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attack the liberty, and private property, of Individuals, and the peace and publick security of the State in general, or of any of the Provinces in particular. Without this common centre, I repeat it again, all the relations of friendship and commerce between this Kingdom and Portugal, and Foreign countries, would be subject to a thousand collisions and obstacles; and, instead of our riches increasing under a solid and adequate system of publick economy, we should see them on the contrary, languish, decline, and probably disappear altogether. Without such a centre of strength and union, in fact, the Brazilians would be unable to preserve their natural Frontiers and Limits, and would lose, what the Congress is now darkly intriguing to effect, all that they have gained at the cost of so much blood and treasure, and, what is worse, with the loss of their National honour and glory, and of their great and legitimate political and commercial interests. But, happily for us, outraged justice and sound policy raised one universal cry, and the execution of those mischievous Decrees was suspended.

The People of this Kingdom were filled with further indignation, when they saw the contempt with which the well-deserving Citizens of Brazil were treated; for in the various Lists of Diplomatists, Ministers of State, Councillors and Military Governors, there appeared not the name of a single Brazilian. The sinister ends for which these new Bashaws were appointed, with the pompous title of Governors of Arms, are now manifest. It is sufficient to notice :- the uniform conduct pursued by them in our Provinces, in opposition to the dignity and liberty of Brazil ; the consideration shewn by the Cortes to their Re. ports; the influence they exercised in civil and political matters, totally unconnected with Military employment; the condescension with which the Cortes received the felicitations of the Fratricidal Troops expelled from Pernambuco; the approbation, lately expressed, by the Ruling Party in the Congress, of the revolting proceedings of General Avilez, which produced the height of evil and suffering, and even caused the premature death of my beloved Son, the Prince Don John; and, lastly, the disregard and ridicule evinced, with respect to the san. guinary scenes of Bahia, perpetrated by the infamous Madeira, who has been reinforced with fresh Troops, in spite of the Protests of the Deputies of Brazil ;-all this bears evidence, that, after the liberty of the Provinces was overthrown; the cries of their just Claims stified; the patriotism and honour of their Citizens denounced as Anti-constitutional; these Disorganizers intended only to establish, under the deceitful words of Union and Fraternity, a complete Military Despotism, by which they hoped to crush us.

No just Government, no civilized Nation, can fail to perceive, that Brazil, deprived of an Executive Power; bereft of her requisite Tribunals; compelled to encounter distance and danger, in order to solicit favour and justice in Portugal; the surplus of the Revenues of her Provinces consumed by Lisbon; her rank as a Kingdom annihilated; and herself ruled by bayonets sent from Portugal ;-that nothing was left for her, but to be obliterated for ever from the list of Nations, and free States, and to be once more reduced to her old condition of a Colony, with a restricted Commerce. But it did not suit the Congress to make known, in the face of the civilized World, their hidden and abominable Projects: they therefore again dissembled, and appointed Commissioners, charged to investigate the Political and Commercial Affairs of this Kingdom. The Reports of those Commissioners are before the World, and shew beyond contradiction all the machiavelism and hyprocrisy of the Cortes of Lisbon, which can impose only upon ignorant Men, and give fresh hopes to the secret Enemies who exist amongst us. These false and wicked Politicians now tell us, that the Congress is desirous to be made acquainted with the wishes of Brazil, and that it always desired to be just in its determinations : if this be true, why have the Cortes of Lisbon hitherto rejected every thing that has been proposed by the few Deputies whom we have there? The Special Commission, charged with the Political Affairs of this Kingdom, had already in its possession the Representations of many of our Provinces, and Magistracies, petitioning for the repeal of the Decree respecting the organization of the Provincial Governments, and for my continuance in this Kingdom as Prince Regent. What however has the Commission done? It did not attend to those Representations; but merely proposed my temporary stay in Rio de Janeiro, and without my exercising the attributes that ought to belong to me as the Delegate of the Executive Power. The People were clamorous for a single centre of that Power, in order to avoid the dismemberment of Brazil into isolated and rival parts. What did the Commission ? It was machiavelian enough to propose, that two or more Centres should be given to Brazil, and even, that those Provinces which wished it should communicate directly with Portugal.

Our Deputies in the Cortes have repeatedly raised their voices in favour of Brazil, but they were drowned in the clamours of the hired Mob in the Galleries. To their reclamations, it was always replied, either that they were contrary to the Articles of the Constitution already decreed, or contrary to the internal regulations of the Cortes, or that they could not repeal that which had been already decided, or finally, it was contemptuously observed that there were no Deputies of Provinces, but that all were Deputies of the Nation, and that a majority of votes could alone avail ;-a false and unheard-of principle of publick right, although very useful to those who bore the sway, and who, shielded by the majority of European votes, rendered those of the Brazilians null, and were thus able to enslave Brazil at their pleasure. The Letter addressed to me by the Goverument of St. Paulo was laid before the Congress, and also, shortly afterwards, the unanimous wish of the Deputation sent to me by the Government, Magistracy, and Clergy of that Capital. All was, however, in vain. The

Junta of that Government was insulted, accused of being rebellious, and as deserving to be proceeded against criminally. At last, through the medium of the free press, Brazilian Writers made manifest to the World, the injustice and errors of the Congress, and, as the reward of their loyalty and patriotism, they were accused, in the machiavelian Report of the Commission, of being venal, and of being inspired only by the genius of evil.

It is impossible that Brazil can throw the veil of eternal oblivion over so many insults and atrocities; and it is equally impossible that she can ever again place confidence in the Cortes of Lisbon, seeing herself, on every occasion, treated by them with contempt, torn by a Civil War, commenced by those iniquitous People, and even threatened with the horrible scenes of Haiti, which our furious Enemies so much desire to revive.

Is it not an actual commencement of Hostilities on the part of that Government, to prohibit Foreign Nations, with whom we are carrying on a free Commerce, from sending us Naval and Military Stores? Can we suffer that Portugal should offer to cede to France, part of the Province of Pará, on condition that that Power should assist her with Ships and Troops, by which she might be the better enabled to fetter our hands and extinguish our Rights ? Can the high-minded Brazilians forget that a similar proposal, and for the same object, was made to England, accompanied by an offer to render the Treaty of Commerce of 1810 perpetual, and to give to that Country even still greater advantages ? To such an extent have the ill will and bad policy of the Cortes proceeded!

The Congress of Lisbon, moreover, sparing no endeavour to oppress and enslave us, have scattered abroad a band of secret Emissaries, who employ all the resources of cunning and perfidy to mislead the Publick mind, to disturb good order, and to foment disunion and anarchy in Brazil. Convinced of the just hatred which this Nation bears towards despotism, those perfidious Emissaries, in order to pervert publick opinion, unceasingly asperse the most pure and just actions of my Government, and have the daring temerity to impute to me the desire of entirely separating Brazil from Portugal, and of reviving the ancient system of arbitrary power. Useless however is their attempt to disunite the Inhabitants of this Kingdom : the honourable Europeans who dwell in the same land with us, will not be ungrateful to the Country that has adopted them for its children, and which has honoured and enriched them.

Not satisfied with this series of perfidy and atrocity, the factious of the Cortes have dared to insinuate that a great part of these disastrous measures have emanated from the Executive Power: as if the character of the King, of the Benefactor of Brazil, were capable of such machiavelian perfidy; as if Brazil, and the whole World, did not know that the Lord Don John the VIth, my August Father, is actually a State Prisoner, under complete restraint, and without that free will, which a true Monarch ought to possess, who enjoys the attributes belonging to his station, and which no Legitimate Constitution, however strict and distrustful, ought to withhold: it is known to all Europe, and to the whole World, that, amongst his Ministers, some are in a similar situation with himself, and that others are the creatures and partisans of the ruling Faction.

The persecutions and injustice of the Congress towards Brazil, doubtless, owe their existence to Parties, divided amongst themselves, but united against us. Some wish to force Brazil to separate herself from Portugal, in order thereby to give a death blow to the Constitutional System; others wish the same thing, because they are desirous of uniting themselves to Spain. It is not surprising, therefore, that in Portugal they should unblushingly write, and endeavour to prove, that that Kingdom will gain by the loss of Brazil.

Blinded with pride, or carried away by revenge and egotism, the Cortes would decide, with two strokes of the pen, a question of the greatest importance to the great Lusitanian Family; by establishing, without consulting the general wish of the Portuguese of both Hemispheres, the Seat of the Monarchy in Portugal, as if that smallest part of the Portuguese Territory, with its stationary and slender Population, should be the political and commercial centre of the whole Nation. If in States which are widely separated by Nature, but are united under the same Chief, it is requisite that the vital principle of their movements and energy should exist in the most central and powerful part of the great social body, in order that an impulse may be communicated throughout its whole extent, with the greatest speed and vigour, Brazil certainly possesses the incontestable right to have within herself the Seat of the Executive Power. In fact, this rich and vast Country, whose extended Coasts reach from 2 degrees on the other side of the Equator down to the River Plate, and are bathed by the Atlantick, is placed almost in the centre of the Globe, on the shores of the Great Canal, upon which passes the Commerce of Nations, and which is the bond that connects the 4 Quarters of the World. Brazil has; on its left, Europe, and the most considerable part of America; in its front, Africa; on its right, the rest of America, and Asia, with the immense Archipelago of Australia; and, in its rear, the Pacifick Ocean, with the Streights of Magellan and Cape Horn close at hand.

Who does not know that it is next to impossible to impart new life and energy to People grown old and feeble? Who does not know, at this time, that the good days of Portugal are passed, and that it is from Brazil alone that that small portion of the Monarchy ean hope for certain support and renewed strength to recover her ancient virility ? But Brazil will certainly be unable to afford her that succour, should senseless Men succeed in impairing its strength, in disuniting it, and in effecting its ruin.

Amidst such great and such a systematick series of absurdity and atrocity, what should be the conduct of Brazil? Can she imagine that the Cortes of Lisbon are ignorant of our rights and necessities? Certainly not; for there are Men, even amongst the factious themselves, who, although evil disposed, are not wholly ignorant. Ouglit Brazil to suffer, and to content herself, with solely soliciting, in a humble manner, a remedy for her misfortunes, from pitiless and selfish hearts? Does she not see that, though the Despots might be changed, the despotism would continue? Such conduct, besides being unwise and dishonourable, would precipitate Brazil into a fathomless gulph of misery; and, Brazil once lost, the Monarchy is at an end.

Placed by Providence in the midst of this vast and blessed Country, as the Heir and Legitimate Delegate of the King, my August Father, it is the first of my duties, not only to be zealous for the welfare of the Brazilian People, but also for that of the whole Nation, which I shall one day be called to govern.

In order to fulfil these sacred obligations, I assented to the wish of the Provinces, which entreated me not to abandon them; and, desirous of being correct in all my resolutions, I consulted the general opinion of my Subjects, and caused Procurators General to be named and convoked, from all the Provinces, to counsel me in the affairs of State, and in those of their common interests. To give them a new proof of my sincerity and love, I afterwards accepted the title and duties of Perpetual Defender of this Kingdom, which the People have conferred upon me. And, fiually, seeing the urgency of the moment, and hearing the universal voice of Brazil, which desired to be in safety, I ordered the convocation of a Constituent and Legislative Assembly, which should labour for its permanent happiness. I thus conformed with the wishes of the People, who consider my August Father and King, as deprived of his liberty, and subject to the caprice of that band of factious Men who rule the Cortes of Lisbon, from whom it would be absurd to expect just measures, suited to the destinies of Brazil, or tending to the real good of the whole Portuguese Nation.

I should be ungrateful to the Brazilians,- 1 should be false to my promises, and unworthy of the name of Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, if I had acted in a different manner. I protest, at the same time, before Gud, and in the face of all friendly and allied Nations, that I do not desire to break the ties of union and fraternity, which are calculated to render the Portuguese, one single, political, and well organized Nation. I declare also, that, when the due and just union of all parts of the Monarchy under one King, as Supreme Chief of the Executive Power of the Nation, shall be assured, I will defend the legitimate Rights and future Constitution of Brazil, which I hope will be sound and wise, with all my strength, and even at the expence of my blood, should it be necessary.

I have thus explained, with sincerity and conciseness, to the Go

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