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Orésa; some are made in the districts very little was imported by sea_or
Packthread is wove into sack cloth
The arts of Europe, on the other hand, have been imitated in India, but without complete success; and some of the more ancient manufactures of the country are analogous to . those which have been now introduced from Europe. We allude to several sorts of cotton cloth. Dimities of various kinds and patterns, and cloths resembling diaper and damask linen, are now made at Dak'la, Patna, Tanda, and many other places.
Cotton is cultivated throughout Bengal. Formerly the produce was early equal to the consumption, and
Several species and numerous varieties of the plant afford this useful production. Some sorts are undoubt
The excessive price which silk bore in Europe, when it could be obtained only through the commerce of India, rendered this the most valuable article of oriental traffic. The silk-worm, long since introduced into Greece, afterwards propagated in Italy, and more lately in France, left. India deprived of its exclusive commerce in silk. Bengal has now recovered a share in the supplying of this production; but unless we are misinformed, the raw silk of Bengal
The commerce of saltpetre is par ticularly interesting on account of the decided superiority of these provinces, which is in nothing more conspicuous than in this production. Common observers have noticed that grounds much trodden by cattle, the walls of
bears in the European market a price and the Dekhin. The cones are somewhat inferior to that of the best large, but sparingly covered with silk. Italian silk. As the filatures of Italy In colour and lustre, too, the silk is have been copied in Bengal, it does far inferior to that of the domesticatnot occur to us that we ought to as- ed insect. But its cheapness renders cribe this inferiority to defective ma- it useful in the fabrication of coarse nufacture. It has been thought that silks. The production of it may be the best silk is not obtained from increased by encouragement, and a worms fed on the sort of mulberry very large quantity may be exported which is commonly cultivated in Ben- in the raw state at a very moderate gal. There is silk obtained from wild rate. It might be used in Europe, for worms, and from those which are fed the preparation of silk goods; and on other plants than mulberry. It is mixed with wool or cotton, might a subject interesting as well as curi- form, as it now does in India, a beauous, since much silk of this kind sup- tiful and acceptable manufacture. plies home consumption, much is imported from the countries situated on the north-east border of Bengal, and on the southern frontier of Benares; much is exported wrought and unwrought, to the western parts of India; and some enters into manufactures, which are said to be greatly inhabited places, and, in short, any in request in Europe. rubbish wherein putrifying animal The neighbourhood of Mursheda- substances abound, do naturally afbad is the chief seat of the manufac- ford nitre, and culinary salt by exture of wove silk; tafeta, both plain posure to the atmospherical air. Artiand flowered, and many other sorts ficial beds are made in India, as in Eufor inland commerce and for exporta- rope, upon these principles, but with tion, are made there more abundant- less trouble than in most other counly than at any other place where silk tries. It is only necessary to collect is wove. Tissues, brocades, and the earth of old walls, or the scrapornamented gauzes are the manufac- ings of roads, cow-pens, and other ture of Benares. Plain gauzes, adapt- places frequented by cattle, and to ed to the uses of the country, are leave mounds of such earth exposed wove in the western and southern to the weather. Both nitre and cucorner of Bengal. linary salt are naturally formed there; and the saltpetre is extracted by filtering water through earth so impregnated with nitre, to dissolve and bring away the salt which it contained. The brine is evaporated by boiling, and when cold affords nitre by crystallization. The salt thus obtained is again dissolved, boiled and scummed; and when it has cooled, after sufficient evaporation, the brine yields the saltpetre of commerce. In the same earth, nitre is reproduced within two years in sufficient quantity to subject the earth to the same process, with equal success; mixing, however, a sufficient quantity of new rubbish, without which the nitre would be neither abundant, nor easily collected.
The manufacture of saltpetre scarce ly passes the eastern limits of Bihar, and it is a practical remark that the production of nitre is greatest during
The weaving of mixed goods, made with silk and cotton, flourishes chiefly at Malda, at Bhagelpur, and at some towns in the province of Berd
Filature silk, which may be considered as in an intermediate state between the infancy of raw produce, and the maturity of manufacture, has been already noticed. A consider able quantity is exported to the Western parts of India; and much is sold at Mirzapur, a principal mart of Benares, and passes thence to the Mahratta dominions, and the centrical parts of Hindostan.
The tesser, or wild silk, is procured in abundance from countries bordering on Bengal, and from some provinces included within its limits. The wild silk worms are there found on several sorts of trees, which are common in the forests of Silhet, Asam,
the prevalence of the hot winds, the importation of it from India, which are essential to its abundant which was shortly afterwards discouformation. tinued by the Portuguese, has only lately been revived.
The exportation of saltpetre to Europe is, at all times chiefly confined to From Benares to Rengpur, from the Company's investment, and their the borders of Aram to those of Catae, annual importations into England, on there is scarcely a district in Bengal, an average of thirteen years, ending or its dependent provinces, wherein in 1792, amounted to 37,913 cwt, the sugar cane does not flourish. It Opium, it is well known, has been thrives most especially in the promonopolized by government. It is vinces of Benares, Bihar, Rengpur, produced in the provinces of Bihar Birbhum, Birbwan, and Mednipur; and Benares, and sold in Calcutta, it is successfully cultivated in all,`and by public sale. The preparation of there seem to be no other bounds to the raw opium is under the imme- the possible production of sugar in diate superintendance of the agent or Bengal, than the limits of the demand of the contractor. It consists in eva- and consequent vend of it. The porating, by exposure to the sun, the growth for home consumption, and watery particles, which are replaced for the inland trade is vast, and it by oil of poppy seed, to prevent the only needs encouragement to equal drying of the resin. The opium is the demand of Europe also. then formed into cakes, and covered It is cheaply produced, and frugally with the petals of the poppy, and manufactured. Raw sugar, prepared when sufficiently dried it is packed in a mode peculiar to India, but anain chests with fragments of the cap- logous to the process of making Mussules from which poppy seeds have covado, costs less than five shillings been thrashed out. sterling per cwt. An equal quantity Tobacco, it is probable, was un- of Muscovado sugar might be made known to India, as well as to Europe, in Bengal at little more than this cost; before the discovery of America. The whereas in the British West Indies, practice of inhaling the smoke of hemp it cannot be afforded for six times leaves and other intoxicating drugs, is that price. So great a disproportion ancient, and for this reason, the use will cease to appear surprising, when of tobacco, when once introduced, the relative circumstances of the two soon became general throughout In- countries shall have been duly weighdia. The plant is now cultivated in ed and impartially considered. Agrievery part of Hindostan, and might culture is here conducted with most be produced in the greatest abund- frugal simplicity. The necessaries of ance to supply the consumption of life are cheaper in India than in any Europe.
The sugar cane, whose very name was scarcely known by the ancient inhabitants of Europe, grew luxuriantly throughout Bengal, in the remotest times. From India it was introduced into Arabia, and thence into Europe and Africa. It is said by some authors to have been indigenous in America; this opinion might, perhaps, be disputed, for historical facts seem to contradict it. Certain it is, that the cane was carried in the year 1506 from the Canaries to St. Domingo, where the first sugar work was soon after erected by an enterprizing Spaniard. The cultivation was pursued with such success in the islands, and on the continent of South America, that the produce soon undersold the sugar of other countries; and
other commercial country, and cheaper in Bengal than in any other province of India. The simplest diet and most scanty clothing suffice to the peasant, and the price of labour is consequently low. Every implement used in tillage is proportionably cheap, and cattle are neither dear to the purchaser, nor expensive to the owner. The preparation of sugar is equally simple and devoid of expence. The manufacturer is unincumbered with costly works. His dwelling is a straw hut; his machinery and utensils consist of a mill, constructed on the simplest plan, and a few earthen pots. In short, he requires little capital, and is fully rewarded with an inconsiderable advance on the first value of the cane.
Sanguine expectations have been
entertained that many articles, which Bengal, as soon as freight is reduced have been already tried upon a small to ten pounds the ton for the voyage seale, might become valuable resources of commerce; and that others which are yet untried, might be introduced with success.
It is thought by persons conversant with the subject, that there would be no exaggeration in estimating the cattle of these provinces, including buffaloes, at fifty millions. If the number did not exceed a tenth of this estimate, the usual casualties might furnish more hides than the probable demand will require. At present the currier often neglects to take the hides of cattle which die a natural death.
Hides might be exported, either raw or in the state which they now come from the tanner and currier, or they might receive a better tanning; but it is presumed, they could not be pickled to advantage, for the high price of salt must operate against that mode of curing them.
Buffaloes' horns might also become an article of export. They would be useful in several manufactures. The first cost of them is very inconsider able, consisting only in paying the labour of collecting them; this is a very trifling addition to the trouble of collecting hides; and the charges of transport would, therefore, constitute nearly the whole cost.
Rice, wheat, and barley might be shipped at Calcutta, for about three shillings and sixpence per cwt. or twenty pence per Winchester bushel; but India is perhaps too distant for timely intelligence of such an enhancement of price, as will open the ports of Great Britain for the importation of corn. The freight would be about four pounds per ton, and the insurance about ten per cent.
It would certainly be advantageous to export starch from Bengal. England receives no small quantity of this article from Poland and other parts of Europe, and much is prepared in Great Britain. In every point of view, it would be desirable, that Great Britain should be supplied with starch from her Asiatic dominions, instead of purchasing it from foreign markets, or instead of using home-made starch. The usual price of starch will permit the importation of it from
In treating of sugars the admission of rum from Bengal was not urged. It has sometimes become necessary to open the British ports to foreign rum; if they were always open to the importation of it from Bengal, as from a part of the British dominions, the cultivation of sugar would doubtless be greatly encouraged by this vent for the spirit, distilled from what is useless at a sugar plantation, if it be not so employed; and whether Bengal be not justly entitled to such encouragement for her productions, deserves serious consideration.
Liquorice is consumed in England more largely than the culture of it in the British islands supplies; annual imports from other parts of Europe furnish the remaining wants of London. The plant, from the root of which it is extracted, is found in Bengal, both wild and cultivated; and inspissated juice might be prepared sufficiently cheap to bear the charges of transport to Europe. Another root which England imports from distant countries, is a native of India, and has been thence transferred to the West Indian islands. This root is ginger, which is cultivated in every part of Bengal, and which can be conveyed to Europe cheap enough to undersell the produce of other countries. But neither of these are objects of great magnitude.
No argument occurs against the probability of annatto, madder, coffee, cocoa, cochineal, and even tea, thriv ing in British India. The plant, from the seeds of which annatto is prepared, by separating the colouring matter which adheres to them is already cultivated in Bengal.
Madder is a native of the mountainous regions which border on Bengal. For several years past it has been annually exported to England, and has fetched half the price of Smyrna and Dutch madder roots. If it were cultivated in India its quality would doubtless be improved by culture, and also by care in drying the roots, and it would better rival the madder of Europe.
Coffee plants have thriven in bota
nical and private gardens throughout merce and navy now pay to Russia.
Bengal. even the plant has been found wild in forests bordering on this province; but the sorts which have been here cultivated were imported from Arabia and from the French islands. Good coffee has been gathered, but in quantities too small for a sufficient trial of it.
Red sanders and Japan wood, imported from other parts of India are used for dunnage in the present trade. Other sorts of colouring or fragrant wood, which are actually found in these provinces, might be applied to the same use. It is already ascertained, that satin wood, and other ornamental sorts from Bengal, have been tried in England, and have been highly approved.
Various drugs, used in dying, are now exported to England, and might be furnished more abundantly if the price of freight were lowered. It may be sufficient to enumerate galls, turmeric, and safflower, or cartha
Gum arabic and many other sorts of gums which are requisite in various English manufactures, and resins, which might be usefully employed, are the produce of trees that grow spontaneously in Bengal.
Tincal, mountains of Thibet, is among the present exports of Bengal; but if we are not misinformed, most of it passes into Holland to be there refined, though the English chemists are now s d to possess the art of refining borax qual to that of the Dutch process.
Vegetable and mineral alkalis may become a considerable object of commerce. The fossil alkali is found in abundance, and the woods of Bengal would furnish pot-ash in great quantities; some is already exported to England, and more would be sent if the freight was more moderate.
The preparation of sal-ammoniac can be connected advantageously with the manufacture of saltpetre, or be separately pursued to a much greater extent than at present. Several other materials, required for British arts and manufactures, might also be prepared in Bengal by a chemical process..
Many dyes and medicinal drugs, as well as aromatic seeds and other grocery, now imported into England from the south of Europe and from the Levant, could be supplied from India. It may suffice to remark that India already furnishes aloes, asafœtida, benzoin, camphor, cardamums, Vegetable oils, which England im- cassia lignea, and cassia buds, arranports from other countries, might be goes, cowries, China root, cinnabar, supplied from these provinces, espe- cloves, cinnamon, nutmegs, mace, cially linseed oil. Flax might, per- elephants' teeth, gums of various haps, be prepared in Bengal, and ri- sorts, mother of pearl, pepper, (quickval the imports from the north of silver and rhubarb, from China) sago, Europe in the British market; hemp senna, and saffron; and might furmay also be prepared from the plant nish anise, coriander, and cummin already cultivated for a different pur- seeds, and many other objects which pose, and relieve Great Britain from it would be tedious to enumerate. the heavy tribute which her com
Memoirs of the Life of Colonel HUTCHINSON, &c. Written by his Widow Lucy, &c. 4to.
Mrs. Hutchinson, in contemplating and even studying, the characters of their husbands, in order to do justice to their merits while living, and to their fame when they are no more!
THE HE times are now passed, in which women "of elevated birth," and of "comprehensive and It is not our design to narrate, after highly cultivated minds," assumed his exemplary and intelligent widow, the honourable and laudable task of the particulars of the life of Colonel recording, for the information and Hutchinson. The following circuminstruction of their descendants, the lives of their illustrious or distinguished relations. Few modern wives, we suspect, employ themselves, like
stance however, as it appears to have given him an early bias towards the profession in which he afterwards excelled, and for which his name has