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from the question of benefitting who did justice to the beneficence of Prussia, has a rea-on for marching his disposition, but who could point a great body of its troops to the out no acts of heroism or mignanineizhbourhood of Warsaw. His mity which deserved a glorious remajesty has trusted too much in the membrance. His father left behind power of his own troops, let biin him coffers full of money, and two not be fatally and finally deceived by hundred and fitiy thousand well distoo unb sunded a reliance on those of ciplined soldiers, bearing the charachis ally. We shall be anxious to ter of the first troops in Europe. have an opportunity of commending When the present king ascended the his prudence in refusing the prot- throne, the expences of the war, the fered armistice and eventual peace malady of his father, his profusion, from his powerful toe. Does he de- and his mistresses, had so exliausted rive spirits from the reported malady the royal treasury, that he was thinning the ranks of the enemy? Is obliged to commence his reign by nethe desiruction among the French gociating a loan at Frankiort. It soldiers as general and as rapid as the may be recollected that the late king the havoc made in his father's army was a disciple of the illuminati, by when in Champagne? He cannot whom he was amused with deceitbe ignorant of ihe tracks which the ful promises of recovering health, till conscripts of France are every day within a few hours of his decease. making from all parts of their empire The ancestors of the present fato the capital of Prussia. But what- mily were of Swabian origin, being ever may be left unseen at this time, counts of Zollern or Hohenzollern. in Frederic William's book of tate, They became Burgraves of Nuremmust shortly be exposed to the eye burg, and in that quality cowerted of Europe, and then mankind will be a delegated power into a sovereignty, better enabled to sum up his charac- as many other princes have done. ter, and to judge whether from his In 1248 the Burgrave Frederick II. resembling the last king of Navarre obtained possessions in Franconia, he is only worthy to be the last which afterwards became the princiking of Prussia; or like some of those palities of Anspach and Bareuith. great minds which acquire strength The Burgrave Frederick V. in 1415, and wisdom through adversity, he having amassed vast wealth, purrises from his fall with a renewed chased of the Eniperor Sigismund rigour or resolution that at first as the margraviate of Brandenburg, and tonishes and at last overcomes his this obtained him the electoral digadversary. But it is time we said nity. The Elector Albert (surnamed something of the birth and ancestry Achilles) ordered by will in 1173, of his Prussian Majesty, and of the that the margraviate of Brandenburg, elevation of the house of Branden- with all its dependencies, should be burg.

the indivisible inneritance of the first Frederick William III. is the born; and treachery some time grandson of Frederick II. commonly after obtained new aggrandizements called the Great Frederick, who for this bouse, by the deceit practised died in the year 1786. Frederick on the Knights of the Teutonic Order William II, father of his present ma- and Templars; by which a succeedjesty, died on the 19th November, ing margrave, who had been appoint1797. The tirst of these two mo- ed for their security grand master, narchs lived to a good old age by robbed them of East Prussia, as they avoiding all manner of intempe- had been before of the New Mark rance, though of a convivial or social by his predecessor. The Margrave disposition. He was of a literary Sigismund, who married the only turn, but had endured great hard- daughter of Duke Albert, obtained ships in the field. Frederick Wil- the government and investiture of liam II. had made several campaigns, Prussia in lớil, and in 1618 he but his infirmities were the conse- united it to the electorate. quence of excess of pleasures, and a Soon after, by the extinction of the dropsy terminated his life, to the right line of the dukes, tae Elector of regret of his family, and a few friends Brandenburg succeeded to the dutchy

UNTERSAL MAG. VOL. VII. B

of Cleves, as well as the counties of and the district of Netze, a country Mark and Ravensburg. In 1640 then almost lying waste, but since Frederick William, who was called better cultivated, and deriving great the Great Elector, asceuded the importance, 25 opening a communi throne surrounded by ensanguin- cation between ancient Prussia, and ed ruins, the work of his weak Pomerania, and Brandenburg. The predecessor; but afier bringing an possessions of Frederick when he died, inauspicious war to a succcessful con- comprized 10,000 square leagues, clusion, he obtained by the peace of 5,800,000 subjects, 2,500, 00 of Westphalia the Bishopricks of Min- which he had acquired himself. His den, Halberstadt, and C.:min, wil revenue was above 5,000,0001. sterother possessions. This prince had ling. His treasury at his death conabout two millions of subjects, from tained upwards of 8.000,000 in whom, according to authentic docil- specie, and in his pay he had a chosen ments, he received the annual sum of army of two hundred and sixteen 1,533 745 crowns. The wars of thousand wen! Louis XIV. drew Frederick William Prussia, by the second and third into inany combats, thereby afford- partition of Poland, has been anging him an opportunity of acquiring mented by two new provinces, called the reputation of being a great gene South Prussia and New Wesi Prussia; ral. Frederick I. a fortunate, but which by the last enumeration were vain prince, crowned himself king found to contain together more than of Prussia, on the 18th January 1701, 1,500,000 inhabitants and successively obtained the acknow- Frederick William II. acquired ledgement of this new dignity by all two millions and a halı of subjects, the courts of Europe except the but he died without respect, without Holy See. He encreased his sove- glory, and from the cases we have reignty by the principality of Neuf- before mentioned, less rich, and less chatel and the countries of Julenberg powerful, than his predecessor. and Hohenstein.

His present majesty obtained very King Frederick William I. aug. valuable acquisitions for Prussia while mented his army to 100,000, and she continued in amity with France, with these and the battle of Pultowa, for although the latter power pre. he obtained the wished-for opportu- vailed on him to cede the duchy of nity of driving the Swedes almost en- Cleves and its dependencies, 'she retirely out of Germany; and the peace ceived in the way of indemnity or of 1720, with the sum of 2,000,000 exchange, the bishoprick of Paderof crowns, secured to him the pos- bern, Hildesheim, and Muster, part session of Hither Pomerania, the of the territories of Erfurt and fortress of Stettin, and the islands of Eichsfeldt, besides six abbeys and Usedom and Wollin, important pos- three small imperial cities; thus obsessions, as rendering Prussia master taining 513,000 inhabitants in lieu of of one of the mouths of the Oder, 133,000 which she had ceded; all thereby opening the Baltic sea to her this was effected in spite of the re

This king left to his monstrances of Austria, and all the successor 2,700,000 subjects, a re- princes of the Empire. venue of 1,250,000l. sterling, and an The Prussian dominions in 1805 army of 76,000 men.

extended 155:6 square leagues, and Frederick II. commenced his reign the population amounted to 4,0-10,000 in a manner to alarm the house of persons. Four millions are given to Austria with the apprehensions of a Prussia, two millions to Silesia, uprival. His war in Silesia gained him wards of two millions to the Electhat rich province, which after the torate, Pomerania, Magdeburg, &c. havock made in it, contained nearly The remaining million and a half 1,200,000 inhabitants, but which åt are in the small provinces in Westhis death had 1,5 82,000, and now ph:lia. Franconia, and Lower Saxony. contains by the last census 2,048,000. In the exchange which recently

He acquired without force the port took place between Prussia and of Embden in East Friezeland, and France the former gained considerain 1772 he also seized without taking bly, not altogether from the intrina sword in bis hand, West Prussia, sic value of the places given her in

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exchange for Neufchatel, Anspach, been the persons who in rapid sucEssen, and Werden, &c. but more cession have been placed at the head particulariy by their position, since of the government of France since they connecteil together the mass of the year 1792, the unvariable and the othei Prussii:n possessions in ruling character of it has been an Germany, giving to Prussia the con- insatiable ambition.

That power mand of the Eibe and Weer, the na- alone, which knows in secret what tural channels of her commerce and passeth in the heart of man, can disthat of the contiguous states.

cover whether there was any sincerity With these facts and circumstances in Bonaparte's wishes for peace. before us, we canuot but feel a de- This warrior may say, that if at any gree of surprise at the conduct of one period since he has ascended the The court of Berlin. The Prussian throne he had reposed on his arms, a possessions perpetually augmenting coalition would ever have been ready in extent and value; with au increas- to disturb that repose ; and conseing intiuence in the Diet, and a pro- quently that he has been fighting for portional diminution of power in the his own preservation.

te would rival of his majesty, we think there add probably, that in every new conmust be some private cause for com- test someihing bas fallen out of his niitting all this io hazard, which has adversaries haud into his own. Whenot yet been guessed at.

ther there would be or not, less truth For the entering upon this mo- than speciousness in this kind of dementous war against a power which fence,' it cannot but be lamented Prussia had contributed to exalt at that the advice of a great statesman, one time, and neglected to abase at now no more, was neglected, which another, when equally in its power, was, to leave France to herself, and his majesty gives the following pub- not niake her familiar with her own lic reasons in his proclamation, dated strength. at Erfurt, 2d Cei. last. The first is, The memorials of kings are often that the political state of France has but an artful display of words, with been the scourge of humanity for the a very small portion of sound logic. last fifteen years. This abstractedly This of the king of Prussia is of the considered, would be a strong reason above description, and perhaps none for arming against such a govern- has ever been penned that so little ment. It would be more than a interested its reader; for it speaks of chivalrous, it would be at once a the violations committed on Holland boble and a humane reason in the and Switzerland, and of the injuries king for calling his forces into the done the kings of Sardinia and field to check the overbearing sway Naples, as if his Prussian Majesty of so daring and insulting an adven- had ardently essayed to prevent such turer. But with what grace, with wrongs, and had not stood silently what consistency does the mouth of by to witness them. With respect Frederick William III, other such a to the condition of Portugal, it is not reason? If that king has uniformly amongst the least remarkable pasconsidered the proceedings of the sages in this late declaration, that French government in so detestable bis Majesty enumerates its dependa light, why has he observed so ent and precarious state as one anong mysterious, and at times so unexpect- the other grievances laid to the charge ed a neutrality; when it was in his of France'; since it is well known power at more than one critical mo- that this power had paid for what the ment, to have strengthened the arm king properly enough calls a decritraised for the purpose of breaking ful security, before the arrival of the scourge? The Abbé Syeyes any one of the last French ministers could offer a secret proof of the un- at Berlin, whom his Majesty received seasonableness of this reproach of the so graciously. It is truly aifecting to king of Prussia against the French hear Frederick William say, when government; and that it would bet- we consider by whose hands he has ter become any other crowned head fallen, that Prussia was the first in Europe. His majesty, however, power to acknowledge Napoleon as rightly adds, that whoever may lave Emperor, and that during six years

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she acted as a friendly neighbour, our polished neighbours never more But it was certainly being too civil by resembled tigers than at the moment half, to one neighbour, to allow him they were anxious to establish an into commit an injustice upon another stitute of scavans. and nearer neighbour; and this was Of the political conduct of the the case in suffering the French to King of Prussia, since the new distake possession of Hanover. The putes in Europe, it is impossible manner in which it was afterwards that any impartial man can speak disposed of, implicates his Majesty in with praise.' His Majesty has rethis unjust proceeding; for assured solved, he has retracted, he has we must be, that but for an existing wavered, and from this indecision he understanding between the Emperor has fallen without maintaining that of France and King of Prussia, the character which consoles greatness in former durst not have committed this distress. The instances of bad faith violence and insult on the whole in princes throughout this memorable body of the Electors of the Empire, declaration cannot but shock every exhausted as their head or chief might upright mind The criminations and be, after the late arduous and unfor- recriminations which it contains, altunate struggle. Sensible of the most make the reader exclaim, weakness of this part of his pleading, plague on both your houses." There and the little title it has to public is one passage we cannot forbear to opinion or approbation, the King is transcribe: it refers to the treaty conobliged to say, in this instance he cluded in Paris with the Russian countenanced an act of injustice, envoy, Mons. d'Oubril. It is as foltherefore was it his view to remedy lows: “ By the treaty which the it. Prussia, continues the declara- Emperor of Russia has refused to tion, "offered herself for it instead ratity, France offered, in conjunction of England, and the condition on with Russia, to prerent Prussia from which the latter should cede it.” depriving the King of Sweden of his This cannot but remind a reflecting German territories-Yet, for many reader of the familiar phrase, to run months the cabinet of St. Cloud bad with the hare and hunt with the continually pressed the King to seize hounds.

those states with the threefold view: That kings should partake of the First, to revenge himself on the frailties incident to all mankind, is King of Sweden: secondly, to enino more than may be expected; but broil Prussia with all other powers; that the education of a prince should and thirdly, to purchase hier silence not teach him to avoid those faults with respect to the subversion of and disgraces which private persons Southern Germany. But the King are careful to shun, is a subject to had long been aware that such were be deeply regretted. The moral the views of France, and his unfortu-character of man suffers materially nate dispute with Sweden was painfrom these odious examples in the ful to him. He bad, therefore, been great: a principle of selfishness seems careful to provide against every sus. io prevail in all classes throughout picion of self-interested motives, and Europe. Society, while it is said to he confided his explanations to the receive a still higher polisii, suffers Emperor Alexander-- The scene now great deterioration. Its very lustre again changed, and Napoleon, who serves but to dazzle and deceive. If had so long been the enemy of the Rousseau were again alive, he would King of Sweden, was suddenly transmaintain anew, and perhaps with formed into his protector." more energy, the principle upon Such is the little regard paid to the which he obtained the prize at dictates of probity by crownid heads, Dijon. He would say, refinement whether of the new or ancient order! bas done its best : that polished so. Such duplicity in an English merciety has made man more social and chant towards a correspondent would less valuable. Ovid has said, Inge- unquestionably shut him out from nuas didicisse fideliter artes, emollit the Royal Exchange. But it is pro

We wish we might safely bable that while bis Majesty of Prusand truly add, nec sinit esse firos: but sia bas incensed his powerful foe, by

more's.

thus exposing his deceit and wicked selves, even when on the eve of a cunning, he has not pleased any one war, &c. &c." of his brother kings by holding the The King of Prussia observes that picture up to the view of the world. It troops being marched from the inmay furnish to Republicans a topic terior of France towards the Rliine, whereon to argue against monarchy. cleared away the last doubt, as to the Nor is the language such as we haie design of Bonaparte to attack his been accustoined to see used from one kingdom. The King, however, orsovereign to another, though it were ders a note to be transmitted by Geneintended to convey the deepest charges, ral Knoblesdortt, containing the conthe strongest threats. Horace, in his ditions ou which he was ready to come Georgics, bas been said to hrow about to an accommodation. These were, his very dung with grace, and kings ist, That the French troops should have hitherto abused one another in immediately evacuate Germany. 2d, pulished language. The declaration That France would oppose no obstasays, " The king determined to con. cle to the formation of the northern tinue the part he had acted for some confederacy; and that the confede. time longer; wishing to preserve his racy might embrace all the larger and force, now more than ever necessary smaller states, not included in ihe funto Europe, and at least to secure the damental act of the confederation of tranquillity of the North, confirmed the Rhine. 3d, That a negotiation the new treaty. Contidence, howe should immediately be commenced, ever, was now utterly lost. Prussia for the adjustment of all disterences was convinced that on the first oppor. still in dispute ; a preliminary article tunity to weaken her without danger, of which should be the restoration of she might expect an attack from lier the three abbeys, and the separation pretended ally, convinced that there of the town of Wesel from the French is a degree of ambition which nothing empire. can satisfy, which proceeds without The conditions (the declaration says) intermission, from usurpation to usur- speak for themselves, the term fixed pation; sometimes without a plan, for the decision elapsed without any but ever intent on destruction, care- notice from the cabinet of St. Cloud, less of the choice of means, and em- and the king contided his cause to ploying alike arms or the pen, via- arms. lence and oaths ;” and again, bis Ma- If the maxim were true that “ Heajesty's declaration asks, Does any ven fights on the side of the just," one wish to know what was the line then would Prussia have much cause by which it was hoped to gain the for self reproach ; for a more decisive éíector o: Hesse, and what was the batile, and one more fraught with augmentation of territory, with which mischief to a state or empire, was he was flattered ? It was the Prince never won or lost, than that which of Orange, the brother-in-law of the took place on the 14th of October last, king, that Prince who had been twice between the armies of the King an i deceived in the most shameless man- those of the Emperor of France. The Der, who was now to be rolled the Prussians call it the battle of Jena: But third time.”

the French distinguished it at first by The king of Prussia, even while the name of duerstadt, becanse it was penning the declaration, was not in- the place that the French centre, unsensible to the duty which custom in- der the Emperor Napoleon, made the poses upon sovereigns, to adopt a lan- attack. It is not without remark, that guage becoming their rank in the the Prussians and French designated heat of their quarrels; for he says, the bloody conflict of this day by differ“ Another conirast of conduct incen- ent names; for with great proprieiy, it set the king to the utmost. He re- might beconsidered in two distinct balceived a letter from the Emperor full tles. That of Aurstadt commenced at of those assurances of esteem, which, six in the morning, the other at Jell certainly when they do not accord began half an hour later. The space with fácts are to be considered as between the two fields of battle is nothing, but which the dignity of more than twelve miles, and both sovereigns renders a duty on them- terminated completely in favour of

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