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employed at different times by His Majesty's Navy Board, must, of itself, carry conviction to every impartial mind.


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The truth is, that, except for making Steel, any superior fitness for which is clearly an accident of nature, and not the effect of hammering, English bar Iron is at least equal to that of Sweden and Russia. It is used throughout Great Britain in the most important constructions, in her manufactories, dock yards, and military establishments. It is prepared exactly in the same manner for exportation as for domestic consumption. It is never finished by a single rolling, except at a very few works, where the metal has been previously formed by hammering. It rarely happens, indeed, that the Iron Master knows, at the time of manufacturing, for which market the Iron is destined; and when he is apprized of this circumstance, a sense of his own interest, the interest of the trade, would alone restrain him from sending an inferior manufacture to the Foreign Market.

It is, in short, the greatest of delusions to imagine that the consumers of Iron are interested in giving a preference to the process of hammering over that of rolling. The Baltic Manufacturers have, doubtless, their reasons for adhering to their former practice; but so far from their deriving any claim to superiority from that circumstance, it is well known to Persons familiar with the trade, that their Iron would be improved rather than deteriorated by the application of the rolling machine. This being the case, it would be absurd to defend the discriminating duty, on the ground of its preventing the manufacture of rolled Iron in the Northern Countries of Europe.

Even in the counter statements which have been made upon this subject, it is admitted, not only that the ores of England may be equal to those of other Countries, but also that the process of rolling only requires to be repeated in order to place it upon a level with that of hammering. Allow me, Sir, to remark, in reference to this admission, that in the present state of your legislative enactments, the British Iron imported into The United States might pass under the roller any number of times, without being relieved, on that account, from the pressure of which I complain.

The difference of value, or cost, at which the rolled and hammered Iron may be prepared for sale, can surely present no argument in favour of the discriminating duties. That difference, whatever it may be, is a natural result of labour-saving machinery; it is the just reward of ingenuity employed with success in the service of Mankind. Science and inventive genius are peculiar to no soil, all Nations have an in

terest in their progress, and to grudge them a fair remuneration, would be no less unworthy of the character, than foreign to the views, of an enlightened Legislature.

I have now, Sir, replied, and I trust, conclusively, to such parts of the explanatory statement which you communicated to Mr. Antrobus, in your Letter, dated the 31st of May, 1820, as were grounded, how justly I leave to your candour, on the principle of expediency. It remains for me to take a more comprehensive view of the case, as involving, in my belief, a breach of agreement, unintentional no doubt, but not, therefore, less prejudicial to His Majesty as a Contracting Party, nor calling the less for a seasonable amendment.

By the IId Article of the Convention of Commerce, subsisting between the two Countries, it is declared, that "no higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into The United States of any articles the growth, produce, or manufacture, of His Britannick Majesty's Territories in Europe, than are, or shall be, payable on the like articles, being the growth, produce, or manufacture, of any other Foreign Country." To secure certain stipulated advantages, reciprocally to both the Contracting Parties, is the general object of the Convention; to secure to the produce and manufactures of Great Britain, a fair unshackled competition in the Markets of The United States with all articles of a similar nature imported from other Foreign Countries, is the plain indisputable object of this particular clause. But how can these objects be considered as fully or adequately effected, while British bar Iron is made to pay, on its importation into The United States, double the amount of duty levied on the same article when imported from Sweden and Russia? I am aware of the distinction which has been drawn between rolled and hammered Iron, and of the assertion founded on that distinction, that so long as all importations of hammered, and all importations of rolled Iron, are subject, respectively, to the same rate of duty, Great Britain has no right to complain. But Great Britain being the sole exporter of rolled Iron, the discriminating duties do in fact operate to her prejudice, and, in point of principle, it will not be difficult to shew that the articles in question are truly and essentially like articles, such as cannot, with any colour of reason, be excluded from the benefit of the Treaty.

You will readily admit, Sir, that like articles, in the sense of the Convention, must necessarily be such as are similar to each other in their leading characteristic properties. On any other supposition, the clause in question is an idle form of words, and, contrary to the very end and purpose of the Treaty, a door would be opened to arbitrary interpretation in one of its principal provisions. Now, the process or mechanical operation by which an article is manufactured, can surely never be reckoned among its properties. Any difference of use, or quality, resulting from the mode of manufacture, may indeed

constitute a fair ground of distinction; but there is every reason to believe that no such difference exists in the present instance. It has been shewn, on the contrary, that, for all the ulterior purposes to which bar Iron, as such, is applicable, the rolled is equally good with the hammered; that both the one and the other are sent to market in the same stage of manufacture, and that the only difference between them is one of a retrospective nature, not affecting the identity of their present state, but relating solely to the process by which they were brought to the same point.

To borrow an illustration from language-two words of similar meaning, in common acceptation, would surely not be deemed the less synonimous because they might be traced to different roots, or had passed through different modes of formation.

I further intreat you, Sir, to observe with what facility the same distinction may be extended to other articles of commerce. Even the chief staple of your Southern States might, upon the same principle, be discriminated in British Ports from the Cotton of Brazil or the Levant, for no other reason than because it had been prepared by Mr. Whitney's ingenious and useful machinery. Examples, bearing upon either Party, might easily be multiplied; I have taken this because it is the most obvious. In fact, the same natural productions are common to so many different Countries, while the means of improving them are varied according to the vast diversity of local resources, that even of those articles which barely rank as manufactures, few might not be brought within range of the same distinction which is now applied, unwarrantably, I think, to bar Iron. That a latitude of interpretation, thus tending to nullify one of the principal clauses of the Treaty, should have been contemplated by those who framed it, is utterly inconceivable. Yet this, Sir, is the conclusion to which we must come, if it be admitted that rolled and hammered bar Iron are not like articles; an admission which, taking the fair and natural meaning of that phrase, would surely be equivalent to saying that what is bar Iron when hammered, is not bar Iron when rolled.

It is with regret, Sir, that I have found it necessary to take up so much of your time on this subject; but I feel persuaded that you will appreciate its importance, and that it will receive from the American Government an early and equitable revisal, to the end of relieving, by Law, the importations of British rolled Iron from the present discriminating duty, and thereby fulfilling the obligations of the Commercial Treaty.

I embrace this opportunity, Sir, to repeat, &c. The Hon. J. Q. Adams.


CONVENTION entre La Sardaigne et L'Autriche, La Russie, et La Prusse; pour l'Occupation d'une Ligne Militaire dans les Etats de Sa Majesté Sarde.-Conclue à Novare, le 24 Juillet, 1821.

SA Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne ayant, à la suite des événemens qui ont momentanément troublé l'ordre dans ses Etats, témoigné à ses Augustes Alliés, que, toujours constant dans la volonté de contribuer au maintien de la tranquillité générale, et de donner à ses Hauts et Puissans Alliés tous les gages de sécurité qui peuvent l'assurer à l'Europe, Il désirait voir un Corps d'Armée Allié occuper une ligne militaire dans ses Etats; que, trouvant, dans le fond de sa conscience, la nécessité de cette Occupation, comme le seul moyen de tranquilliser les bons, de contenir les perturbateurs, et de rassurer l'Europe, Il y trouvait également le devoir de faire en sorte que cette Occupation eût lieu de la manière la moins onéreuse pour ses Peuples, sur qui n'ont cessé de péser les charges d'une réorganisation dispendieuse; qu'enfin, sa confiance dans ses Augustes Alliés étant entière et égale vis-à-vis de chacun d'eux, Il ne pouvait cependant se dispenser de leur faire remarquer qu'un Corps d'Armée Autrichien, en raison de la position limitrophe du Royaume Lombardo-Vénitien, pourrait, en moindre nombre et par conséquent à moindres frais, remplir l'objet en question pour une époque déterminée, laquelle serait fixée en même tems que tout ce qui serait réglé pour assurer l'Indépendance du Roi et de son Gouvernement;

Et Leurs Majestés Impériales et Royales l'Empereur d'Autriche, l'Empereur de Russie, et le Roi de Prusse, ayant à cœur de prouver à Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne le vif et sincère intérêt qui les anime pour son Auguste Personne, le bien de Sa Monarchie, et celui de l'Europe, dont cette Monarchie forme une partie si intéressante, Leurs dites Majestés ont accueilli cette communication avec l'empressement de l'amitié, et ont fait choix, sans délai, de Plénipotentiaires pour dis cuter, arrêter, et signer, avec celui de Sa Majesté Sarde, les Stipula tions d'une Convention qui pût remplir l'objet de leur commune solli citude;

En conséquence, Elles ont nommé d'une part, savoir;

Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne, le Sieur Victor Comte De la Tou Chevalier de l'Ordre Suprême de l'Annonciade, Chevalier Grand'Croi des Ordres des Ss. Maurice et Lazare, de Léopold d'Autriche, de S Alexandre Newski de Russie, et de St. Louis de France, Commander de l'Ordre de Savoye, Général de Cavalerie et Gouverneur de la Div sion de Novare: et de l'autre,

Sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique, le Sieur Ferdinan Comte Bubna de Littitz, Son Conseiller intime actuel et Chan

bellan, Grand'Croix de l'Ordre de Léopold, Chevalier de celui de Marie Thérèse, Chevalier des Ordres de St. Alexandre Newski et de Ste. Anne de la Première Classe, Chevalier de l'Ordre de l'Annonciade, et Grand'Croix de celui des Ss. Maurice et Lazare, Chevalier de l'Ordre de l'Aigle Rouge de la Première Classe, et Grand'Croix de l'Ordre Constantinien de St. Georges de Parme, Lieutenant Général, Colonel Propriétaire du quatrième Régiment de Dragons, Commandant Général en Lombardie, et Général en Chef de l'Armée en Haute Italie; et

Le Sieur François Baron de Binder de Kriegelstein, Son Envoyé Extraordinaire et Ministre Plénipotentiaire près Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne, Grand'Croix de l'Ordre des Ss. Maurice et Lazare, et de plusieurs autres:

Sa Majesté l'Empereur de toutes les Russies, Roi de Pologne, le Sieur Georges Comte de Mocenigo, Son Conseiller Privé, Envoyé Extraordinaire et Ministre Plénipotentiaire près Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne, Chevalier de l'Ordre de St. Alexandre Newski, Grand'Croix de ceux de St. Wladimir de la Seconde et de Ste. Anne de la Première Classe, Grand'Croix de l'Ordre de Léopold d'Autriche et Bailli de celui de St. Jean de Jerusalem:

Et Sa Majesté le Roi de Prusse, le Sieur Georges Fréderic Petitpierre, son Chargé d'Affaires à la Cour de Sardaigne :

Lesquels, après avoir échangé leurs Pleins-pouvoirs, trouvés en bonne et dûe forme, sont convenus des Stipulations suivantes.

ART. I. La force du Corps d'Armée Autrichien destiné à occuper une Ligne Militaire dans les Etats de Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne, au nom et sous la solidarité des Puissances Alliées, est de 12,000 hommes, savoir, 8 Bataillons d'Infanterie de Ligne, 1 Bataillon de Chasseurs, 2 Régimens de Hussards et 3 Batteries d'Artillerie.

Ce Corps, dépendant, pour son organisation intérieure et sa discipline, de l'Armée Autrichienne du Nord de l'Italie dont il fait partie, est, comme Corps Auxiliaire, à la disposition de Sa Majesté le Roi de Sardaigne.

Son renouvellement, en tout ou en partie, dans la proportion du nombre convenu, est reservé au Général en Chef Autrichien qui le commande. Il formera, autant que possible, 1 Corps entièrement séparé. Uniquement destiné, au reste, à maintenir, concurremment avec les Forces de Sa Majesté Sarde, le repos intérieur de la Monarchie, il n'aura aucune jurisdiction sur la partie du Pays qu'il occupe, et ne gênera en rien l'action des Autorités Civiles et Militaires établies par le Souverain, aux quelles, en cas de requisition de leur part, il prêtera main forte.

Dans le cas, où des circonstances imprévues obligeraient Sa Majesté Sarde à demander un renfort pour ce Corps, le Commandant Général en Lombardie est autorisé à le fournir, sans recourir aux

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