sir Charles Hardy retire into them more! But the most forcible port. Without this, St. Domingo it- point of all, is the conclusion drawn selt is precarious. I know of no from the successful issue of the conoversight so unpardonable in our go- test—that the erample is ominous to vernment, as allowing us to be cir- the French colonies and to France it. cumvented in every court where we sels!! Again, I say that the tale of have an ambassador or envoy. We Europe is ready to undergo a rast do no good by dispatching them to change! When the sceptre drops the native powers in the peninsula of from Frederick's liand, the scales the East. We, in vain, aid those which weigh the power of Europe so chiefs: for unless we could assist nicely at this moment will vacillate, them with troops, (which we cannot till the uncertain libration excites the do with our weakened navy), we bad ambition and hopes of the one half better not arouse them to action. concerned, and ihe anxiety, dread, Their movements will but serve as and ultimate ruin of the other half. pretence to the wily Islanders, to France must rise or fall! She canmake war on them; to subjugate not long remain stationary. There is them; and thereby to strengthen too much distress and discontent the British power still more, where within the realm, to leave it long no sovereign or pabob holds his sway without a shock. The ostentation but by its permission. If the veil which the wealthy display is a conwere removed from the eyes of * ** tinued iusult on ihose who live in *•*, the relative situation of our poverty: the privileges granted to the nation and its rival would be seen in nobility shock the honest and modeall its terrors : while ouir finances are rate; and will determine them (take running into confusion, it not to utter ny word for it), whenever the ferruin, the British funds are rising mentation bursts into a fame, to take from fitty-two to seventy-tour per vengeance without mercy on their cent. Their sinking fund too (Caisse oppressors. The post not coming d'amortissement), ought of itself to from Berlin to the place whence 1 shew us what we have to dread on write this, I suspect the couriers lave the score of that sinew of war, money. been stopped to announce the exWith this, or (which is the same pecied event! but if the Great Frething), their credit enabling them to derick still breathi's, he cannot be borrow with ease, they will always said to reign. There is a mixture of outbid us in purchasing the favour of greatness and weakness in the minds those powers who have troops to dis- of those who will henceforward

What will, what can, have the rule in their hands. Al arouse us from this lethargy? the ready we hear of the house of AusPorte is threatened by Austria and tria baving swayed the Germanic Russia ; and we are incapable of as- sceptre long enough ; and that the sisting her. The ships and force in house of Brandenburg ought pot to men we lent to America would have despair of grasping it. Bint how is enabled the Oltoman governınent to this change to be brought about; unkeep her covetous neighbours by land less some unknoun power rises up, quiet, and have prevented a single and takes side with one against the Russian ship from sailing tirrough the other, till both being weakened, and Dardanells.' La Fayette, with all his the political fabric of the German

pose of.

constitution tottering or thrown to An Account of the Manufactures and the ground, a new order becomes the Produce of Bengal, and the adjacent effect of that change? We are not a Provinces. little surprised that the old one has [From Mr. Colebrooke's Remarks on the stood so long. Now is the time for Husbandry and Internal Commerce of France to employ her most sagacious Bengal ] diplomatists. England knows that Cplemanufacture of India. A rapid which patriotism might point out, she sketch of the various sorts, fabricated has courteously sent her a stud of in different provinces, from the north running horses, and the plain de Sa- of Hindostan to the southern extreblons are to complete the disgrace of mity of the peninsula, will convey the plains of Minden. The Spar- some notion of the various manufac. tans would banish

or tures distributed through the districts any family who should thus institute of Bengal and the adjacent provinces. or encourage amusements and fa- Plain muslins, distinguished by vashions destructive to the liberties of rious names, according to the finetheir country. Capua, with its lux- ness and to the closeness of their texuries and diversions, was the gulf ture, as well as flowered, striped, into which the Romans were near or chequered, muslins, denominated falling, and which actually did swal- from their patterns, are fabricated low up Hannibal and his companions. chiefly in the province of Dak’ha: Nothing but a Lacedemonian spirit The manufacture of the finest sorts can restore our effeminate country- of thin muslin is almost confined to men to their wonted character. They that province; other kinds, wove are as easily to be made valorous as more closely, are fabricated on the voluptuous, but where shall we look western side of the Delta or the for models Not at - (it is Ganges; and a different sort, disa plain the writer means at court); and tinguished by a more rigid texture, if examples rise up elsewhere, they does not seem to be limited to par: will be ominous to all those about ticular districts. Coarse muslins, in the

I have detained my the shape of turbans, handkerchiefs, dispatch till I learned what was the &c. are made in almost every pro cause that I had not letters as usual : vince; and the northern parts of it was not what I suspected. The Benares afford both plain and flow. king still lives; nay, I hear that his ered muslims which are not ill adapta physicians have set him on horseback, ed to common uses, though incapaThey cannot, however, put armour ble of sustaining any. competition on him. They advise him to ride, with the beautitul and inimitable fas with a sword-in his feeble hand. brics of Dak'ha, He has a complication of ails;, but as Under the general appellation of his dropsical part of the distemper calicoes, are included various sorts of gains on his in teebled worn-out con- cloth, to which no English names sutution hourly, his doom is hasten- have been athixed. They are for the ing and certain. No longer is he most part known in Europe by their consulted on business. I therefore Indian denominations. Khásahs are communicate my opinion on the pro- fabricated in that part of Bengal bable effects of this change; and I which is-situated north of the Ganadd, that (if the genius of France is ges, between the Maliánada and Isánot dying also), our country may maté rivers, from Malda to Berbázu. avail itself of this critical juncture to Cloths nearly similar in quality, and raise an influence on the continent, bearing the same name, are made near which may counterbalance the Le- Tanda in the Vizier's dominions. viathan-like preponderance of Great Bastas are manufactured in the southBritain on the oceani !!!"

west corner of Bengal, near Lack'hi(We propose to select a few more púr; and, again on the western fronof these interesting papers for trans. tier of Benares, in the neighbourlation; and Jay them before our hood of Alababad; and also in the readers in the succeeding numbers of province of Bibar, and in some other our work.)

districts. Sanas are the chieffabric of Universal MAG. VOL. VII.

E

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