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convinced that the time had not yet arrived, when I might operate a total moral revolution there, which, by changing their unfortunate condition, would have placed my Countrymen of the Eastern Part, without dispute or violence, under the tutelary protection of the Laws of the Republick. That time was indicated by the pacification of the North. I received Communications from Santiago, from San Juan, and even from Santo Domingo, in which I was assured of their wish to enjoy the advantages of our Institutions; but without exposing themselves to the inevitable calamities of a change of Government brought on by warfare. I again recommended patience to them all, and at length determined upon taking an ostensible step towards the Publick, by acquainting Brigadier General Pascual Real with my intentions, and suggesting what prudence and humanity dictated to us both. It was for this purpose that I despatched the Mission, of which Colonel Fremont was the Chief, who, on his arrival at Santo Domingo, was informed of the change which had taken place there on the 1st of December last.

Information was scarcely received of the Acts which had been published at Santo Domingo, when they were brought to me from the Interior by the Inhabitants themselves, who protested to me that if they had shewn any signs of enthusiasm at the news of this change, it was from the belief that, conformably to the Constitutional Act, the indivisibility of the Government of Hayti would be an essential condition of the resolution taken. I did not cease to exhort them to moderation, and I awaited the return of my Envoys, before I came to any decision upon the subject.

Colonel Fremont arrived, and delivered me your Letter, dated the 19th of December. I was delighted that no blood had been shed during the events of the 1st of that month. I felt unbounded esteem for those who had prevented its effusion; nevertheless I deplored the error which proceeded from the co-ordination of a Government, which separated itself from the system already established by the Fundamental Law of the State, and declared itself a part of the Republick of Colombia. Being always inclined to indulgence, and to judge of Men from the purity of my own principles, I was of opinion that although those who had directed the change, which took place on the 1st, had acted improperly, in taking their measures, they might have been influenced by circumstances unknown to me, and I concluded that, if it were so, they would soon discover their error, and the Publick be of course undeceived. I was naturally anxious to see this opinion realized, and you are aware that I was not mistaken in it. Those who have since declared themselves, by hoisting the Haytian Flag, have done their duty; they know their real interests, and have ensured their safety from all molestation.

You, Citizen, have shewn great penetration, in recognizing in the

enthusiasm of the People, on the disappearance of the Spanish Flag, the sentiments of its resolution, thereby manifested, to live under the same Laws with the rest of the Haytians.

There is no delusion in this result: two separate States can neither exist nor maintain themselves, independently of each other, in our native Island; if the Constitutional Act of Hayti had not decided the question of its indivisibility, reason and the preservation of its Inhabitants, would have imperiously demanded it; those who are really interested for the prosperity of this Island must admit this truth; for to be effectually independent, it should possess within itself the means of securing its Independence. The Republick, I will venture to say, has, after many storms, acquired those means, and possesses all the ne cessary elements for the preservation of its Liberty and Independence.

My duties are pointed out to me, and I must fulfil them towards all the Citizens of the Republick. The Inhabitants of Lajabon, Monte Christi, Santiago, Pto. de Plata, Las Caobas, Las Matas, San Juan, Neyba, Azua, La Vega, &c. have received my Orders, and they obey them. I shall proceed to visit, with powerful Forces, the whole of the Eastern Part, not as a Conqueror, (God forbid that I should ever entertain such a thought,) but, consistently with the Laws of the State, as the Pacificator and Conciliator of the interests of all.

I flatter myself that I shall meet with none but Brothers, Friends, and Sons, to embrace. No obstacle shall be allowed to detain me: every one may rest assured of the safety of his person, and of that of his property. As for you, Citizen, whom I believe to be solely animated, as you have assured me, by a desire to promote the interests of your Country, be cheerful and full of confidence; the Independence of Hayti shall be indestructible, by the union of all hearts in one and the same bosom. You will ensure titles to my esteem, you will gain inestimable repute, by uniting with all your Fellow-citizens in hoisting in Santo Domingo, on the receipt of this Letter, the only Flag which is suited to the existence of the Haytians-that of the Republick. I hope that your Reply, which must not be delayed, will be conformable to the duty which your native Country imposes upon and expects from you.

I have the honour to salute you, Citizen, with distinguished consideration. BOYER. National Palace at Port au Prince, 11th January, 1822; the 19th Year of the Independence of Hayti."

As you are now informed of the resolution of his Excellency the President of Hayti, I have merely to recommend to you the observ ance of that docility and pacifick feeling with which you should await his arrival, because, according to his own words, he comes as a Father, a Friend, and a Brother, to embrace you, and to unite you all under

the tutelary safeguard of one single Constitution: he will be the harbinger of peace, and we must all act in concord towards each other. Look upon this as the last scene which will be performed upon the political stage of our Island; tempestuous clouds will disappear from its sky; the happy epoch of your safety, and of immediate relief from your calamities, is about to commence amongst you; the advantages and conveniences which are enjoyed by our Countrymen of the West will be extended to you. Open your hearts in gratitude to the generous hand that bestows them upon you. Assume a resolution not to listen to the echo of former prejudices, but to present to the political World the example of a People, experienced in the vicissitudes and changes of Government, who know how to conform to the necessary modifications. Every Government is good, if we enjoy under it the imprescriptible rights of Nature,-liberty, equality, personal security, and social peace; and I proclaim to you that you will fully enjoy all these blessings, under the Constitution and Laws of the Republick of Hayti.

Santo Domingo, 19th January, 1822.


MANIFESTO of the King of Spain to his Subjects, relative to the Proceedings of the Regency of Urgel.-16th September, 1822. (Translation.)


FROM the moment when, having a knowledge of your wishes, I swore fidelity to the Constitution, promulgated at Cadiz, on the 19th of March, 1820, my mind could not but rejoice in the bright prospect of your future felicity. A painful and lamentable experience of the consequences of an absolute Government, in which every thing was done in the name of the Monarch, without his real will having, in effect, the least share in it, induced us to adopt with pleasure the Fundamental Law, which, by pointing out the rights and obligations of those who command and those who obey, provides against the irregularities of all, and leaves the operations of the State more tranquil and more free, so that they can be conducted by the direct road of justice and prosperity. Who is it that still retards our progress? Who has now the intention to hurry us into an opposite course?

I must announce it to you, Spaniards,-I who have suffered so many mortifications, on the part of those who would carry us back to a system which shall never return, and whose conduct I cannot support in silence, because it would sacrifice you all. Placed at the head of a magnanimous and generous Nation, whose welfare is the constant object of my anxiety, I seize the favourable opportunity that presents itself, to address you in the voice of peace and confidence, which will, at

the same time be a salutary warning to the Conspirators. May they profit by it, to avoid the consequences of a struggle! In vain do they pretend to exculpate themselves for errors of opinion. If indulgence be applicable to them, chastisement ought nevertheless to follow real offences.

The period of error respecting the form of the Government is past, since the Spanish People have declared themselves in favour of the existing Institutions. Those who aspired to elevate themselves without merit, and to command without virtue and without responsibility, considered it necessary to dissemble their chagrin, but it was not the less real. Their concealed humiliation and disappointment has changed into hatred and rage, against the Restorers and Friends of the Constitutional System. This, Spaniards, is the cause of the agitations which harass you. The artifices, employed in a clumsy manner, the violent seditions, the many inquietudes caused to good Citizens, are all evils originating in the impatience of those, who are not ac customed to listen to any other voice than that of their own caprice,— to yield to the salutary restraint of the Law,-or to sacrifice their criminal projects upon the altar of their Country. In vain do they invoke the name of a King, who only hears them with sentiments of the liveliest indignation; in vain do they pretend to defend the pri vileges of him, who is ambitious of no other title than that of Constitutional Monarch of the Spains.

The scenes which the struggles between the worthy Sons of the Country and their criminal Adversaries produce, are too publick not to claim my attention, too horrible for me not to denounce them to the vengeance of the Laws, and not to excite the indignation of all who glory in the name of Spaniard. You are witness to the excesses which have been, and are still committed by that liberticidal Faction; it is unnecessary to exhibit to your view the picture which Navarre, Catalonia, and other Provinces of this fine Country, now present. Robberies, assassinations, and conflagrations; the Brother armed against the Brother, the Father against the Son, have already a thousand times called forth your courageous indignation, and have caused your generous tears to flow. Embrace, in idea, all the evils produced by fanaticism, and supply by your owu feelings all the expressions which are wanting to convey to you my own.

Valour and firmness will for ever beat down that degenerate race of unworthy Children of the Country. Their projects are criminal; their hopes insane. If they be obstinate, you are invincible; if they yield to the cry of sordid interest, -liberty and honour, which are inseparable virtues, animate and guide you; seduction will be but of short duration, and the low artifices which they employ will soon yield to the intelligence of our age. The misled Men will hear the voice of the Constitutional King of the Spains. Listen not to the perfidious Men who arraign a Law, which contains no imperfections but such as are

inseparable from the works of human creation. The Constitution proclaims, in the most solemn manner, the worship of your Fathers, and they would substitute for your piety the most abominable fanaticism. By the Constitution you are free and happy; with them you would sink again into desolation and misery. Behold the blood which is shed by the fury of those Banditti; contemplate your domestick circles, formerly the asylums of peace, but now the theatre of a fratricidal War. Fix your eyes upon that Throne of derision and ignominy, erected by imposture, at Urgel. Behold, in short, the precipice from which they seek to hurl you.

Enlightened Europe sees with horror so many excesses and machinations. Humanity demands vengeance for the many insults to which she has been exposed; the Law, for violations committed against it; the Country, for its soil and honour outraged. Should I continue to keep silence? Should I tranquilly behold the evils of the magnanimous Nation of which I am the Chief? Should I, in disgraceful silence, suffer that my name be profaned by the perjured Men who make it the shield of their crimes? No, Spaniards! My voice denounces them to the rigorous tribunal of the Law; I devote them to your indignation, and to the execration of the Universe. May that voice be as the rainbow which announces safety;-the voice of confidence which applies a salutary balm to the evils of the Country.

Valiant Soldiers, redouble your efforts to present your victorious banners in every Quarter. Civil Chiefs, executers of the Law, labour day and night to ingraft the love of Liberty upon the hearts of the People; and let your example, and the benefits which they receive from the Constitution, be their principal support. Ministers of Religion, you who announce the word of the living God, and preach His morality and meekness, tear off the mask with which the perjured conceal themselves; declare that the faith of Jesus Christ is not to be defended by crime, and that it rejects from the number of its Ministers, those who take up fratricidal arms; deal forth anathemas against those criminal Sons, and crush them, from the altar's height, with those thunder-bolts which the Church has deposited in your hands; be worthy Priests as well as worthy Citizens.

And you, publick Writers, who direct publick opinion, the Queen of Nations! You who often make amends for the insufficiency of the Law and the errors of Governments, employ your hands for the National Cause with more ardour than ever; expose the machinations of the Enemies of Liberty; infuse the love of it into the hearts of all Spaniards; appeal to their reason; dissipate by degrees the darkness of their understandings; heal the wounds of the Country, and guard against their bleeding afresh; inculcate union, which is the basis of power; excite the noble passions which lead to good, and deprecate those which wither the soul and produce fatal errors.

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