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A few months after this, in the under the orders of the Duke of year 1787, the Duke of Brunswick Brunswick, who, by a variety of skilwas appointed to the command of a ful and judicious movements, stopped Prussian army, for the express pur- the progress of the French armies. pose of reinstating the Stadtholder. Three times did they attack him on This expedition, so short in point of the Blise, and three times were they duration, so complete in respect to beaten and repulsed with consideraexecution, and so brilliant when con- ble loss. But above all, after the sidered as a scheme conceived and two French armies under Pichegru inatured within the short space of a and Hoche had forced the lines of month, reflected great glory on the Weissemburg, and defeated the general who conducted it; and the Austrian arıny, who in the greatest statesınen and politicians of that day disorder, sought their safety behind considered him as the most skilful the Rbine, having their retreat prowarrior and ablest counsellor, that tected only by the corps of Condé. modern Europe had beheld since the Then it was that the Duke of Brunstime of the Great Frederick.

wick convinced Europe of the high On the breaking out of the French estimation of the pupil and the sol. revolution, when all Europe became diers of Frederick. By wise and bold terrified at the gigantic projects of maneuvres he stopped the French the revolutionary government, tlie armies, saved the Austrians, and Duke of Brunswick was looked up to after having held the French in check, as the only general capable of resisting retired slowly to Mentz, to put his its progress, and the courts of Vienna troops into winter quarters. Of all and Berlin united in the choice the campaigns of the present war on of him as the leader of their armies, the part of the allies against France, now about to contend with that of this was the most wise, and would France. Accordingly in July 1792, alone have sufficed to rank the Duke he prepared to advance from Coblentz of Brunswick among the most skilful with the combined armies under his generals. command, and entering France after He, however, soon after retired from fome successes which were not of long the command of the Prussiau army duration, he was obliged by untoward in disgust, and was replaced by gecvents to retreat in the best mnnner neral Mollendorf, one of the compaan army consuming with disease in nions of his youth. His Serene the plains of Champagne could eifect. Highness immediately returned to Scarcely, however, was the Prussian Brunswick, and, as usual, occupied army out of France, when the Duke, himself without ceasing in the prosnotwithstanding the wretched condi- perity of his own dominions. But he tion it was in the despondency and was addicted to war from habit and disease which prevailed, did every from disposition, and notwithstanding thing necessary for the safety of Ger- he despised the intrigues of the court many; he haste ned to occupy Co. of Berlin, he pined for active employblentz, took Frankfort sword in hand, ment in camps, and at the head of and thus deprived France of the power armies, where he had spent his youth, of uniting the arinies of Dumourier With respect to the disastrous events and Custine.

which have occurred on the continent Having re-established order and since October 1806, it is not our indiscipline, and recruited the Prussian tention to enter into any detail of the armv, the siege of Mentz in 1793 had causes which produced them; the the double advantage of restoring to King of Prussia having determined the troops the high opinion of their on war with France, the Duke of prowess, which the retreat of Cham- Brunswick, who was already at the pagne had somewhat diminished, and head of an army of observation, col

ke Germany secure by the re- lected troops from all parts; and in occupation of its best bulwark. After order to augment his forces, the guards the reduction of this fortress, the left Berlin for the first time nearly kiing of Prussia, who had command- for half a century. He then entered gai his own arıny in person, left it Saxony, and having advanced to its


frontier, began to menace the states of he heard that the royal family was the new confederation of the Rhine. Aed; that nearly all his troops had

Bonaparte having on the 23d of been intercepted in their retreat, and September left Paris, and put himself that the tyrant-conqueror had wiested at the head of his army, advanced by his dominions from him. In this Bamberg, and Chronach to Schleitz, melancholy condition, after having where, on the 8th of October, he was lost his sight in consequence of his present at the first battle fought be- wound, overwhelmed with pain and tween the French and the Prussians, grief, and surrounded with misery, Notwithstanding the disastrous events died this virtuous and gallant prince, which followed, and which in some who, until eclipsed by a more sucmeasure rendered the French masters cessful, though not more able, but of all the future operations, the Duke certainly nut so honourable a race of of Brunswick wished to attack Bona- warriors, was considered as the greatest parte, though Marshal Davoust had commander of his time, and to whom unexpectedly arrived at Nauenberg on at an extremely critical period, all the the 181h of October, and seized on sovereigns of Europe looked to for the magazines of the Prussians, and safety and protection. even obtained possession of their In consequence of the wounds re. pontoons.

ceived in the battle of Jena, on the On the 13th the Duke drew up his 14th of October, the Duke of Brunstroops, supposed to amount to nearly wick breathed his last on November 140,000 men, in battle array, and the the 10th, 1806, in the 71st year of his two hostile armies lay upon their arms age, having been born on the ed of during the night, within half a can. October, 1735. His body was cmdon shot of each other, and by break balrned on the 19th, and on this occaof day prepared for battle. The in- sion it was found that the contutervention of a thick fog, prevented sion in the forehead had proved morthis for some time, but having cleared tal; a messenger was then dispatched up, a dreadful conflict ensued, and to the French camp, requesting that victory finally declared for the French. the corpse of his Serene Highness It is allowed however, by themselves, might be interred in the same grave " that at one moment there was room with those of his ancestors; but posfor doubt,” and it is supposed that the terity can hardly credit the refusal arrival of a body of 10,000 under Mar- of the savage and brutal tyrant who shal Ney decided the fate of the day. now holds in his hands the destinies This confession enables us to judge of the continent of Europe.--His fathat the Prussians were well led on mily were denied even the sorrowful and ably directed; but though this satisfaction of inising the dust of the was certain, yet the result of this ter- departed hero, whose bosom was the rible battle may be considered as depositary of every honourable prinlikely to prove fatal to the Prussian ciple, with that of his forefathers, Monarchy.

and he was then destitute even of a It is generally understood that the place of interment!!! Duke of Brunswick, while recon- His character as a sovereign and a Doitering the enemy at an advanced man was of the most estimable kind: post, with a telescope in his hand, was his father left bis dominions burdened wounded in the face by a grape shot. with immense debts, but notwithstandHe was obliged in a short time after ing, the Duke administered the affairs to be carried off the field in a lit- of his dominions with such skill and ter, in which he was conducted to economy, that in the course of a few the capital of his dominions on the years he liquidated every demand 21st of October. But on the ap- brought against him. M. de Ferouce proach of the enemy, he left his little was his principal minister, and though metropo is for the last time, and re- an ahle man, yet the Duke superintired by easy journies to an obscure tended every department himself, village, near Altona, in Denmark. and took particular care that every There, in a small and inconvenient person in office performed his duty. lodging, attended by his consort, the Ris stibjects, more properly bis peosister of the King of Great Britain, ple, were happy and contented under his government; for in few of the during his father's life time, the Herestates of Europe was liberty so truly ditary Prince; born on the 18th of Feb. enjoyed. Though he was a military 1766, and married Feb. 14, 1790, to man, yet his dominions were govern- Frederica Louisa Wilhelmina, daughed by laws founded on the basis of ter of Prince William of Nassau wisdom, and he wielded the sceptre Orange. with a lenient and merciful hand. 2. Carolina Amelia Elizabeth, PrinThe system under which he acted, cess of Brunswick, born May 17th, being equally just and politic, be- 1708, married April 8th, 1795, to his came productive of the greatest ad- Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, vantages; his people grew rich under by whom she has an only daughter, his wise administration; and his reve- Princess Charlotte Augusta, born Jan. nues encreased according as his peo- 7th, 1796. ple were prosperous.

3. George William Christian, born The children whom he had by the June 7th, 1769. Princess Augusta of England were as 4. Augustus, born Aug. 18th, 1770. follows:

5. Frederick William, born Ocs 1. Charles George Augustus, termed gth, 1771.



IMPROVEMENTS IN ARTS, SCIENCES, AND LITERATURE; With Notices respecting Men of Letters, Artists, and Works

in Hand, 6c. c. GENTLEMAN recently deceased tory of the House of Austria, fron


twelve hundred pounds, to be paid to Rodolph, of Hapsburgh, in the 13th the person who shall write and lay he- century to the death of the late Emfore certain judges to be appointed for peror Leopold the Second, and it that purpose, a treatise, which shall will be illustrated by maps and geneaby them be determined to have most logical tables. merit on the following subject: "The Mr. George Chalmers intends to Evidence that there is a being, all publish in one large volume quarto, powerful, wise, and good, by whom an Historical and Topographical every thing exists: and particularly Account of North Britain, from the to obviate difficulties regarding the most ancient to the present times, wisdom and goodness of the Deity, with a dictionary of places. This and this in the first place, from con- work will be illustrated by maps and siderations independent of written re- plans. velation; and in the second place, A new weekly periodical work, enfrom the revelation of.the Lord Jesus; titled “The Director," the exclusive and from the whole to point out the object of which will be the promoinferences most necessary for, and tion of Science, Literature, and the useful to mankind.” And to the per- Arts, has just commenced. It is

proson who shall write the second best posed to offer information and distreatise, as above, the sum of four cussion on these subjects, and as hundred pounds, after deducting connected with them, to supply a retherefrom the expences of printing gular account of the Lectures at the and binding, or purchasing three Royal Institution, and of the prohundred printed copies of each of ceedings of that and the London and the said treatises. The time allowed British Institutions, and of the Royal for the composition of these treatises Society, Royal Academy, British is till the 1st of Janury, 1814, which Museum, and of the Societies of Inust be sent to Alexander Gallen, Antiquaries and Arts. Esq. of Aberdeen, previously to that A History of the City of Dublin, time.

ecclesiastical, civil, and military, The Rev. W’m. Coxe, lias in the from the earliest accounts to the pre press, in two yoluxues quarto, the flis. sent period, with an Appendix, cuda

taining a view of the several Charac- sians. A History of Persia will be ters, &c. and an Abstract of all the added to this work. Acts of Parliament relative to that Mr. T. E. Ritchie is employed on Cits, is about to be published in one an Account of the Life and Writings volume quarto, by John Warburton, of David Hume, which will appear Esq. and the Rev. James Whitelaw, in one volume octavo.

Dr. Adolphus has in the press, in The Rev. John Wooll will shortly four volumes octavo, The Political publish a second volume of the Bio State of the British Empire, contain- graphical Memoirs of the late Dr. ing a general view of the domestic Joseph Warton, with a selection from and foreign possessions of the crown, his poetical works, and a literary corthe laws, commerce, revenues, of respondence between eminent perfices, and establishinents, military sons, left by him for publication. as well as civil.

The Rev. Dr. Graves, Fellow of An Essay on the Functions of Trinity College, Dublin, has nearly Money and the Principles of Com- completed at press, in two volumes merce, may soon be expected from octavo, a Series of Lectures on the the pen of John Wheatly, Esq. four last books of the Pentateuch,

The Rev. Dr. Clarke, who lately designed to shew the Divine Original presented the Statue of Ceres to the of the Mosaic Law, chiefly from inUniversity of Cambridge, will shortly ternal evidence. publish in a quarto volume, Travels Mr. W. Wood, has in the press, through Russia, the Territories of the in three volumes octavo,

The Don Cossacks, Kuban Tartary, the Beauties of Nature displayed, in Crimea, &c. This work will be em- select descriptions from the anibellished with numerous engravings. mal, vegetable, and mineral king

The second volume of the Rev.J. doms. This work will be illustrated S. Clarke's Progress of Maritime by numerous plates. Discovery, illustrated by charts under The Rev. W. Magee, Professor of the direction of Mr. Arrowsmith, Mathematics in the University of and other engravings, may be expect- Dublin, has in the press a new Intered to make its appearance in a short pretation of the Prophecy of the

Weeks of Daniel, accompanied by. Dr. Buchanan has in the press, and critical Dissertations; together with will shortly publish in three volumes an appendix enumerating the difquarto, with a map and several en- ferent schemes that have hitherto gravings, a Journey through the been proposed for its solution. Countries of Mysore, Cannare, and

Dr. Davis of Shefheld has in conMalabar, performed under the orders siderable forwardness, an abridgeof the Marquis Wellesley, for the ment, which will be shortly commitied Express purpose of investigating the to the press, of that part of Professor state of agriculture, arts, and com- Pinel's celebrated work on Philosomerce, the religion, manners, and phical Nosography, which treats of customs, the history, natural and febrile diseases. civil, and antiquities, in the domi- The seventh volume of the Asiatic nions of the Rajah of Mysore, and Annual Register; or, a View of the the countries acquired by the East History, Politics, Commerce, and India Company in the laie and for-' Literature of Asia, for the year 1805, iner wars, from Tippoo Sultan. This will shortly make its appearance. work will appear under the authority A new edition of the Rev. Dr. Vinand patronage of the Directors of the cent's Voyage of Nearchus and the East India Company.

Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, under Mr. Edward Scott Waring is en- the title of The Commerce and Navigaged on a work, to be published in gation of the Antients in the Indian one quarto volume, entitled a Tour Ocean, may soon expected, in two to sheeraz, by the route of Kazroon volumes quarto, with several maps. and Feroozabad, with various re- The Rev. Dr. Gregory has undermarks on the manners, customs, laws, taken to be the editor of a new edition language, and literature of the Per. of the Holy Scriptures, which will UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.



contain the various readings of all the contains a descriptive Account of editions and English Translations of Malmsbury Abbey Church, Wiltshire; the Old and New Testament; a Refer- an account of Colchester Castle, ence to parallel and corresponding Essex; and some account of a cu. Passages, as in Canne's Bible; and a rious Door-way to South Ockendon Series of explanatory Notes, in the Church, Essex: the whole illustrated manner of those annexed to the Vari- with seven engravings. With the orum editions of the Classics. This next part the author intends to comedition will be illustrated with nearly plete the first volume of this work one hundred Copperplates, engraved with a copious index, &c. and eight after the most admired productions or nine engravings. On the wrapper of the greatest Masters of the various of the present part he has given Schools of Painting.

a Nomenclature of ancient ArchiA new edition of Mitford's History tecture, which is certainly a desideof Greece, in four volumes quarto, ratum in this branch of literature. revised and considerably augmented The gold and silver medals offered in the three' volumes before publish- by Dr. Wm. Turton, for the best ed, may be expected soon to make its poetical effusions to the memory of appearance. The fourth volume will Lord Nelson, have been adjudged to be composed entirely of new matter. two compositions. The first is the

Dr. Gillies will shortly publish production of Mr. Raleigh Trevelyan in two quarto volumes, The His- of St. John's College, Cambridge; tory of the World, from the reign of and the second, of Mr. Mainwaring Alexander to that of Augustus, com- of Brombow-hall, Cheshire: These prehending the latter ages of Greece, compositions, together with some and the History of the Greek King- other fine pieces in the Latin and doms in Asia and Africa, from their English languages, will be published foundation to their destruction; with in the course of the ensuing spring. a preliminary Survey of Alexander's Mr. Accum's Spring Course of Eastern Conquests, and an Estimate Lectures on Chemistry and Mineof his Plans for their consolidation ralogy commence in the beginning of and improvement.

February In the Press, and will be published The Rev. Edward Nares will shortly early in February, The Pleasures of publish an Answer to the Sermon Human Life: - Investigated cheer- lately preached at Danbury, by the fully; elucidated satirically; promul. Rev. Francis Stone, Rector of Cold gated explicitly; and discussed phi- Norton. losophically, in a Dozen Dissertations The publication of a Hebrew Bible, on Male, Female, and Neuter Plea- printed with a literal and interlineary

Interspersed with various English Translation is intended to Anecdotes, and elucidated by numer- commence immediately in numbers. ous Notes, historical, biographical, The more wealthy of the Jews in critical, and explanatory. This work England are mentioned as having is announced as an Antidote to “ the liberally subscribed to this underMiseries of Human Life;" and is said taking. to abound with satirical, ironical, and

Miss Anna Maria Porter is engaged humourous remarks on various popu- on a new Novel, entitled the Hunlar subjects.

garian Brothers. A new Translation from the last A new edition of Captain WilParis edition of Voltaire's History liamson's Wild Sports of India may and Campaigns of Charles XII. King be shortly expected in octavo. of Sweden, has lately made its ap- The fourth volume of Malcom's pearance.

Londinum Redivivum will be pubA new edition of the Letters of lished early in the spring. Abelard and Heloise, with a particu- Mr. Weld has nearly ready for publar account of their lives and misfor- lication, the Topography of the lake tunes; with poems by Pope, Madan, of Killarney, illustrated by some exBirch, Seymour, &c. is in the press. quisite engravings.

Britton's Architectural Antiquities, Mr. Cumberland and Sir James part vii. has recently appeared, and Bland Burgess have written in con


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