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When she flies, a vision fair
SONNET, by CLIO RICKMAN..
I muse on woe, and think I hear
HEARD ye, the Postman blow his bel- Its heavy sounds assail my ear;
Heard ye, the news he shouted from
I list, and hear the bursting cry!
New cries, new pangs, new groans arise;
Great news, he roar'd aloud, in this night's Star;
While through each echoing street his
cries were borne.
'Twas not the rise of stocks, or fall of corn, Or notice fresh of desolating war, Which leaves its groaning millions stript, forlorn,
And all the blessings of mankind doth
A Hawke, a Wolfe, a Marib'rough rise,
I think of all the great and brave;
THE NEW PATENTS.
Dated June 12, 1806. HIS invention is described as follows: The lime is stratified with the coals in the retort stove or
ROBERT NEWMAN'S of Dartmouth, Ship Builder; for his Improvement in the Form and Construction of Ships.
Mr. EDWARD HEARD'S of London, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, &c.
Mr. WILLIAM CLARKE'S of Cerne
its invention requires also the plates fully to explain it: the
and easy principles, that no length of mixture of colours, on the walls of experience will be necessary to enable apartments of plaster, wood, linen, children to work the same; and the paper, or any composition, without use of water, steam, &c. thereby ren- joint, seam or shade, or the appeardered unnecessary and to occupy so ance of any joint, seam, or shade, little space, that the machines nav be throughout the whole room; and is placed in small rooms, out-buildings, performed in the following manner: or other cheap places. To efect the The walls are first prepared for the above purpose it was necessary to get reception of the flock by being purid of the lanier or flyer upon the miced smooth and even, and then spindle used in the old machinery for washed wholly over widt strong size spinning hemp and flax, which re- and suffered to dry, a second coat of quires a power in proportion of five size is then put on, stained with the to one, and to surmount the difficulty colour of which the flock is intended that arises from the want of elasticity to be. A mixture consisting of one in these substances. This want of part of the mastic or composition elasticity in the substance to be ope- mede in the manner after described, rated upon is compensated and pro- and three parts of colour the same as vided for in this machinery; and the flock intended, ground in oil well upon this compensation and provi- boiled together, must then be put on sion, effected by the various means the walls by means of brushes over hereinafter mentioned, the return of the second coat of size, which should the carriage without any assistance be perfectly dry, very smooth, and from the work person, and the traverse for distributing the yarn upon the bobbins or quills, lay the stress of their patent. The most simple mode of compensating the want of elasticity, and which they recommend in preference to the other, is that of having a holder of large wire for every spindle fixed in an arbor or shaft that extends from one end of the carriage to the other. This arbor, or shaft, with the holders, may be considered as an enlarged and improved substitute, for what is called a failer in the moll jennies for spinning cotton.
even; after which the flock is to be thrown on whilst the latter composition or mastic is wet, by means of an apparatus, consisting of a receiving box to hold the flock, with bellows at top and bottom on one side, to force out the flock through a hole in the centre of the opposite side of the box, and also with a machine similar to that used for hair powder (except that the aperture at the small end is open instead of having gauze or wite before it) to be used occasionally, whereby the flock is attached to the walls in every part required, care being taken that it is thrown smcoth Mr. RICHARD CLARKE'S of Chelsea, and equal in all parts; when dry it and THOMAS FRICKER, of New bears the appearance of fine cloth, Bond-street, Paperhangers; for a and is equaily close, firm, and strong, new Mode of decorating the Walls The mastic or composition aboveof Apartments, in Imitation of fine mentioned is made in the following Cloth, without Joint, Seam, or manner: to one gallon of linseed oil, Shade, by means of cementing of and one gallon of spirits of turpenFlock on Walls of Plaster, Wood, tine, add one pound of gum-anima; Linen, or Paper. boil them well together until of the consistency of tar. The flock is composed of the refuse or cuttings of woollen cloth or of cotton or silk, previously dyed the colour desired.
Dated August 1, 1806. HIS is amethod of decorating the walls of apartments, in imitation of fine cloth of various colours and
TRANSACTIONS OF LEARNED & ECONOMICAL SOCIETIES. THE first part of the fifth volume of just published, and contains several Agriculture, on subjects relative to our Readers a communication from the husbandry and the internal im- the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, provement of the country, bas been Bart. on the Cultivation of Spring
Wheat, which we believe will be free culture of spring wheat during found to give much useful informa- the last thirty years. tion on that subject.
"Real spring wheat, the Triticum Estivum, or summer wheat of botanists, is a grain too tender to bear the frost of the winter, but as quick in progress from its first shoot to ripeness, as barley, oats, or any other spring
"Mr. Sers sows spring wheat from the 25th of March, till the first week in May; for a full crop he sows fourteen pecks on an acre, and expects to reap four quarters; if he sows sceds under it which is very generally practised, he sows nine pecks, and expects three quarters in return; he
"It is well known on all parts of finds it thrive nearly equally well on the continent, and much used in his stiff and his light land; and has France, where it is called Bl de found it, by experience, to be exempt Mars, from the season in which it from the mildew or blight, and free is usually sown; and in some provinces from all damage of the grub or wire Bleds Tremois, from the time it takes between seed time and harvest; in Spanish it is called Trigo de Marzo; in Portuguese Trigo Tremes; and in German Sommer Waitzen; all which names mark distinctly the difference between this and winter
"The farmers in South Holland, where Mr. Sers resides, uniformly declare, that they have been many years ago compelled, by frequent attacks of the mildew or blight, to abandon almost entirely the sowing of winter wheat, and that they then substituted spring wheat in its place, and have used it ever since; they believe it to be wholly exempt from the mildew or blight. In the neighbourhood of Horncastle, the land is either light or sandy, or composed chiefly of Norfolk marle, called in that neighbourhood, white clay. Such land, though tolerably productive in barley and seeds,
"It does not appear from the older books on husbandry, that it was at any former period much cultivated in England; the more modern ones are in general silent on the subject of it; they mention indeed, under the name of spring wheat, every kind of winter wheat, which will ripen when sown after turnips in February. This is probably the reason why the real is not to be compared with the rich spring wheat has been so little known, and fertile tracts of South Holland, agriculturists in general conceiving and yet the culture of spring wheats themselves to be actually in the ha- has of late years increased, and is now bit of sowing spring wheat, when in increasing fast, because the millers reality they were substituting winter begin to understand its nature, and wheat in its place, have been little in- cease to undervalue it as they did at clined to inquire into the properties first. of the real spring wheat when they had an opportunity of so doing.
"The grain of spring wheat is considerably smaller than that of winter wheat; in colour it resembles red lammas so much, that it may be mixed with that grain, and this mixture will do no injury to the seller, as spring wheat weighs heavy; nor to
In the lower parts of Lincolnshire, where the land is the most valuable, and consequently the most subject to mildew, spring wheat has been long known, and it is now cultivated to a great extent. Mr. Sers of Gedney, the buyer, as it yields better at the near Spalding, has lately claimed a mill than from its appearance might Premium of the Board, for the largest be expected; Goib. a bushel is about quantity of land sown with spring its usual weight. Mr. Sers' of the wheat in 1805; his quantity is 241 last crop weighed 6ilb. and he has acres, and there is no reason to sup- sold some mixed with less than half pose that he added a single acre to his of red lammas, at the usual market crop on account of the Board's offer. price of the winter wheat of the last He is a man, who by his skill and harvest, though the winter wheat was talents in agriculture alone, has raised better in quality, and the spring himself to opulence, and possesses a worse than usual. Considerable lauded estate, for which he is certainly in part indebted to the
"In the countries best acquainted with its culture, spring wheat is pre
wheat will be sown, if the seed can be easily procured.
"Lest the revival of the culture of spring wheat, even under the liberal protection it has received from the Board, may be retarded by this principle, which seems to be inherent in "In cases where red wheat has the nature of mankind, it may be been damaged by the wire worm, a adviseable to state here that in the mischief which seems of late years to neighbourhood of Boston and Spaldhave increased in this Island, spring ing, in Lincolnshire, the cultivation wheat appears to hold out an easy and of it is now fully established, and a simple remedy. In the first week of likely to continue: from either of May, the, ravages of the worm have these places therefore, the seed may somewhat abated; if then the seed of at any future time, as well as at prespring wheat is at that time dibbled, sent, be obtained without difficulty; or only raked with a garden rake into and as there is a water communicathe naked spots left by the worm, tion between these towns, and as though it will not attain the growth Boston is a sea-port, it may always be at/which the worm begins to prey brought to London, or any other upon it, till he has changed his state maritime part of England, at a small for that of a winged beetle, will cer- charge. tainly be ripe as soon as the winter wheat, and may be thrashed out and sold with it; or if it is preferred, may be reaped separately, as the appearance of the ears, which in the Lincolnshire sort have longer beards, or awns than the rivett or cone wheat, will point it out to the reapers in such a manner, that no great error can happen in separating it from the lammas.
"In time when dearth recurs, which will occasionally happen as long as the manufacturing interest insist on keeping the price of corn, in a plentiful harvest, below the actual cost of growing it, speculations on the sowing of spring wheat may be carried so far as to raise the price of seed, till a saving in it becomes a matter of political as well as of economical importance; an experiment is therefore added to shew that spring wheat will succeed as well by dibbling as by broad-cast, made in the spring of 1804.
ferred to all other corn for raising a crop of seeds. This is owing to the small quantity of leaf it hears, less perhaps than any other corn, and to the short duration of the leaf, which fades and falls down almost as soon as it has attained its full size.
"In years of scarcity, this wheat offers a resource which may occasionally be of the utmost importance to the community; of this the Board were very sensible in the spring of 1895, when they offered premiums for the increase of its culture, which have had the effect of rendering it much more generally known than otherwise would have been the case. The price of wheat seldom advances much, even in very scarce years, till 2 considerable portion of the crop has been thrashed out, and the yield of it by this means actually ascertained; but this does not take place till the seed time of winter wheat is wholly over; no speculation therefore, of sowing an increased quantity of that grain,, can be entered into during the first year of a scarcity; but before the end of April, the question of the average yield of the preceding crop will be generally known, and when it is much below the usual proportion, there can be no doubt that a large quantity of spring
Mr. William Showler of Revesby, dibbled four pecks and a half of spring wheat on one acre and two roods of middling land which had borne turnips the winter before, and had no extraordinary preparation for this crop; the rows were eight inches asunder; the holes four inches asunder and two inches deep; and two grains were put into each hole.
"The produce from the quantity of 41 pecks of seeds was seven quarters, or 4 quarters, 1 bushel, and 1 peck per acre; a fair crop, and as much at least as could have been expected from 18 or 21 bushels sown broad-cast on the same land.
"By a careful analysis in the wet way, conducted by Professor Davy, of the Royal Institution, the following results have been obtained from different kinds of wheat.