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ODE to RURAL SOLITUDE, upon the Author finding a decrease of his poetical Spirit, occasioned by the bustle and confusion of the town, and other causes.
COME, Solitude! enchant my lay,
Drive giddy tumult far awayDrive hence, to realms of blackest night, The noisy demon from my sight,
And warm my frozen lyre. Alas! the crowd still throngs around, My ears still clank with deaf'ning sound; Sad phrenzy bursts the trembling string, In vain I strike, no echoes ring
To fill my soul with fire.
In vain my Laura charms my heart;
And drives me to despair.
I think of all the great and brave;
A Hawke, a Wolfe, a Marib'rough rise, A Nelson strikes my ravish'd eyes,
And Britain calls my praise.
I muse on woe, and think I hear
New cries, new pangs, new groans arise;
But all I try is vain,
Yet, why attempt, where tumult reigns,
And bliss and music dwell!
There, there, from strife remote, and care,
The blithe and jocund swain,
All, all shall charm the strain.
And quit the city's frowns.
From all the noise of towns.
THE NEW PATENTS.
Mr. EDWARD HEARD'S of London, Chemist; for a Discovery of certain Means of obtaining inflamma. tle Gas from Pit-Coal in such a state, that it may be burned without producing any offensive Smell. Dated June 12, 1806.
manganese, zinc, copper, lead, &c. when mixed with the coals, laid on their surface, or put into separate vessels through which the gas was made to pass, are calculated in a greater or less degree to divest the gas of the cause of the offensive smell; but it is distinctly stated that lime has always been found (if caustic the better) stra
Mr. ROBERT NEWMAN'S of Dartmouth, Ship Builder; for his Improvement in the Form and Construction of Ships.
Dated September 6, 1806. THIS invention, which cannot be
HIS invention is described as follows: The lime is stratified with the coals in the retort stove or tified with coals and exposed to heat, other close vessel, in which they are the most economical and successful placed for operation, or the gas whep process. produced is suffered to pass over lime previously laid in an iron or other tubes, or any other shaped vessel adapted to the purpose, and exposed to heat. After the gas has been conducted into a refrigeratory, and all condensible matter is deposited, it is then suffered to enter the conveying explained in detail without the tubes, and burned in the usual man- plate, consists in, and extends to, the ner. The reason for employing lime following matters, collectively or sefor this purpose, is that, from a series parately taken:-First, an apparatus of analytical experiments, the presence or helm containing two rudders, of sulphur has been detected in a great formed and worked in the direction variety of the coals which are con- of the sides, in lieu of one placed in. sumed in this country; and consider- the centre line of the vessel, by which ing the suffocating offensive smell so bodies of the greatest capacity may perceptible during the combustion be governed, guided, or steered, wore of the gas obtained in the ordinary and stayed with greater certainty, ease, way, to arise from the products of that and safety. Secondly, in a concave combustion, principally the sulphure- or hollow form of side and bottom that ous acid gas which is then generated; will make vessels of a light draught lime is presented in substance to the of water keep a better wind, carry sulphur as it is disengaged by heat more sail, and roll less. Thirdly, in from the coals, and through their mu- an inverted reduction of capacity tual affinity arrests it in its progress, toward the stern, commonly called and forms a sulphuret of lime or the run, by which the resistance is hydro-sulphuret depending on the lessened, without the stability or circumstances of the operation. There power of carrying sail being diminishis reason to conclude that any of the ed by external construction. fixed alkalies or alkaline earths, such as barytes, strontian, and other similar earths, or carbonate of lime, when exposed to a degree of temperature suffcient to drive off the carbonic acid gas, might be substituted for lime; but from economical motives as well as constant success the agency of invention requires al-o the lime has been preferred. it must
WILLIAM CLARKE's of Cerne Albas, Clock-maker; and JOSEPH BUGBY, of Yeovil, Schoolmaster; for Improvements in a Machine for spinning Hemp, Flax, Tow, and Wool. Dated June 19, 1805.
Tplates fully to explain it, the
therefore be clearly understood that machinery is calculated to save the lime in substance or a dry state, the heavy expence of currents of water, fived alkalies or earths possessing erecting spacious buildings, wateralkaline properties, or such metals works, steam-engine, &. and to or their oxyds as possess a sufli- spin hemp, flax, tow, and wool, at ciently strong affinity with sulphur such an easy expense, as to bring it and sulphuretted hydrogen as to an- within the reach of small manufactuswer the end desired, such as iron, rers, and constructed upon such safe
and easy principles, that no length of mixture of colours, on the walls of experience will be necessary to enable apartments of plaster, wood, linen, children to work the same; and the paper, or any composition, without use of water, steam, &c. thereby ren- joint, seam or shade, or the appeardered unnecessary and to occupy so ance of any joint, seam, or shade, little space, that the machines may be throughout the whole room; and is placed in small rooms, out-buildings, performed in the following manner: or other cheap places. To effect the The walls are first prepared for the above purpose it was necessary to get reception of the flock by being purid of the lanier or flyer upon the miced smooth and even, and then spindle used in the old machinery for washed wholly over with streng size spinning hemp and flax, which re- and suffered to dry, a second coat of quires a power in proportion of five size is then put on, stained with the to one, and to suincunt the difficulty colour of which the flock is intended that arises from the want of elasticity to be. A mixture consisting of one in these substances. This want of part of the mastic or composition elasticity in the substance to be ope- mede in the manner after described, rated upon is compensated and pro- and three parts of colour the same as vided for in this machinery; and the lock intended, ground in oil well upon this compensation and provi- boiled together, must then be put on sion, effected by the various means the walls by means of brushes over hereinafter mentioned, the return of the second coat of size, which should the carriage without any assistance be perfectly dry, very smooth, and from the work person, and the traverse for distributing the yarn upon the bobbins or quills, lay the stress of their patent. The most simple mode of compensating the want of elasticity, and which they recommend in preference to the other, is that of having a holder of large wire for every spindle fixed in an arbor or shaft that extends from one end of the carriage to the other. This arbor, or shaft, with the holders, may be considered as an enlarged and improved substitute, for what is called a failer in the moll jennies for spinning cotton.
even; after which the flock is to be thrown on whilst the latter composition or mastic is wet, by means of an apparatus, consisting of a receiving box to hold the flock, with bellows at top and bottom on one side, to force out the flock through a hole in the centre of the opposite side of the box, and also with a machine similar to that used for hair powder (except that the aperture at the small end is open instead of having gauze or wite before it) to be used occasionally, whereby the flock is attached to the walls in every part required, care being taken that it is thrown smooth Mr. RICHARD CLARKE'S of Chelsea, and equal in all parts; when dry it and THOMAS FRICKER, of New bears the appearance of fine cloth, Bond-street, Paperhangers; for a and is equally close, firm, and strong, new Mode of decorating the Walls The mastic or composition above-of apartments, in Imitation of fine mentioned is made in the following Cloth, without Joint, Seam, or manner: to one gallon of linseed oil, Shade, by means of cementing of and one gallon of spirits of turpenFlack on Walls of Plaster, Wood, tine, add one pound of gum-anima; Linen, or Paper.
Dated August 1, 1806.
boil them well together until of the consistency of tar. The flock is composed of the refuse or cuttings of woollen cloth or of cotton cu silk, pref viously dyed the colour desired.
TRANSACTIONS OF LEARNED & ECONOMICAL SOCIETIES. HE first part of the fifth volume of just published, and contains several Communications to the Board of valuable papers. We will tav betore Agriculture, on subjects relative to our Readers a communication from the husbandry and the internal im- the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, provement of the country, has been Bart, on the Cultivation of Spring
Wheat, which we believe will be free culture of spring wheat during found to give much useful informa- the last thirty years. tion on that subject.
Real spring wheat, the Triticum Astivum, or summer wheat of botanists, is a grain too tender to bear the frost of the winter, but as quick in progress from its first shoot to ripeness, as bailey, oats, or any other spring
"Mr. Sers sows spring wheat from the 25th of March, till the first week in May; for a full crop he sows fourteen pecks on an acre, and expects to reap four quarters; if he sows sceds under it which is very generally prac tised, he sows nine pecks, and expects three quarters in return; he "It is well known on all parts of finds it thrive nearly equally well on the continent, and much used in his stiff and his light land; and has France, where it is called Bl de found it, by experience, to be exempt Mars, from the season in which it from the mildew or blight, and free is usually sown; and in some provinces from all damage of the grub or wire Bleds Tremois, from the time it takes worm. between seed time and harvest; in Spanish it is called Trigo de Marzo; in Portuguese Trigo Tremes; and in German Sommer Waitzen; all which names mark distinctly the difference between this and winter
It does not appear from the older books on husbandry, that it was at any former period much cultivated in England, the more modern ones are in general silent on the subject of it; they mention indeed, under the name of spring wheat, every kind of winter wheat, which will ripen when sown after turnips in February. This is probably the reason why the real spring wheat has been so little known, agriculturists in general conceiving themselves to be actually in the habit of sowing spring wheat, when in reality they were substituting winter wheat in its place, have been little inclined to inquire into the properties of the real spring wheat when they had an opportunity of so doing.
"The farmers in South Holland, where Mr. Sers resides, uniformly declare, that they have been many years ago compelled, by frequent attacks of the mildew or blight, to abandon almost entirely the sowing of winter wheat, and that they then substituted spring wheat in its place, and have used it ever since; they believe it to be wholly exempt from the mildew or blight. In the neighbourhood of Horncastle, the land is either light or sandy, or composed chiefly of Norfolk marle, called in that neighbourhood, white clay, Such land, though tolerably productive in barley and seeds, is not to be compared with the rich and fertile tracts of South Holland, and yet the culture of spring wheats has of late years increased, and is now increasing fast, because the millers begin to understand its nature, and cease to undervalue it as they did at first.
"The grain of spring wheat is considerably smaller than that of winter "In the lower parts of Lincoln- wheat; in colour it resembles red shire, where the land is the most valu- lammas so much, that it may be able, and consequently the most sub- mixed with that grain, and this mixject to mildew, spring wheat has been ture will do no injury to the seller, long known, and it is now cultivated as spring wheat weighs heavy; nor to to a great extent. Mr. Sers of Gedney, the buyer, as it yields better at the near Spalding, has lately claimed a mill than from its appearance might premium of the Board, for the largest be expected; Goib. a bushel is about quantity of land sown with spring its usual weight. Mr. Sers' of the wheat in 1805; his quantity is 241 last crop weighed 61lb. and he has acres, and there is no reason to sup- sold some mixed with less than half pose that he added a single acre to his crop on account of the Board's offer. He is a man, who by his skill and talents in agriculture alone, has raised himself to opulence, and possesses a considerable landed estate, for which he is certainly in part indebted to the
of red lammas, at the usual market price of the winter wheat of the last harvest, though the winter wheat was better in quality, and the spring worse than usual.
"In the countries best acquainted with its culture, spring wheat is pre
ferred to all other corn for raising a crop of seeds. This is owing to the small quantity of leaf it bears, less perhaps than any other corn, and to the short duration of the leaf, which fades and falls down almost as soon as it has attained its full size.
wheat will be sown, if the seed can be easily procured.
"Lest the revival of the culture of spring wheat, even under the liberal protection it has received from the Board, may be retarded by this principle, which seems to be inherent in "In cases where red wheat has the nature of mankind, it may be been damaged by the wire worm, a adviseable to state here that in the mischief which seems of late years to neighbourhood of Boston and Spaldhave increased in this Island, spring ing, in Lincolnshire, the cultivation wheat appears to hold out an easy and of it is now fully established, and a simple remedy. In the first week of likely to continue: from either of May, the, ravages of the worm have these places therefore, the seed may somewhat abated; if then the seed of at any future time, as well as at prespring wheat is at that time dibbled, sent, be obtained without difficulty; or only raked with a garden rake into and as there is a water communicathe naked spots left by the worm, tion between these towns, and as though it will not attain the growth Boston is a sea-port, it may always be at/which the worm begins to prey brought to London, or any other upon it, till he has changed his state maritime part of England, at a small for that of a winged beetle, will cer- charge. tainly be ripe as soon as the winter wheat, and may be thrashed out and sold with it; or if it is preferred, may be reaped separately, as the appearance of the ears, which in the Lincolnshire sort have longer beards, or awns than the rivett or cone wheat, will point it out to the reapers in such a manner, that no great error can happen in separating it from the lammas.
"In time when dearth recurs, which will occasionally happen as long as the manufacturing interest insist on keeping the price of corn, in a plentiful harvest, below the actual cost of growing it, speculations on the sowing of spring wheat may be carried so far as to raise the price of seed, till a saving in it becomes a matter of political as well as of economical importance; an experiment is therefore added to shew that spring wheat will succeed as well by dibbling as by broad-cast, made in the spring of 1804.
"In years of scarcity, this wheat offers a resource which may occasionally be of the utmost importance to the community; of this the Board were very sensible in the spring of 1895, when they offered premiums for the increase of its culture, which have had the effect of rendering it much more generally known than otherwise would have been the case. The price of wheat seldom advances much, even in very scarce years, till a considerable portion of the crop has been thrashed out, and the yield of it by this means actually ascertained; but this does not take place till the seed time of winter wheat is wholly over; no speculation therefore, of sowing an increased quantity of that grain,, can be entered into during the first year of a scarcity; but before the end of April, the "By a careful analysis in the wet question of the average yield of the way, conducted by Professor Davy, preceding crop will be generally of the Royal Institution, the followknown, and when it is much below ing results have been obtained from the usual proportion, there can be no different kinds of wheat.doubt that a large quantity of spring
'Mr. William Showler of Revesby, dibbled four pecks and a half of spring wheat on one acre and two roods of middling land which had borne turnips the winter before, and had no extraordinary preparation for this crop; the rows were eight inches asunder; the holes four inches asunder and two inches deep; and two grains were put into each hole.
"The produce from the quantity of 4 pecks of seeds was seven quarters, or 4 quarters, 1 bushel, and 1 peck per acre; a fair crop, and as much at least as could have been expected from 18 or 21 bushels sown broad-cast on the same land.