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VIII. The Minister of War and Marine is charged with the execution of this Decree.
MARTIN RODRIGUEZ, FRANCISCO DE LA CRUZ.
Minister of War and Marine.
(10.)-Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State. SIR,
Buenos Ayres, 8th October, 1821. The detention of the Vessel, by which I had prepared to send the foregoing Dispatch, furnishes an opportunity to communicate a trans. lation of the promised Decree, for suppressing Privateering. It has not yet been published here, but will undoubtedly appear in the first Official Register, which will perhaps be printed to-morrow or the next day. I hope that the terms of it will prove satisfactory to the Government of The United States. Although the right is reserved of resorting again to this kind of Warfare, yet I hope that the restrictions under which it will be renewed will be more efficient, to guard against those abuses which have heretofore been so justly and extensively complained of.
By the Schooner Essex, to sail to-morrow for Providence, I shall have the honour to transmit Duplicates, together with Judge Prevost's Dispatch, mentioned in the foregoing.
I am, &c. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
JOHN M. FORBES.
11th October, 1821. P. S. By this Vessel, the Essex, via Providence, I send Judge Prevost's Dispatch, and a large file of newspapers. The Decree against Privateering was published yesterday in the Registro Official. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
J. M. F.
(11.)-Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State. (Extract.)
Buenos Ayres, 26th October, 1821. I HAVE previously reported the total destruction of the Parties of Ramirez and Carrera, together with the death of those Chiefs, the barbarous mutilation of their bodies, &c. By these events the influence of this Province over the others is much increased, and by the wise course of the present Administration, the moral force of a sound and exemplary political deportment will be added to the success of their arms, and I hope that the day is not far distant, when all the jarring jealousies which have hitherto so perniciously counteracted the progress of Civil Liberty will be put to silence, and the wise Men of every Section of this Country, will be brought to a cordial co-operation to attain the high objects of their political destiny. But much, very much, remains to be done before the general union of the great Sections of this almost boundless Country, in any one system of Government, can be effected.
In the mean time Rivadavia and Garcia, firm, as they are enlightened and patriotic, are pursuing “the even tenor of their way." They have added publick credit to the other sinews of War which this Province before possessed, by repaying with great punctuality, in gold, several Loans, (a thing without example in the history of this Revolution ;) they enjoy now to.so great a degree the confidence of the Community, that I . believe they could borrow, to any reasonable amount, for an immediate exigency. It is said, also, that an entirely new system of Finance is agreed on, and will appear in a few days. By this Tariff, as it has been represented to me, the duties, with a very few exceptions, will be ad valorem, and will vary from 5 to 15 per cent. Every possible measure is taken to prevent Smuggling, and publick opinion and morality are cherished by the Government. If, therefore, Buenos Ayres, in all the darkness of her most gloomy period, publick sentiment paralyzed by deadly dissensions, and publick resources completely dilapidated, has been able to struggle successfully against the machinations of the other Provinces, it is not too rash to expect that, when she fights with a two fold armament of reason and force, seconded by a vigorous publick credit, the victory must eventually be her's. The most deplorable result, however, of these continued agitations, is the necessity of continuing an onerous Military Establishment.
The most alarming state of agitation prevails in the neighbouring Kingdom of Brazil. It was some days since confidently reported, on . the authority of Captain McLean, of the British Government Brig Beaver, in 6 days from Rio to Monte Video, that Prince Don Pedro, was to have been crowned King of Brazil, on the 13th of the present month. Subsequent accounts contradict this fact, and it is now no longer believed. It is, however, well known that the publick mind there, is in a most feverish state, and should Civil War burst forth, it would be the signal of the emancipation of a numberless horde of Slaves, and the most horrid scenes of blood and devastation would overwhelm that Kingdom, and eventually threaten these Provinces where it would find easy victims in the scanty white population here. The progress of this all-destroying flame could only be arrested by the Indians, and in such a conflict, this delightful Country would be totally lost to Civilization. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
JOHN M. FORBES.
(12.)-Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State. (Extract.)
Buenos Ayres, 8th November, 1821. Since my last respects, we have received news from Lima and Chili, by which it appears that the Royalist Army, which had evacuated Lima on 6th July, under La Serna, had returned on the 22d August under command of Canterac;-La Serna remaining sick at Jauja: the strength of the returning Army was between 3 and 4,000 Men; the official accounts say, that they avoided an engagement with San Martin, but I have seen several private Letters, and one from a Citizen of The United States, who was 2 days in San Martin's Camp, in view of the Royalist Troops, and who states that San Martin's Force was much superior, and extremely anxious to give battle; but that San Martin retired, and permitted the unmolested march of the Royalists into Callao. The motive of such a proceeding is generally deemed strange and incomprehensible; but it occurs to me, that San Martin, being sure of eventually forcing the Garrison of Callao, augmented as it is, to a Capitulation, prefers to continue his influence by protracting the military conflict, until the civil organization of this new-born Republick shall be completed, rather than to put down the remnant of Royal Troops, and leave the Country to the agonies of conflicting Factions; or, in a few words, to make himself at his own choice, King, Dictator, or Director; he has at present taken the Head of the Civil and Military Power with the title of Protector. All accounts agree in the enthusiasm for Independence prevailing in Lima. On the late return of the Royalist Troops, it became necessary to imprison 1,200 old Spaniards, as 'tis said, to preserve them from the popular fury. I have conversed on these events, with several Gentlemen well acquainted with Peru and Lima, and particularly with a sensible Friar, a native, and until recently resident at Lima, who agrees in the general opinion, that the return of Troops to Callao is a most fortunate event, inasmuch as it places the termination of the War in the hands of San Martin; whereas, had La Serna kept the Country, and increased his Forces, he night have continued the War for a very long time. I send inclosed a Bulletin issued on the subject, by which you will be able to see and appreciate events in their detail.
of this Province I have only to say, that there are still active, but occult efforts making to overturn the present Administration, and bring the Puyrredon Party into power. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
JOHN M. FORBES.
(13.)-Mr. Forbes to the Secretary of State. (Extract)
Buenos Ayres, 13th November, 1821. Since my last, we have the important news of the surrender of Callao. I send inclosed the Bulletin published here, by which you will see the particulars of the Capitulation. Private Letters state that Canterac's Army was inuch harassed on its retreat, and were still pursued. It is said that 800 of his Army had joined that of San Martin. It was thought that there would not remain 500 Men to join La Serna. I have seen a Private Letter which states that when the Report reached Lima of Canterac's approach, funds to the amount of 5 or 600,000 dollars were embarked on board the Ships at L’Ancon. Lord Coch
rane had been for some time making every exertion to procure money to pay off the Crews of his Ships, but without effect.
On hearing that this amount was on board the different Transports, he repaired to Ancon with the OʻHiggins and Esmeralda, and forcibly took possession of the whole sum, in defiance of the strong representations of the General, and immediately paid the arrearage due to his Men. Report says, that he has not dared to put his foot on shore since he took this violent measure.
16th November, 1821. The “Registro Official” No. 13, published yesterday, contains the Resolution of the Honourable Junta on the subject of general Amnesty, and oblivion of political acts and opinions, together with a Decree of the Governor, by which all those who have been exiled under the Special Powers vested in the Executive by the Decree of 6th October, 1820, and all who have voluntarily absented themselves to avoid the evils of political agitation, may forthwith return without Passports: only 9 Persons are excepted from this Amnesty, and they are not named.
It is said that an Officer has arrived here, sent by the Governor of Tucuman, charged to solicit military aid to deliver that Province and its vicinity of the presence of the Royalist Troops, and at the same time to declare a perfect coincidence of opinion with that put forth by this Government on the subject of the Confederation. Every thing continues to go on well here. Inclosed I send a printed Paper, entitled “ Dictamen de un Arribeno,” (which means Citizen of the Interior Provinces.) It goes to maintain the inexpediency of a Confederation at present, which is the ground taken by this Province. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
JOHN M. FORBES.
(14.)-Mr. Prevost to the Secretary of State. (Extract.)
St. Jago de Chili, 30th June, 1821. In my last, I mentioned the departure of Lord Cochrane from Huacho, with 600 Troops, for the purpose of landing them somewhere to the southward of the Capital, so as to intercept the supplies from that Quarter. It is now ascertained, that his Lordship has directed this Force to a different point, with objects distinct from those contemplated by the General. After proceeding to Pisco and pillaging that Place, he went to Arica, where there was a considerable quantity of merchandise in deposite for the market of Lima, took possession of the Town at the point of the bayonet, and as much of the moveable property as he could grasp. It is the third or fourth time, different Sections of the Coast have been thus distressed, by a mode of warfare injurious to the Cause, always at variance with that strictly enjoined and as rigidly adhered to by the General. In addition to which, he has lately committed outrages upon the British Flag, by impressing Sea
men, and by detaining the Vessels from which they were taken, in order to use them as Transports. These acts, of course, are disavowed by the Government, but it has given rise to a Correspondence which threatened a serious result. Among other subjects, that of the Blockade was introduced; the one insisting upon its nullity in toto, if contemplated to embrace any portion of the Coast not covered by an actual Force, the other denying the consequence, and maintaining the sufficiency of the Force. Although this Government might have sustained the position assumed, by recurring to British practice, yet, in their situation, it was peither prudent or justifiable to assume any equivocal grounds, particularly on such a subject; and I thought it proper, therefore, to present a Note to the Secretary of State, asking the truth of the case, and stating specifically the principle to be recognized. No. I is a Copy of mine, and No. 2, of that of the Director, written in our language and in his own hand writing. I had hoped to have forwarded the Orders referred to in the Correspondence, but the delays are such here in all the Publick Offices, that I cannot avail myself of this opportunity; it is not now, however, important, except for the greater satisfaction of the President, inasmuch as an Order has been issued in conformity with his Note, and conveyed to Sir Thomas Hardy, who acquiesced in its propriety. There have been upwards of a dozen English Merchantmen under Capture, some of which have already been condemned.
Nothing has reached us from the Army later than the 4th of May, when San Martin had resumed his former Station at Ancon, within a few leagues of the Capital. It is feared here, that the absence of Lord Cochrane on the expedition I have already referred to, may retard the views of the General, is not wholly defeat the object of his approach. Bolivar has sent a considerable Force to Guayaquil, 700 of which have already landed at the place, from whence they are to march for the Congress of Quito. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.
J. B. PREVOST.
(Inclosure 1.)- Mr. Prevost to Mr. Joaquin de Echeverria. SIR,
St. Jago de Chili, 18th June, 1821. I UNDERSTAND that there is a Letter in Town from Sir Thomas Hardy, addressed to the British Merchants of this place, in which it is stated, that this Government considers the whole Coast of Peru, south of the Capital, as under Blockade, although there is no Force stationed before any one Port, except that of Callao. This information is so much at variance with the impressions I have uniformly received, during my residence here, that I must believe some mistake has arisen either with my Informant, or with the British Admiral.
Will you therefore allow me, Sir, to ask from you the fact on this subject? It is a question of great moment; one of peculiar interest