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Orésa; some are made in the districts very little was imported by sea or of Madnipur, more are imported from brought from inland conntries. But the contiguous dominions of the Mah- the increase of manufactures, or the rattas. A similar cloth, under the same decline of cultivation, has now given denomination, is wrought in the east- rise to a very large importation from ern parts of the province of Benares; the banks of the Jamuna and from garbas are the manufacture of Birb- the Dekhin. It is there raised so hum; still coarser cloths, denomi- much more cheaply than in Bengal, nated gezis and gezinas, are wove in that it supports a successful competialmost every district, but especially tion, notwithstanding the heavy exin the Doab.
pences of distant transport by land Packthread is wove into sack cloth and water ; and undersells cotton of in many places, and especially on the a middle quality in those very pronorthern frontier of Bengal proper; vinces where this article was heretoit is there employed as clothing by fore abundantly produced. A tine the mountaineers. A sort of canvas sort of cotton is still grown in the is made from cotton in the neigh- eastern districts of Bengal, for the bourhood of Patna and of Chetgaon; most delicate manufactures ; and a and flannel, well wove, but ill túlled, coarse kind is gathered, in every part is wrought at Patna and some other of the province, from plants thinly places. Blankets are made every interspersed in fields of pulse and where for common use. A coarse grain. This last kind is almost excotton cloth, dyed red with cheap clusively employed in the coarsest materials, is very generally used ; it manufactures tor home consumption ; is chiefly manufactured in the mid- and the cotton imported through the dle of the Doab. Other sorts, dyed Doab chiefly supplies the looms at of various colours, but especially blue, which better cloths are wove. are prepared for inland commerce, Several species and numerous vaand for exportation by sea. Both fine rieties of the plant afford this useful and coarse calicoes receive a topical production. Some sorts are undoubtlying, with permanent and fugitive edly indigenous in America ; others colours, for common use as well as are certainly natives of India. Whefor exportation. The province of ther exotic or indigenous in Arabia, it Benares, the city of Patna, and the Iras been long known there ; the culneighbourhood of Calcutta, are the ture was thence introduced into the principal seats of this manufacture; Levant; and the produce with its concerning which we cannot omit to Arabic name, Kutn, was conveyed remark that the making of chintz ap- into Europe. But India has in all pears to be an original art in India, times been the country most celelong since invented, and brought to brated for cotton manufactures; and so great a pitch of excellency, that even now, although the skill and inthe ingenuity of artists in Europe has genuiiy of British artizans have been hitherto aduled little improvement, exerted in the improvement of this bat in the superior elegance of the important branch of manufactures, patterns.
the finest muslins of Bengal remain The arts of Europe, on the other still unrivalled by the fabrics of hand, have been imitated in India, Great Britain, but without complete success; and The excessive price which silk some of the more ancient manufac- bore in Europe, when it could be tures of the country are analogous to obtained only through the commerce those which have been now intro- of India, rendered this the most valuduced from Europe. We allude to able article of oriental traffic. The several sorts of cotton cloth. Dimi- silk-worm, long since introduced inúes of various kinds and patterns, and to Greece, afterwards propagated in cloths resembling diaper and damask Italy, and more lately in France, left. linen, are now made at Dak’ha, Pat- India deprived of iis exclusive comua, Tanda, and many other places. merce in silk. Bengal has now re
Cotton is cultivated throughout covered a share in the supplying of Bengal. Formerly the produce was this production; but unless we are scarly equal to the consumption, and misintormed, the raw silk of Bengal
bears in the European market a price and the Dekhin. The cones are somewhat inferior to that of the best large, but sparingly covered with silk. Italian silk. As the filatures of Italy In colour and lustre, too, the silk is have been copied in Bengal, it does far inferior to that of the domesticatnot occur to us that we ought to as- ed insect. But its cheapness renders cribe this inferiority to defective ma- it useful in the fabrication of coarse nufacture. It has been thought that silks. The production of it may be the best silk is not obtained from increased by encouragement, and a worms fed on the sort of mulberry very large quantity may be exported which is commonly cultivated in Ben- in the raw state at a very moderate gal. There is silk obtained from wild rate. It might be used in Europe, for worms, and from those which are fed the preparation of silk goods; and on other plants than mulberry. It is mixed with wool or cotton, might a subject interesting as well as curi- form, as it now does in India, a beauous, since much silk of this kind sup- tiful and acceptable manufacture. plies home consumption, much is imported from the countries situated on the north-east border of Bengal, and on the southern frontier of Benares; much is exported wrought and unwrought, to the western parts of India; and some enters into manufactures, which are said to be greatly inhabited places, and, in short, any in request in Europe. rubbish wherein putrifying animal The neighbourhood of Mursheda- substances abound, do naturally afbad is the chief seat of the manufac- ford nitre, and culinary salt by exture of wove silk; tafeta, both plain posure to the atmospherical air. Artiand flowered, and many other sorts ficial beds are made in India, as in Eufor inland commerce and for exporta- rope, upon these principles, but with tion, are made there more abundant- less trouble than in most other counly than at any other place where silk tries. It is only necessary to collect is wove. Tissues, brocades, and the earth of old walls, or the scrapornamented gauzes are the manufac- ings of roads, cow-pens, and other ture of Benares. Plain gauzes, adapt- places frequented by cattle, and to ed to the uses of the country, are leave mounds of such earth exposed wove in the western and southern to the weather. Both nitre and cucorner of Bengal. linary salt are naturally formed there; and the saltpetre is extracted by filtering water through earth so impregnated with nitre, to dissolve and bring away the salt which it contained. The brine is evaporated by boiling, and when cold affords nitre by crystallization. The salt thus obtained is again dissolved, boiled and scummed; and when it has cooled, after sufficient evaporation, the brine yields the saltpetre of commerce. In the same earth, nitre is reproduced within two years in sufficient quantity to subject the earth to the same process, with equal success; mixing, however, a sufficient quantity of new rubbish, without which the nitre would be neither abundant, nor easily collected.
The commerce of saltpetre is par ticularly interesting on account of the decided superiority of these provinces, which is in nothing more conspicuous than in this production. Common observers have noticed that grounds much trodden by cattle, the walls of
The manufacture of saltpetre scarce ly passes the eastern limits of Bihar, and it is a practical remark that the production of nitre is greatest during
The weaving of mixed goods, made with silk and cotton, flourishes chiefly at Malda, at Bhagelpur, and at some towns in the province of Berd
Filature silk, which may be considered as in an intermediate state between the infancy of raw produce, and the maturity of manufacture, has been already noticed. A consider able quantity is exported to the Western parts of India; and much is sold at Mirzapur, a principal mart of Benares, and passes thence to the Mahratta dominions, and the centrical parts of Hindostan.
The tesser, or wild silk, is procured in abundance from countries bordering on Bengal, and from some provinces included within its limits. The wild silk worms are there found on several sorts of trees, which are common in the forests of Silhet, Asam,
the prevalence of the hot winds, the importation of it from India, which are essential to its abundant which was shortly afterwards discouformation.
tinued by the Portuguese, has only The exportation of salt petre to Eu- lately been revived. rope is, at all times chiefly contined to From Benares to Rengpur, from the Company's investment, and their the borders of Aram to those of Catae, annual importations into England, on there is scarcely a district in Bengal, an average of thirteen years, ending or its dependent provinces, wherein in 1792, amounted to 37,913 cwt, the sugar cane does not flourish. It
Opium, it is well known, has been thrives most especially in the promonopolized by government. It is vinces of Benares, Bihar, Rengpur, produced in the provinces of Bihar Birbhum, Birbwan, and Mednipur; and Benares, and sold in Calcutta, it is successfully cultivated in all, and by public sale. The preparation of there seem to be no other bounds to the raw opium is under the imme- the possible production of sugar in diate superintendance of the agent or Bengal, than the limits of the demand
of the contractor. It consists in eva- and consequent vend of it. The porating, by exposure to the sun, the growth for home consumption, and watery particles, which are replaced for the inland trade is vast, and it by oil of poppy seed, to prevent the only needs eneouragement to equal drying of the resin. The opium is the demand of Europe also. then formed into cakes, and covered It is cheaply produced, and frugally with the petals of the poppy, and manufactured. * Raw sugar, prepared when sufficiently dried it is packed in a mode peculiar to India, but anain chests with fragments of the cap- logous to the process of making Mussules from which poppy seeds have covado, costs less than five shillings been thrashed out.
sterlipg per cwt. An equal quantity Tobacco, it is probable, was un- of Muscovado sugar might be made known to India, as well as to Europe, in Bengal at little more than this cost; before the discovery of America. The whereas in the British West Indies, practice of inhaling the smokeof hemp it cannot be afforded for six times leaves and other intoxicating drugs, is that price. So great a disproportion ancient, and for this reason, the use will cease to appear surprising, when of tobacco, when once introduced, the relative circumstances of the two soon became general throughout In- countries shall have been duly weighdia. The plant is now culiivated in ed and impartially considered. Agrievery part of Hindostan, and might culture is here conducted with most be produced in the greatest abund- frugal simplicity. The necessaries of ance to supply the consumption of life are cheaper in India than in any Europe.
other commercial country, and cheapThe sugar cane, whose very name er in Bengal than in any other pro was scarcely known by the ancient vince of India. The simplest diet and inhabitants of Europe, grew luxu. most scanty clothing suffice to the riantly throughout Bengal, in the re- peasant, and the price of labour iş motest times. From India it was in- consequently low. "Every implement troduced into Arabia, and thence into used in tillage is proportionably cheap, Europe and Africa. It is said by some and cattle are neither dear to the purauthors to have been indigenous in chaser, nor expensive to the owner. America ; this opinion might, per. The preparation of sugar is equally haps, be disputed, for historical facts simple and devoid of expence. seem to contradict it. Certain it is, manufacturer is unincumbered with that the cane was carried in the year costly works. His dwelling is a straw 1506 from the Canaries to St. Do- hut; his machinery and utensils conmingo, where the first sugar work sist of a mill, constructed on the simwas soon after erected by an enter, plest plan, and a few earthen pots. prizing Spaniard. The cultivation In short, he requires little capital, was pursued with such success in the and is fully rewarded with an incon, Islands, and on the continent of South siderable advance on the first value of America, that the produce soon under- the cane. sold the sugar of other countries; and Sanguine expectations haye been
entertained that many articles, which Bengal, as soon as freight is reduced have been already tried upon a small to ten pounds the ton for the voyage seale, might become valuable resources of commerce; and that others which are yet untried, might be introduced with success.
It is thought by persons conversant with the subject, that there would be no exaggeration in estimating the cattle of these provinces, including buffaloes, at fifty millions. If the number did not exceed a tenth of this estimate, the usual casualties might furnish more hides than the probable demand will require. At present the currier often neglects to take the hides of cattle which die a natural death.
Hides might be exported, either raw or in the state which they now come from the tanner and currier, or they might receive a better tanning; but it is presumed, they could not be pickled to advantage, for the high price of salt must operate against that mode of curing them.
Buffaloes' horns might also become an article of export. They would be useful in several manufactures. The first cost of them is very inconsider able, consisting only in paying the labour of collecting them; this is a very trifling addition to the trouble of collecting hides; and the charges of transport would, therefore, constitute nearly the whole cost.
Rice, wheat, and barley might be shipped at Calcutta, for about three shillings and sixpence per cwt. or twenty pence per Winchester bushel; but India is perhaps too distant for timely intelligence of such an enhancement of price, as will open the ports of Great Britain for the importation of corn. The freight would be about four pounds per ton, and the insurance about ten per cent.
It would certainly be advantageous to export starch from Bengal. England receives no small quantity of this article from Poland and other parts of Europe, and much is prepared in Great Britain. In every point of view, it would be desirable, that Great Britain should be supplied with starch from her Asiatic dominions, instead of purchasing it from foreign markets, or instead of using home-made starch. The usual price of starch will permit the importation of it from
In treating of sugars the admission of rum from Bengal was not urged. It has sometimes become necessary to open the British ports to foreign rum; if they were always open to the importation of it from Bengal, as from a part of the British dominions, the cultivation of sugar would doubtless be greatly encouraged by this vent for the spirit, distilled from what is useless at a sugar plantation, if it be not so employed; and whether Bengal be not justly entitled to such encouragement for her productions, deserves serious consideration.
Liquorice is consumed in England more largely than the culture of it in the British islands supplies; annual imports from other parts of Europe furnish the remaining wants of London. The plant, from the root of which it is extracted, is found in Bengal, both wild and cultivated; and inspissated juice might be prepared sufficiently cheap to bear the charges of transport to Europe. Another root which England imports from distant countries, is a native of India, and has been thence transferred to the West Indian islands. This root is ginger, which is cultivated in every part of Bengal, and which can be conveyed to Europe cheap enough to undersell the produce of other countries. But neither of these are objects of great magnitude.
No argument occurs against the probability of annatto, madder, coffee, cocoa, cochineal, and even tea, thriv ing in British India. The plant, from the seeds of which annatto is prepared, by separating the colouring matter which adheres to them is already cultivated in Bengal.
Madder is a native of the mountainous regions which border on Bengal. For several years past it has been annually exported to England, and has fetched half the price of Smyrna and Dutch madder roots. If it were cultivated in India its quality would doubtless be improved by culture, and also by care in drying the roots, and it would better rival the madder of Europe.
Coffee plants have thriven in bota
nical and private gardens throughout merce and navy, now pay to Russia. has been found wild in forests border- tains of Thibet, is among the present ing on this province; but the sorts exports of Bengal; but if we are not which have been here cultivated were misinformed, most of it passes into imported from Arabia and from the Holland to be there refined, though French islands. Good coffee has been the English chemists are now' to gathered, but in quantities too small possess the art of refining borax qual for a sufficient trial of it.
to that of the Dutch process. Red sanders and Japan wood, im- Vegetable and mineral alkalis may ported from other parts of India are become a considerable object of comused for dunnage in the present trade. merce. The fossil alkali is found in Other sorts of colouring or fragrant abundance, and the woods of Bengal wood, which are actually found in these would furnish pot-ash in great quanprovinces, might be applied to the tities; some is already exported to Engsame use. It is already ascertained, land, and more would be sent if the chat satin wood, and other ornamen- freight was more moderate, tal sorts from Bengal, have been tried The preparation of sal-ammoniac in England, and have been highly ap- can be connected advantageously with proved.
the manufacture of saltpetre, or be Various drugs, used in dying, are separately pursued to a much greater now exported to England, and might extent than at present. Several other be furnished more abundantly if the materials, required for British arts and price of freight were lowered. It manufactures, might also be preparivay be sufficient to enumerate galls, ed in Bengal by a chemical process. turmeric, and safflower, or cartha- Many dyes and medicinal drugs, mus.
as well as aromatic seeds and other Gum arabic and many other sorts grocery, now imported into England of gums which are requisite in vari- from the south of Europe and from ous English manufactures, and re- the Levant, could be supplied from sins, which might be usefully em- India. It may suffice to remark that ployed, are the produce of trees that India already furnishes aloes, asafægrow spontaneously in Bengal. tida, benzoin, campbor, cardamums,
Vegetable oils, which England im- cassia lignea, and cassia buds, arranports from other countries, might be goes, cowries, China root, cinnabar, supplied from these provinces, espe- cloves, cinnamon, nutmegs, mace, cially linseed oil. Flax might, per- elephants’, teeth, qums of various haps, be prepared in Bengal, and ri- sorts, mother of pearl, pepper, (quickval the imports from the north of silver and rhubarb, from China) sayo, Europe in the British market; hemp senna, and saffron; and might turmay also be prepared from the plant nish anise, coriander, and cummin already cultivated for a different pur- seeds, and many other objects which pose, and relieve Great Britain from it would be tedious to enumerate. the beavy tribute which her com
CRITICISM. Nemoirs of the Life of Colonel Hut. Mrs. Hutchinson, in contemplating,
CHINSON, &c. Written l'y his Wi- and even studying, the characters of d. Lucij, &c. 4to.
their husbands, in order to do justice Times are now passed, in to their merits while living, and to
they ! birth," and of “comprehensive and It is not our design to narrate, after highly cultivated minds," assumed his exemplary and intelligent widow, the honourable and laudable task of the particulars of the life of Colonel recording, for the information and Hutchinson. The following circuminstruction of their descendants, the stance however, as it appears to have lives of their illustrious or distin- given him an early bias towards the guished relations. Few modern wives, profession in which he afterwards exwe suspect, employ themselves, like celled, and for which his name has