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Insoluble Gluten Starch
Matter From 100 parts of best Sicilian Wheat
21, Spring Wheat, 1804 •
70 Good English Wheat, 1803
4 Blighted Wheat, 1804
13 52 44 “ From this analysis may fairly be weight of insoluble matter, or bran, deduced, that bread made of the Hour is no more than 2 per cent. when comof spring wheat is more nutritious than pared with good English winter wheat that made of winter wheat; because “ Bread made of spring wheat is raspring wheat contains a larger propor- ther less white than that made of the tion of gluten, or half-animalized mat- better sorts of winter wheat; but it is ter; and also that a miller ought not allowed to be more palatable in Linto deduct from the price of spring colnshire where it is best known. Both wheat more than 2 per cent. on the these qualities are probably owing to money price of winter wheat of the the excess of gluten contained it it." same weight, as the excess of the
J. B. BIOGRAPHY OF REMARKABLE PERSONS. Memoir of the Duke of BRUNSWICK. part of both Austria and France; but
HE princes of Germany being the Duke afterward became reconciled their infancy, the events of their lives The Hereditary Prince, who had are uniformly found to embrace a great served the latter campaigns in the deal of military history, and the Duke troops of his father, signalized himself of Brunswick being descended from in a short time by his conduct and exa long race of ancestors eminently war-traordinary acts of bravery. His first like, he was accordingly brought up exploit was the taking of Hoya, tounder that great general, Prince Fer- wards the end of February 1758. Hava dinand, his uncle, in the science of ing been detached with four battahar, and to whose example and in- lions, some light troops and dragoons, structions he attended with unabating to dislodge the Count de Chabot, then energy.
posted in the neighbourhood of that His father, the Reigning Duke of town, he passed the Weser at Bremen, Brunswick, and the elder brother of with part of his detachment, while the the celebrated Prince Ferdinand, be- rest advanced on the other side of the ing desirous of averting from his domi- river, and the enemy being attacked nions the evils arising from the Con- in front and rear, were in a short time vention of Closterseven, at a time thrown into confusion. In this action, when the French armies were over the bridge over the river being abanrunning Hanover, under Marshal doned, and the force under the Here. Richlien, concluded a treaty with the ditary Prince having made seven hun. contending powers then at war, by vir- dred prisoners, the Count de Chabot, fue of which his troops were to depart with two battalions of French infantry, from the camp of the allies, and his threw himself into the castle, and soon dominions to be considered as neutral. after proposed terms of capitulaHis intentions, however, were frus- tion, which having been agreed to by trated by Prince Ferdinand, who, hay- the Prince, Chabot surrendered. This. ing the command of the army of the first exploit of the young warrior was allies, acting against the troops of heightened by the circumstance of his the king of France, took it upon him not being provided with heavy artilto detain the forces of the Duke of lery to besiege the place, and the eneDrunswick, among which was the my in some force advancing to relieve ile:editarý Prince, as he was then the ('ount. called, notwithstanding the treaty
Having thus signalized himself, he signed by his brother. This circum- marched to attack Minden, which he stance was looked upon by the Belli. invested on the 5th ot' March, and on gerent Powers as a breach of faith, and the 14th the garrison surrendered at ii produced a solemn protest on the discretion. When the French were L'NIVERSAL AG. VOL.VII.
retreating in great disorder towards the but being attacked by the Hereditary Rhine, he was extremely active in the Prince with his accustomed spirit and pursuit of them, and at the battle of resolution, that his troops were totally Crevelt, in which his uncle Prince defeated, with the loss of six pieces of Ferdinand intrusted him with the cannon, and a considerable number of command of the left wing, he evinced killed, wounded, and prisoners. equal ability and courage in that im- The Duke of Wirtemberg having portant station.
taken possession of Fulda, he resolved Prince Ferdinand having determin- to beat up the quarters of that Prince, ed from various circumstances to re- and on the 28th of November marched pass the Rhine, accordingly made the from Marpurg, with a select body of necessary dispositions for forcing the troops to effect his purpose. The night strong pass of Wachendonck, an island following he defeated the volunteers of surrounded by the Niers, of very dif- Nassan, and afterwards marched dificult approach, and situated exactly rectly to Fulda, where the Duke of in his route to the former river. The Wirtemberg was far from expecting enemy having drawn up the bridge, a visit of that nature. The Heredithe Hereditary Prince, to whom this tary Prince having reconnoitred in service had been assigned, rushed into person, took such measures, that the river at the head of his grenadiers, the troops of Wirtemberg, being scatdrove the enemy back at the point of tered in small bodies, would inevitably the bayonet, and cleared the bridge have been cut ott, if they had not liasfor the passage of the grand army then tily retired into the town, where, howadvancing towards Rhinebergen. ever, they found no shelteri The Prince
The scheme of operations for the forced open the gates, and they retired campaign of 1759, being formed be- to the other side of the town, where tween the King of Prussia and Prince four battalions were made prisoners, Ferdinand, several skirmishes took while the Duke himself and the replace early in the year, between the mainder of his forces filed off another contending armies. On the 31st of way. Two pieces of cannon, two pair Dlarch the Hereditary Prince, with a of colours, and all their baggage fell body of Prussian hussars, fell upon the into the hands of the victors. Austrians at Molichstadt, where he At the close of this campaign, the routed a regiment of Hohenzollern cu- Hereditary Prince of Brunswick was riassiers, and a battalion of the troops detached with 15,000 men, tojoin the of Wurtsburg; he, next day, advanced King of Prussia, and had the satisfacwith a body of horse and foot to Mein- tion to fight under the orders of the ungen, where he found a considerablc greatFrederick,at Freyberg in Saxony. magazine, took two battalions prison- In the beginning of the year 1760 he ers, and surprised a third posted atWa- began his march from Cheninity in fungen, after having defeated some Saxony, for Westphalia, where he Austrians, who were marching to its safely arrived, and was detached ia relief.
the month of May, with soine battaAt the battle of Minden, which was lions of grenadiers, and two regiments fought on the first of August, and of English dragoons, and advanced to where the allies, under the command Fulda, where he surprized and took of his uncle, Prince Ferdinand, gain- several parties of the enemy. At his ed a complete victory, he contributed return from this expedition, he was considerably to the eventual success posted on the left of the army, and had resulting from it, by encountering on to oppose the greatest efforts of Marthe same day the Duke of Brissac, in shal de Broglio, at the battle of Corthe neighbourhood of Coveltd, and bach, and though obliged to retreat, having overcome that officer and his he maintained his reputation by redetachment, prevented the Marshal de peated proofs of abilities and valour. Contades from making his retreat, as in this afair he received a slight he proposed doing, by the detiles of wound in his shoulder. Wittlekendthein. The Duke de Bris- Prince Ferdinand being obliged to sac had been advantageously encamp- abandon the strong position of Sached, with his left to the village of Co- senhausen, and evacuate the country veldt, having the Werne in his front, of Hesse, resolved to use his utmost and his right extending to the salt-pits, endcavours to keep his communica.
tion with Westphalia free. He order- invested Wesel on both banks of the ed the Hereditary Prince, on the 29th Rhine. But his measures in this wellof July, to pass the Dimel, and to concerted enterprize were defeated; the turn the left of the enemy, who was place having been provided by the strongly posted at Warburg, while Marquis de Castries with provisions, himself, by a skilful and forced march, ammunition, and troops, and the conadvanced on their front with the main tinued heavy rains, and the consebody of the army. The enemy was quent swelling of the Rhine, impeded, accordingly attacked almost at the and ultimately frustrated all the operasame time both in flank and rear, with tions of the siege. great impetuosity and success, and the The Prince having been informed Marquis of Granby, at the head of the that the Marquis de Castries had English troops, contributed greatly to marched with a strong body of troops, the glory of the day.
set out by forced marches and resolved On the 5th of August, the Heredi- to encounter him, arriving at Rhyntary Prince set out with a detachment berg on the 14th of October, where on an expedition to break up the quar- his light troops were posted. The ters of a body of French forces can- Prince was compelled to abandon this toned at Zirenberg, at a small distance position, notwithstanding all his efforts, from the French camp. He marched commanding in person, and appearwith so much caution and secrecy, and ing in the warmest parts of this short all his measures were so judiciously but bloody action. The enemy posted taken, that the troops were surprized, five battalions and some squadrons at and had no time to assemble in any Rhynberg, marched by the left, and considerable number; but having fired encamped at Clostercamp, near the from the windows, the allied forces convent of Cawpen. burst open the houses and slaughter- The Prince far from being discoued without mercy. The Prince made raged by these two unsuccessful at400 prisoners, including 40 officers, tempts, resolved to carry his project besides 12 pieces of cannon, and the into execution, by surprizing the British troops, who formed a part of French in their camp. For this purthe detachmeut, displayed both great pose he began his march about ten courage and activity.
o'clock in the evening of the 15th of The troops under general Bulow October, after having left four battahaving been beaten by the Count de lions and five squadrons under GeneStainville, near Minden, the Heredi. ral Rook, with instructions to observe tary Prince came to his assistance by Rhynberg, and attack that post, in case forced marches, and obliged the the attenipt on Clostercamp should French general to retire towards succeed. His march was so well conFrankenberg.
certed, that he arrived at the French But while the war was carrying on camp, without being perceived by in this manner by smalb detachments, Fisher's troops and the outposts. He and Prince Ferdinand and Marshal was not 60 paces from the front of Broglio, the commanders in chief of the camp, when an officer of the regithe two contending armies, were prac. ment of Auvergne was stopped, and tising every means to deceive each ordered, with fixed bayonets presented other as to iheir real projects, Prince to his breast, to be silent; but he nobly Ferdinand's design to cut off the com- sacrificed his life to his duty, and exmunication of the Marshal with claimed with all the power of utterFrance, by the Lower Rhine, was ance, Auvergne, here is the enemade known in September by the my." This call was repeated by the Niarch of the Hereditary Prince centinels; the naked soldiers ran to through Westphalia, with 20 batta, aims, and though attacked suddenly lions and as inany squadrons. The with impetuosity by the Prince, the Prince on his march surprised a de- regiments of Auvergne and Alsace tachment of Austrians, under Fisher, fought with so much resolution and a German partisan, crossed the Rhine bravery, that the rest of the army had at Dusseldorft, Rees, and Emmerick, the necessary time to be drawn up in advanced to Cleves, forced its garri- order of battle, in which several regison to surrender prisoners of war, and ments were judiciously poeted. The Prince, whose horse was killed under to the east, he attacked Fritzlar, tried him, after repeated attacks, seeing no to take it by assault; but the spirited prospect of success, thought proper to defence of the garrison obliged him to give orders for a retreat, which was withdraw. After having spread alarms effected without confusion.
in the French army, and harassed it in The next day the enemy attacked his retreat, he was ordered to cover the an advanced body of the allies, posted front of the main army, which was in a wood before Elverick, and ex- occupied in the siege of Cassel, and tending along the Rhine, while ano- the blockade of the other fortresses, ther column of the French army and at the same time to watch the marched through Walach, and took motions, and oppose any sudden atpost among the thickets, at the dis- tempt of Marshal de Broglio. As soon tance of a quarter of a league in the as the general had collected his forces, front of the Prince's army. His posi- he advanced with his whole army tion became every minute more criti- against the Hereditary Prince, who, cal and dangerous; the Rbine being notwithstanding his great exertions, so much swelled by the rains, and the could not prevent a column of 2,000 banks so overflowed, that it was neces- men from being cut off and taken prisary to repair and move the bridge, soners by the French; but he acted which had been thrown over that river with so much spirit and caution in lower down. This work was perform- this arduous retreat, that Prince Fered in the presence of the enemy, and dinand had sufficient time to recal his the Prince passing without molesta- various detachments, and put togetion, proceeded to Bruymen, where he ther his whole army, which safely fixed his head quarters. His crossing evacuated the country of Hesse, and the Rhine under the eye of a victori- retired into the former winter quarous army, and so much superior to ters. him in number, afforded him the After the battle of Fellinghausen, greatest honour.
fought on the 16th of July, the French In the month of November, when armies were disunited the rest of the he was encamped in the neighbour- campaign. The party under the hood of Shermbeck, a body of the Prince de Soubise passed the Lippe, enemy attempted to dislodge him; but and the Hereditary Prince was deby well combined dispositions, he tached with an inferior army to check souted them with the loss of 300 men; his progress: in this he succeeded, after which he marched to join the and by a well concerted attack upon army of the allies, which Prince Fer- the French garrison at Dorsteck, dinand was determined to bring again where ovens had been constructed, into the field.
with the preparations for the siege of While the French were masters of Munster, he put an eftectual stop to the whole territory of Hesse, enjoyed their progress, and compelled the extended winter quarters, abundantly Prince de soubise to retire from the provided with all necessary provisions, Lippe. But the Hereditary Prince and secured by many fortresses, Prince was soon called from this enterprize, Ferdinand had been forced to retire, in order to defend the dominions of about the middle of December, into his father. The Count de Broglio winter quarters, at Uslar and Pader- and Prince Xavier of Saxony, having borne, in a narrow and exhausted taken possession of Wolfenbuttel,and country. Sensible of the inconveni- afterwards invested Brunswick, he ences of his own situation, and of the forced them to evacuate the first place, advantage the enemy had over him, and to abandon their enterprize with he resolved to strike the first blow; such precipitation as to leave their having for this purpose, on the 9th of cannon behind them. February 1761, assembled all his forces In the campaign which took place with the greatest secrecy, he entrusted in 1762, the French army on the the command of the troops on the right Lower thine being entrusted to the to the Hereditary Prince, who pushed Prince of Condé, the hereditary forward with tlie utmost expedition, Prince was posted with a strong deinto the heart of the French quarters; tachment in the bishopric of Munster learing the country of Hesse a little to check his progress. The Marshal d'Etrees and the Prince de Soubise fion; and he became one of the prinhaving been defeated by Prince Fer- cipal generals of that renowned modinand near Grabenstern, called to narch. tbeir assistance the arıny of the Lower A little time after the action which Rhine, the Hereditary Prince followed has been just described, peace was up bis motions with so much alacrity restored between the belligerent naand ability, that possessing bimself of tions, and his Serene Pigtıness rethe heights of Joannlberg, the 31st of turned to his own country to cultiAugust, he prevented the junction of vate the blessings resulting from a the two French armies, and waited state so opposite to war. Being unonly for his artillery to annoy the employed, and intending to settle in army of Condé, stationed in a lower life, he turned his thoughts to maground; but this prince, sensible of trimony, and fixed on the Princess the danger, and convinced that no Augusta, daughter of Frederick, other incans
were left to extricate Prince of Wales, and sister to his himself out of his position but a bold Britannic Majesty: the marriage was and sudden attempt, he ordered a accordingly solemnized on the 12th regiment distinguished for undaunted of January, 1761, and he soon became courage, to march up to the enemy the father of a numerous progeny. without firing, and to drive thein Shortly after his marriage he was with fixed bayonets from the heights. elected a Knight of the most noble It is necessary to observe, that this order of the Garter, an honour conregiment was not formed in column, ferred on few foreign princes. but drawn in a line of battle of five Having become one of the princibattalions, the first being composed pal generals of the great Frederick, of its companies of grenadiers and he in that'quality commanded a body rangers, They marched with quick of the Prussian army in the war in step the length of a mile, on a steep 1778, for the succession in Bavaria, and gradually ascending ground, had to which the Emperor Joseph fondly three discharges of the enemy's ar- aspired. This campaign, which certillery to sustain, by which they lost tain declaimers loudly afiirmed to be more than 500 men and 40 officers, the chef d'eurre of the art, because killed and wounded, without being there was nothing but marches and at all discouraged or relaxing in their counter marches in it, had its merits march; the troops under the Heredi- appreciated by a better judge, Fretary Prince, astonished at such intre- deric himself, who declared it would pidity, gave way after their third dis- have been highly ridiculous if secret charge, in the very moment when the negociations had not at every turn cannon of the assailants had reached retarded the military progress and the summit of the brights. The He- operations. Teditary Prince made every effort to Two years after this event, the rally his troops, and in that attempt Duke of Brunswick died, and the was dangerously wounded and very Hereditary Prince succeeded to the Near being taken prisoner, while his titles and dominions of his father. To cannon and a great number of his the amelioration of the condition of soldiers fell into the hands of the his people he devoted a large portion victors.
of his time, and he was always conThough this affair proved unsuc- sidered as a model for the imitation cessful, yet the firmness, the courage, in the governments of the sovereigns and the resources of the Hereditary on the continent. He acquired, as Prince, together with his free and indeed he merited, the most glorious open disposition, stamped him a hero, of all titles, “ The Father of his on whom contending Europe turned Country.” her eves with looks of complacency On the death of the old king of and regard. Brought up by Prince Prussia, his successor wrote a letter Ferdinand his uncle, and having to the Duke of Brunswick with his studied in the school of Frederick the own hand, in which, after extollins Great, who in his camps, his court, his services, he intimated that he and his writings, incessantly gave him had conferred on him the rank of proofs of his distinguished predilec- Field Marshal.