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vernments and Nations, to whom I have addressed myself in this Manifesto, the causes of the final resolution of the People of this Kingdom. If the King, Lord Don John the VIth, my august Father, were still in Brazil, and in the enjoyment of his liberty, and Legitimate Authority, he would doubtless concur in the sentiments of this loyal and generous People; and the immortal Founder of this Kingdom, who, in February 1821, convoked the Brazilian Cortes in Rio de Janeiro, would not have failed to convoke them, upon this occasion, in the same manner that I have done. But, as our King is a prisoner and a captive, to me it belongs to rescue him from the ignominious situation to which he has been reduced by the factious of Lisbon ;— to me it belongs, as his Delegate and Heir, to save not only Brazil, but the whole Portuguese Nation.

My firm resolution, and that of the Two Nations which I govern, has been lawfully promulgated. I hope that the wise and impartial Men of the whole World, and that the Governments and Nations, friendly to Brazil, will render justice to such upright and noble sentiments. I invite them to continue to maintain with the Kingdom of Brazil the relations of mutual interest and amity. I shall be ready to receive their Ministers, and Diplomatic Agents, and to send them mine, so long as the captivity of the King, my August Father, shall last. The Ports of Brazil shall continue to be open to all pacifick and friendly Nations, for the licit Commerce which the Laws do not prohibit. European Colonists, who may emigrate hither, may rely upon the most perfect protection in this rich and hospitable Country. Learned Men, Artists, Capitalists, and Enterprizing Individuals, will also find friendship and a good reception. And, as Brazil knows how to respect the Rights of other Nations, and of Legitimate Governments, she hopes, as a just return, that her inalienable Rights will also be by them respected and acknowledged, and that she may not find herself, in the contrary case, under the painful necessity of acting at variance with the dictates of her generous heart.

Palace of Rio de Janeiro, 6th August, 1822.


MEMORIAL of the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Spain to the Cortes.-1st March, 1822.


IT is an honour and the greatest pleasure for me to inform the Cortes of the Kingdom, that the political relations of Spain with Foreign Powers in general continue of a friendly nature.

The Ratifications of the Treaty of Friendship, and for the arrangement of differences, and boundaries, concluded on the 22d of February, 1819, between His Majesty and the United States of America, were ex

changed in Washington on the 22d of February, 1821. In compliance with what is stipulated in the IVth Article of the said Treaty, the King has appointed the Commission for Spanish Boundaries, which, in concert with that chosen by the Government of The United States, is to mark out the line of demarkation between the Territory of the Two Powers. The Spanish Commissioners charged with delivering over East and West Florida, within the period fixed by the VIIth Article of the Treaty, have met with some vexatious proceedings on the part of the American Authorities named by those Provinces. The King hopes that the Government of The United States will readily be induced to give the satisfaction which has been demanded, for a proceeding so little in unison with the relations of good friendship which subsist between the Two Powers, thereby confirming the expectation which His Majesty has cherished that the conclusion of the late Treaty will bind more closely the ties of amity which unite the two Nations.

We continue at Peace with the Governments of Barbary. The Regency of Algiers has recently renewed its ancient pretensions, and the Dey has laid claim, in strong terms, through the medium of a Letter which he addressed directly to His Majesty, to a sum of about 1,500,000 dollars, which he states to be due to him from Spain. An Expedition has been ordered to Algiers, consisting of 2 Ships of the National Fleet, which, accompanied by a portion of the Naval Forces of Holland, cruizing in the Mediterranean, are expected to bring about a happy issue to the friendly overture which the Spanish Government has made to the Dey. His Majesty has reason to hope that the Regency of Algiers will not object to a measure, dictated by justice, and recommended by mutual convenience to the two Governments.

With regard to the intestine dissensions which convulse the Empire of Morocco, His Majesty has determined to observe the strictest neutrality, without favouring either of the two Contending Parties, which, with alternate success, dispute the command of the Empire.

The Government of the Swiss Cantons has not evinced any opposition to the Measure decreed by the Cortes, for disbanding the Swiss Regiments which were in the Service of Spain, although the period has not expired which was fixed upon by the Capitulation of 1804. The Helvetic Government energetically demands the Indemnifications stipulated by the said Contract, in favour of the Individuals disbanded, and that of His Majesty hopes to conclude the transaction in a friendly manner, and satisfactorily to both Parties.

Our Minister at the Court of Russia has been recognized by His Imperial Majesty. By this measure the Diplomatick Relations of Spain with Russia are established, and we proceed in harmony with the Cabinet of St. Petersburgh.

The insalubrity of the climate of Sierra Leone has rendered it necessary to withdraw from that station the Spanish Individuals of the Mixed Commission established there, who are charged with the fulfil

ment of the Treaty relative to the traffick in Negroes. The heart of His Majesty being affected by benevolence, and desirous of fulfilling his Engagements with scrupulous punctuality, our Minister in London has been authorized to treat with the British Government, in concert with the Portuguese Representative at that Court, concerning the removal of the Mixed Commission to some other more healthy spot, in order at the same time to promote the health of the Commissioners, and the important object entrusted to them.

Portugal having adopted Political Institutions so analogous to those happily established in Spain, a just expectation was entertained that the auspicious moment had arrived when a period would be put to the differences subsisting between the two Nations. The steps taken by the Portuguese Government have convinced His Majesty, to his profound grief, that his desire of founding, on the mutual interests of the Two Powers, the most cordial friendship with the Portuguese Monarchy, appear not to be met by corresponding sentiments, which is manifest from the conduct pursued by the Portuguese Government, and the events which have unhappily occurred.

When it was ascertained at the Court of Rio de Janeiro, that the Constitution framed by the Deputies to the Cortes assembled at Lisbon, had been sworn to in Portugal, and that the King had likewise taken the oath to the same, the Portuguese Government formed the design of completing the aggression upon the Spanish Provinces of the River Plate, by putting in motion the springs of an artful policy, by which the Inhabitants of those Provinces were convened illegally at Monte Video, in order that they might, as they actually did, decide upon their separation from the Spanish Monarchy, and upon their incorporation with that of Portugal. To carry into effect the contemplated plan without opposition, this Assembly proceeded solemnly to recognize the Independence of the Insurgent Government of Buenos Ayres, and, having appointed a public Agent thereto, it engaged that the Individual about to be nominated in the same character by that Government, should be recognized at Lisbon.

No sooner was the Court transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Lisbon, than the King's Government protested, and remonstrated energetically against a proceeding alike extraordinary and unexpected; trusting that the Government of His Most Faithful Majesty would disapprove of the steps taken in a matter of so much importance, not only from being convinced of its injustice and invalidity, but in order at least to place itself upon a level with the policy adopted by other Powers, relative to the emancipation from Spain, attempted by the Revolutionary Governments of some of our Ultramarine Provinces. Notwithstanding these just considerations, His Majesty has seen his reasonable expectations disappointed; since the Portuguese Government, far from redressing the well-founded complaints and reclamations of Spain, has, by answers, couched in specious terms, excited an appre

hension that it purposes to sanction the proceedings which have taken place in Brazil.

The serious attention of His Majesty's Government has also been justly directed to the solemn declaration, put forth by His Most Faithful Majesty's Ministers, that there is not any Treaty at present subsisting between Portugal and Spain, inasmuch as the Treaties which were in force between the 2 Powers, were rendered null and void from the period of the French invasion of that Kingdom. As a consequence of that declaration, the Portuguese Government has paid no regard to certain Articles of the Treaties, to which we have appealed, in support of reclamations, presented with a view to obtain the surrender of sedi tious Individuals, who have taken refuge in that Kingdom; and the factious Barcia and Ciceron have, pursuant to a late Resolution of the Cortes at Lisbon, been ordered to be set at liberty.

Notwithstanding the state of our relations with Portugal, His Majesty is not without hopes that the amicable negotiations which are in progress, for arranging the pending differences in a conciliatory manner, will terminate favourably with the Portuguese Government. The King cannot persuade himself that it will undervalue the interest which both Powers have, in drawing closer the ties of the most sincere friendship and good understanding, or that it will be insensible to the salutary influence of this firm and cordial union, upon the liberal principles promulgated in both Countries, or to the prudence of not hazarding an appeal to the honour and dignity of the Spanish People, who, when so called upon, would act with that decision and heroism which belong to their character.

Our relations of friendship and harmony with the Court of France have not suffered the slightest alteration. The yellow fever which last Year afflicted some of the Provinces of Spain, and especially Catalonia, induced the French Government to place a Military Sanitary Cordon on the Frontier, which, although it has occasioned some impediments to the communications and mercantile relations between the two Countries, has afforded no ground for complaint; considering the right which belongs to every Nation to provide, above all things, for its own preservation. It was natural to expect that the Cordon would have been withdrawn, when it was known that the contagion had ceased, but this not being the case, perhaps from fear of a return of the malady, various complaints on that point have been addressed to the French Government, and our Minister in Paris has been instructed to insist strongly upon the subject, and to demand the necessary explanations.

His Majesty's Government, having ascertained the escape to France of some Spaniards, whose impotent attempts to overthrow the Constitutional System were attended with the disastrous result which might have been expected, have solicited of, and have been assured by, His Most Christian Majesty, that these factious Men shall be removed into the interior, and distributed in different points. The French Government

requested the adoption of a similar measure on the part of Spain, by the ordering the retirement from our Frontier of a few Individuals of that Nation who excited apprehensions in France; and His Majesty was happy in acceding to that request, founded as it was on principles of mutual convenience. The late occurrences in Navarre drew some seditious Spaniards to the vicinity of our Frontiers, with the view, no doubt, of aiding the movements of the Factious. His Majesty immediately directed our Minister Plenipotentiary in Paris to demand that they should be sent into the Interior, and the French Government issued the necessary orders for that purpose. The King has also ordered his Minister in France to signify to the Government of His Most Christian Majesty, his hope that no succours will be furnished to the factious Refugees in that Country, and that it will take the proper measures of precaution, to prevent the importation into Spain, of arms or ammunition, destined for the use of the seditious. The abuse made, and still making, by some of the French Journals, of their liberty of the press, to attack our wise Institutions, and to give an unfavourable idea of the affairs of Spain, has also furnished a motive for addressing reclamations to the French Government. That Government has promised to take them into consideration, excusing itself, however, from the adoption of energetic measures for correcting such abuses, by intimating that the power which it exercises over the press is confined, principally, to the internal concerns of the Kingdom, and that it would not be an easy matter to restrain the indignation excited in the minds of the Censors and Journalists in France, by the grievous insults to which the publick Functionaries in that Country are frequently exposed, on the part of the Newspaper Writers of Spain.

In order to put an end to the frequent disputes that have occurred between the Inhabitants of the Frontiers of Spain and France, arising chiefly from the use of the pasture grounds, and to settle the doubtful demarkation of the Boundaries between the two Powers, the French Government has suggested that it would be necessary and mutually expedient to fix precisely the respective limits, by means of Engineers to be appointed for that purpose. The demarkation of the course of the River Reus, as respects the Province of Catalonia, has been completed.

The sad result which has attended the efforts made in the Kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, to preserve the Constitutional System which they had proclaimed, has reduced our relations with these Powers to a passive state.

We continue to maintain a good understanding with the Court of Rome. His Holiness has yielded to several requests of the Spanish Government, which were demanded by our Political Institutions; and others of a like nature, and necessary for the welfare of the Nation, are at present the subject of active Communications between the two Governments.

Such is the compendium of our Political Relations with Foreign

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