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A few months after this, in the under the orders of the Duke of year 1787, the Duke of Brunswick Brunswick, who, by a variety of skilwas appointed to the command of a ful and judicious movements, stopped Prussian army, for the express pur- the progress of the French armies. pose of reinstating the Stadtholder. Three times did they attack him on This expedition, so short in point of the Blise, and three times were they duration, so complete in respect to beaten and repulsed with consideraexecution, and so brilliant when con- ble loss. But above all, after the sidered as a scheme conceived and two French armies under Pichegru Inatured within the short space of a and Hoche had forced the lines of month, reflected great glory on the Weissemburg, and defeated the general who conducted it; and the Austrian army, who in the greatest statesmen and politicians of that day disorder, sought their safety behind considered him as the most skilful the Rhine, having their retreat prowarrior and ablest counsellor, that tected only by the corps of Condé. modern Europe had beheld since the Then it was that the Duke of Brunstime of the Great Frederick. wick convinced Europe of the high estimation of the pupil and the soldiers of Frederick. By wise and bold manoeuvres he stopped the French armies, saved the Austrians, and after having held the French in check, retired slowly to Mentz, to put his troops into winter quarters. Of all

On the breaking out of the French revolution, when all Europe became terrified at the gigantic projects of the revolutionary government, the Duke of Brunswick was looked up to as the only general capable of resisting its progress, and the courts of Vienna and Berlin united in the choice the campaigns of the present war on of him as the leader of their armies, the part of the allies against France, now about to contend with that of this was the most wise, and would France. Accordingly in July 1792, alone have sufficed to rank the Duke he prepared to advance from Coblentz of Brunswick among the most skilful with the combined armies under his generals. command, and entering France after come successes which were not of long duration, he was obliged by untoward events to retreat in the best mnnner an army consuming with disease in the plains of Champagne could effect. Scarcely, however, was the Prussian army out of France, when the Duke, notwithstanding the wretched condition it was in, the despondency and disease which prevailed, did every thing necessary for the safety of Germany; he hastened to occupy Coblentz, took Frankfort sword in hand, and thus deprived France of the power of uniting the armies of Dumourier and Custine.

He, however, soon after retired from the command of the Prussian army in disgust, and was replaced by general Mollendorf, one of the companions of his youth. His Serene Highness immediately returned to Brunswick, and, as usual, occupied himself without ceasing in the prosperity of his own dominions. But he was addicted to war from habit and from disposition, and notwithstanding he despised the intrigues of the court of Berlin, he pined for active employment in camps, and at the head of armies, where he had spent his youth.

With respect to the disastrous events which have occurred on the continent since October 1806, it is not our intention to enter into any detail of the causes which produced them; the King of Prussia having determined on war with France, the Duke of Brunswick, who was already at the head of an army of observation, collected troops from all parts; and in order to augment his forces, the guards left Berlin for the first time nearly for half a century. He then entered Saxony, and having advanced to its

Having re-established order and discipline, and recruited the Prussian army, the siege of Mentz in 1793 had the double advantage of restoring to the troops the high opinion of their prowess, which the retreat of Champagne had somewhat diminished, and to make Germany secure by the reoccupation of its best bulwark. After the reduction of this fortress, the King of Prussia, who had commandhis own army in person, left it

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frontier, began to menace the states of he heard that the royal family was the new confederation of the Rhine. fled; that nearly all his troops had Bonaparte having on the 23d of been intercepted in their retreat, and September left Paris, and put himself that the tyrant-conqueror had wrested at the head of his army, advanced by his dominions from him. In this Bamberg, and Chronach to Schleitz, melancholy condition, after having where, on the 8th of October, he was lost his sight in consequence of his present at the first battle fought be- wound, overwhelmed with pain and tween the French and the Prussians. grief, and surrounded with misery, Notwithstanding the disastrous events died this virtuous and gallant prince, which followed, and which in some who, until eclipsed by a more sucmeasure rendered the French masters cessful, though not more able, but of all the future operations, the Duke certainly not so honourable a race of of Brunswick wished to attack Bona- warriors, was considered as the greatest parte, though Marshal Davoust had commander of his time, and to whom unexpectedly arrived at Nauenberg on at an extremely critical period, all the the 19th of October, and seized on sovereigns of Europe looked to for the magazines of the Prussians, and safety and protection. even obtained possession of their pontoons.

In consequence of the wounds received in the battle of Jena, on the 14th of October, the Duke of Brunswick breathed his last on November the 10th, 1806, in the 71st year of his age, having been born on the 2d of October, 1735. His body was cmbalmed on the 12th, and on this occasion it was found that the contu

On the 13th the Duke drew up his troops, supposed to amount to nearly 140,000 men, in battle array, and the two hostile armies lay upon their arms during the night, within half a cannon shot of each other, and by break of day prepared for battle. The intervention of a thick fog, prevented sion in the forehead had proved morthis for some time, but having cleared tal; a messenger was then dispatched up, a dreadful conflict ensued, and to the French camp, requesting that victory finally declared for the French. the corpse of his Serene Highness It is allowed however, by themselves, might be interred in the same grave "that at one moment there was room with those of his ancestors; but posfor doubt," and it is supposed that the terity can hardly credit the refusal arrival of a body of 10,000 under Mar- of the savage and brutal tyrant who shal Ney decided the fate of the day. now holds in his hands the destinies This confession enables us to judge of the continent of Europe.-His fathat the Prussians were well led on mily were denied even the sorrowful and ably directed; but though this satisfaction of mixing the dust of the was certain, yet the result of this ter- departed hero, whose bosom was the rible battle may be considered as depositary of every honourable prinlikely to prove fatal to the Prussian ciple, with that of his forefathers, Monarchy. and he was then destitute even of a place of interment ! ! !

It is generally understood that the Duke of Brunswick, while reconnoitering the enemy at an advanced post, with a telescope in his hand, was wounded in the face by a grape shot. He was obliged in a short time after to be carried off the field in a litter, in which he was conducted to the capital of his dominions on the 21st of October. But on the approach of the enemy, he left his little metropolis for the last time, and retired by easy journies to an obscure tended every department himself, village, near Altona, in Denmark. and took particular care that every There, in a small and inconvenient person in office performed his duty. lodging, attended by his consort, the His subjects, more properly his peosister of the King of Great Britain, ple, were happy and contented under

His character as a sovereign and a man was of the most estimable kind: his father left his dominions burdened with immense debts, but notwithstanding, the Duke administered the affairs of his dominions with such skill and economy, that in the course of a few years he liquidated every demand brought against him. M. de Ferouce was his principal minister, and though an able man, yet the Duke superin

his government; for in few of the during his father's life time, the Herestates of Europe was liberty so truly ditary Prince; born on the 18th of Feb. enjoyed. Though he was a military 1766, and married Feb. 14, 1790, to man, yet his dominions were govern- Frederica Louisa Wilhelmina, daughed by laws founded on the basis of ter of Prince William of Nassau wisdom, and he wielded the sceptre Orange. with a lenient and merciful hand. The system under which he acted, being equally just and politic, became productive of the greatest advantages; his people grew rich under his wise administration; and his revenues encreased according as his people were prosperous.

The children whom he had by the Princess Augusta of England were as follows:

2. Carolina Amelia Elizabeth, Princess of Brunswick, born May 17th, 1768, married April 8th, 1795, to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, by whom she has an only daughter, Princess Charlotte Augusta, born Jan. 7th, 1796.

3. George William Christian, born June 7th, 1769.

4. Augustus, born Aug. 18th, 1770. 5. Frederick William, born Oct

1. Charles George Augustus, termed 9th, 1771.



IMPROVEMENTS IN ARTS, SCIENCES, AND LITERATURE; With Notices respecting Men of Letters, Artists, and Works in Hand, &c. &c.

GENTLEMAN recently deceased tory of the House of Austria, from

A a

Rodolph, of Hapsburgh, in the 13th century to the death of the late Emperor Leopold the Second, and it will be illustrated by maps and genealogical tables.

Mr. George Chalmers intends to publish in one large volume quarto, an Historical and Topographical Account of North Britain, from the most ancient to the present times, with a dictionary of places. This work will be illustrated by maps and

twelve hundred pounds, to be paid to the person who shall write and lay before certain judges to be appointed for that purpose, a treatise, which shall by them be determined to have most merit on the following subject: "The Evidence that there is a being, all powerful, wise, and good, by whom every thing exists: and particularly to obviate difficulties regarding the wisdom and goodness of the Deity, and this in the first place, from considerations independent of written re- plans. velation; and in the second place, A new weekly periodical work, enfrom the revelation of the Lord Jesus; titled "The Director," the exclusive and from the whole to point out the object of which will be the promoinferences most necessary for, and tion of Science, Literature, and the useful to mankind." And to the per- Arts, has just commenced. It is proson who shall write the second best posed to offer information and distreatise, as above, the sum of four cussion on these subjects, and as hundred pounds, after deducting connected with them, to supply a retherefrom the expences of printing gular account of the Lectures at the and binding, or purchasing three Royal Institution, and of the prohundred printed copies of each of ceedings of that and the London and the said treatises. The time allowed British Institutions, and of the Royal for the composition of these treatises Society, Royal Academy, British is till the 1st of Janury, 1814, which Museum, and of the Societies of must be sent to Alexander Gallen, Antiquaries and Arts. Esq. of Aberdeen, previously to that time.

The Rev. Wm. Coxe, has in the press, in two volumes quarto, the His

A History of the City of Dublin, ecclesiastical, civil, and military, from the earliest accounts to the pre sent period, with an Appendix, con

taining a view of the several Characters, &c. and an Abstract of all the Acts of Parliament relative to that City, is about to be published in one volume quarto, by John Warburton, Esq. and the Rev. James Whitelaw. Mr. Adolphus has in the press, in four volumes octavo, The Political State of the British Empire, containing a general view of the domestic and foreign possessions of the crown, the laws, commerce, revenues, of fices, and establishments, military as well as civil.

An Essay on the Functions of Money and the Principles of Commerce, may soon be expected from the pen of John Wheatly, Esq.

The Rev. Dr. Clarke, who lately presented the Statue of Ceres to the University of Cambridge, will shortly publish in a quarto volume, Travels through Russia, the Territories of the Don Cossacks, Kuban Tartary, the Crimea, &c. This work will be embellished with numerous engravings. The second volume of the Rev. J. S. Clarke's Progress of Maritime Discovery, illustrated by charts under the direction of Mr. Arrowsmith, and other engravings, may be expected to make its appearance in a short time.

Dr. Buchanan has in the press, and will shortly publish in three volumes quarto, with a map and several engravings, a Journey through the Countries of Mysore, Cannare, and Malabar, performed under the orders of the Marquis Wellesley, for the express purpose of investigating the state of agriculture, arts, and commerce, the religion, manners, and customs, the history, natural and civil, and antiquities, in the dominions of the Rajah of Mysore, and the countries acquired by the East India Company in the late and former wars, from Tippoo Sultan. This work will appear under the authority and patronage of the Directors of the East India Company.

sians. A History of Persia will be added to this work.

Mr. T. E. Ritchie is employed on an Account of the Life and Writings of David Hume, which will appear in one volume octavo.

Mr. Edward Scott Waring is engaged on a work, to be published in one quarto volume, entitled a Tour to Sheeraz, by the route of Kazroon and Feroozabad, with various remarks on the manners, customs, laws, language, and literature of the PerUNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VII.

The Rev. John Wooll will shortly publish a second volume of the Biographical Memoirs of the late Dr. Joseph Warton, with a selection from his poetical works, and a literary correspondence between eminent per-. sons, left by him for publication.

The Rev. Dr. Graves, Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, has nearly completed at press, in two volumes octavo, a Series of Lectures on the four last books of the Pentateuch, designed to shew the Divine Original of the Mosaic Law, chiefly from internal evidence.

Mr. W. Wood, has in the press,


three volumes octavo, The Beauties of Nature displayed, in select descriptions from the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. This work will be illustrated by numerous plates.

The Rev. W. Magee, Professor of Mathematics in the University of Dublin, has in the press a new Interpretation of the Prophecy of the Weeks of Daniel, accompanied by critical Dissertations; together with an appendix enumerating the different schemes that have hitherto been proposed for its solution.

Dr. Davis of Sheffield has in considerable forwardness, an abridgement, which will be shortly committed to the press, of that part of Professor Pinel's celebrated work on Philosophical Nosography, which treats of febrile diseases.

The seventh volume of the Asiatic Annual Register; or, a View of the History, Politics, Commerce, and Literature of Asia, for the year 1805, will shortly make its appearance.

A new edition of the Rev. Dr. Vincent's Voyage of Nearchus and the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, under the title of The Commerce and Navigation of the Antients in the Indian Ocean, may soon be expected, in two volumes quarto, with several maps.

The Rev. Dr..Gregory has undertaken to be the editor of a new edition of the Holy Scriptures, which will


contain the various readings of all the contains a descriptive Account of editions and English Translations of Malmsbury Abbey Church, Wiltshire; the Old and New Testament; a Refer- an account of Colchester Castle, ence to parallel and corresponding Essex; and some account of a cuPassages, as in Canne's Bible; and a rious Door-way to South Ockendon Series of explanatory Notes, in the Church, Essex: the whole illustrated manner of those annexed to the Vari- with seven engravings. With the orum editions of the Classics. This next part the author intends to comedition will be illustrated with nearly plete the first volume of this work one hundred Copperplates, engraved with a copious index, &c. and eight after the most admired productions or nine engravings. On the wrapper of the greatest Masters of the various of the present part he has given Schools of Painting. a Nomenclature of ancient Architecture, which is certainly a desideratum in this branch of literature.

A new edition of Mitford's History of Greece, in four volumes quarto, revised and considerably augmented The gold and silver medals offered in the three volumes before publish- by Dr. Wm. Turton, for the best ed, may be expected soon to make its poetical effusions to the memory of appearance. The fourth volume will Lord Nelson, have been adjudged to be composed entirely of new matter. two compositions. The first is the Dr. Gillies will shortly publish production of Mr. Raleigh Trevelyan in two quarto volumes, The His- of St. John's College, Cambridge; tory of the World, from the reign of and the second, of Mr. Mainwaring Alexander to that of Augustus, com- of Brombow-hall, Cheshire! These prehending the latter ages of Greece, compositions, together with some and the History of the Greek King- other fine pieces in the Latin and doms in Asia and Africa, from their English languages, will be published foundation to their destruction; with in the course of the ensuing spring. a preliminary Survey of Alexander's Eastern Conquests, and an Estimate of his Plans for their consolidation and improvement.


Mr. Accum's Spring Course of Lectures on Chemistry and Mineralogy commence in the beginning of February.

In the Press, and will be published The Rev. Edward Nares will shortly early in February, The Pleasures of publish an Answer to the Sermon Human Life:-Investigated cheer- lately preached at Danbury, by the fully; elucidated satirically; promul- Rev. Francis Stone, Rector of Cold gated explicitly; and discussed phi- Norton. losophically, in a Dozen Dissertations The publication of a Hebrew Bible, on Male, Female, and Neuter Plea- printed with a literal and interlineary Interspersed with various English Translation is intended to Anecdotes, and elucidated by numer- commence immediately in numbers. ous Notes, historical, biographical, The more wealthy of the Jews in critical, and explanatory. This work England are mentioned as having is announced as an Antidote to "the liberally subscribed to this underMiseries of Human Life;" and is said taking. to abound with satirical, ironical, and humourous remarks on various popular subjects.

A new Translation from the last Paris edition of Voltaire's History and Campaigns of Charles XII. King of Sweden, has lately made its ap


A new edition of the Letters of Abelard and Heloise, with a particular account of their lives and misfortunes; with poems by Pope, Madan, Birch, Seymour, &c. is in the press.

Britton's Architectural Antiquities, part vii. has recently appeared, and

Miss Anna Maria Porter is engaged on a new Novel, entitled the Hungarian Brothers.

A new edition of Captain Williamson's Wild Sports of India may be shortly expected in octavo.

The fourth volume of Malcom's Londinum Redivivum will be published early in the spring.

Mr. Weld has nearly ready for publication, the Topography of the Lake of Killarney, illustrated by some exquisite engravings.

Mr. Cumberland and Sir James Bland Burgess have written in con

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