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4. Swedish settlements, along the western bank of the Delaware, had existed, at the arrival of the Quakers, for about fifty years, but they had been considered as belonging to New Jersey; nor were they, in fact, very flourishing. Penn may, therefore, be justly considered as the founder and father of Pennsylvania.

5. With the emigrants who were to occupy his lands, Penn had transmitted full instructions how to proceed. They were early to lay

4. What of Swedish settlements? How may Penn be considered? 5. What instruo tions did he give to the emigrants as to the building of a city?

the foundation of a new city, but, instead of having it resemble the crowded cities of the old world, it was to be so planted with gardens around each house, as to form a greene country towne." This was

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the origin of the beautiful squares of Philadelphia.

6. He also wrote to the Indians, at the same time, assuring them of his disposition to treat them kindly as brethren, and to deal with them justly; entreating them, as they-the whites and Indians-were all children of the Great Spirit, to receive and treat his people in the same kind manner.

7. In October, 1682, Penn took leave of his family and came over to America himself. He was accompanied by a hundred emigrants; or, according to some authorities, by many more. These were followed soon by others, so that the whole Quaker population of the province amounted to two thousand. Of the Swedes and Finns there were, at this time, about three thousand.

8. Penn had planned a form of government before he set out, but he found it necessary to modify it after his arrival. It provided for a governor, a council of three, and a house of delegates to be chosen by the freemen. Every person was to be a freeman who professed faith in Christ, and sustained a good moral character; and all who believed in one God were to worship according to the dictates of their consciences.

9. He had not been long in the country before he made an effort to bring together the Indians from various parts, to form a treaty of peace and friendship. They met at Philadelphia, and made the treaty at what is now called Ken'-sing-ton, under a large elm-tree. This treaty, unlike most Indian treaties, was never broken. "Not a drop of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian."

10. Penn was, for some time, the governor of the colony; and, under his wise and excellent management, both of the white people and the Indians, the colony was peaceful, prosperous, and happy, almost beyond example. It is true it had a fine climate and soil, in addition to its peaceable inhabitants.

11. But Penn dil something more than merely to act as the executive officer of the colony. He was, at once, governor, magistrate, preacher, teacher, and laborer. He was, in truth, all things to all men, and acceptable to all. He obeyed the golden rule of the Divine law, and taught every body else to obey it.

6. What did Penn write to the Indians? 7. What took place in 1682? How large was the Quaker population? What of Swedes and Finns? 8. What can you say of Penn's form of government? 9. What of Penn's treaty with the Indians? Was the treaty ever broken? 10. What was the state of the colony under Penn's administration? 11. What numerous offices were filled by Penn? What was the rule of his conduct?



12. In 1684, he returned to England, leaving the colony in the care of five commissioners. Here he was imprisoned several times for disloyalty, and the government of Pennsylvania, in one instance, was taken away from him. But it was afterward restored to him; and, in 1699, he came once more to America.

13. Delaware, as we have seen, was at first included in the province of Pennsylvania. But about the time of which we are now speaking, it became a distinct colony, with its own government and officers. This was the result of a new charter by Penn, in which the rights and limits of Pennsylvania were distinctly defined.

14. For more than seventy years all things went on prosperously in Pennsylvania, especially in all its transactions with the Indians. It was not till the year 1754, when Penn and his pacific principles had begun to be forgotten, that the colony became involved in an Indian



Affairs of New England.-Governor Andros and the Charter Oak.

1. ABOUT the year 1685, King James, of England, in a spirit of despotism, took away the charters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Plymouth, resolving to govern them in his own way. Joseph Dudley was, by his direction, made president of all the provinces except Płymouth. He came over early in 1686. He was, however, succeeded the next December by Edmond Andros.

2. The short administration of Dudley had been comparatively tolerable; but Andros was a complete tyrant. He glittered in scarlet and lace, but these had beneath them a little soul. He vainly sought to please his king and immortalize his own name, by retarding the prosperity of the English settlements in America.

3. He was instructed to restrain the printing-press as much as he could. Printing had been introduced in 1639, and the Freeman's Oath, an almanac, and some other things, had been printed. The press had been jealously watched all this time by the government; still it had been free. But Andros would not allow so much as an almanac to be printed without his consent.

12. What happened to Penn in England? When did he return to America? 12. What can you say of Delaware? When was it separated from Pennsylvania? 14. What hap pened in 1754 ?

CHAP. LIII.-1. What happened in 1685? Who succeeded Joseph Dudley as presi dent? 2. What can you say of Edmond Andros? 3. When was printing introduced? What had been printed at this time?

4. The schools of learning, hitherto so well attended to, he suffered to go to decay. The usual support was withheld from religious institutions. Obstacles were thrown in the way of freedom in civil elections. The customs of the country were made light of and ridiculed, and even personal liberty was endangered.

5. As Connecticut seemed disinclined to give up her charter, Andros attempted compulsion. While the General Assembly was in session at Hartford, in 1687, he went there, entered the hall, and demanded their charter. The governor objected to giving it up, and the discussion was intentionally continued till it was quite dark.

6. As evening came on, and the candles were lighted, the charter was brought in and laid on the table, as if it was about to be given up. At a concerted signal every light was extinguished, and a guard of men seized the charter, and, under cover of the darkness, carried it to the south part of the city, and hid it in the hollow of an oak, which afterward went by the name of the Charter Oak.*

7. The candles were relighted, but nothing was to be found of the charter. Andros did not give up his purpose, however. He still insisted on holding the reins of the government, and the people submitted to the haughty dictator. Though they retained the charter, Andros selected his councillors, and proceeded to manage the government of the colony in his own way.


The Revolution in England.-Governor Andros and his Associates transported to England.—Events of King William's War.

1. WHILE Andros was pursuing his course of tyranny over the colonies, an unseen hand was preparing for their relief. What is usually called the Revolution in England, had taken place in the latter part of the year 1688. King James had fled, and William, Prince of Orange, had succeeded him. This gave great joy throughout England and America.

2. In the moment of exultation, and in remembrance of past abuses, the people of Boston seized Governor Andros and fifty of his most

4. How were the colonies affected by Andros' administration? 5. What means did he take to deprive Connecticut of her charter? 6. Describe the secretion of the charter in the Oak? 7. Upon what did Andros still insist?

CHAP. LIV.-1. What had been going on in the mean time in England? 2. What effect had the Revolution in England on the colonies of America?

This celebrated tree continued to exist and to be regarded as one of the most interesting historical mementos of the country, till the year 1856, when it fell to the earth.



active supporters, and sent them away to England, to answer for their misdeeds. Connecticut and Rhode Island resumed their charters, and Massachusetts obtained a new one; and thus they returned to the old order of things.

3. But, though relieved in one way by the Revolution, they were burdened by it in another. King James had fled to France, and stirred up the French to a war with England, in which the northern Ameri can colonies were most deeply concerned; and, on account of which they became in the end very great sufferers.

4. The governor of Canada, as a good and loyal subject of the king of France, not only prepared to annoy the English colonies, but also to employ the Indians as his allies. Still worse than all this, he not only set them to work, but encouraged them to plunder, burn, and put to death, without regarding age or sex.

5. It needed but little to excite the Indians to deeds of cruelty. Accordingly, we find that, on the night of February 8, 1690, one division of the French Canadian and Indian army attacked Sche-nec'-ta-dy, while the inhabitants were asleep, with the gates open, suspecting no danger, and completely depopulated the village.

6. The scene was one of the most terrible which can be imagined. In a very few minutes only after the attack, the whole village, or nearly the whole of it, was in a blaze. The unoffending citizens, sick or well, old or young, male or female, were dragged from their beds and murdered. Sixty were killed, thirty made prisoners, and the rest fled-most of them naked-through deep snow to Albany. Of those who fled, twenty-five lost their limbs merely by the cold.

7. Another party of the enemy fell upon the village of Salmon Falls, in New Hampshire, which, after killing thirty of its inhabitants, they burned. Fifty-four were carried into captivity, to suffer tortures more dreadful than death. And thus it was, in a greater or less degree, all along the northern frontier of the colonies.

8. The spirit of the colonists was roused by these atrocities, and they were determined on a stern resistance. A fleet of eight small vessels, with seven or eight hundred men, under the command of Sir William Phipps, was sent against Port Royal, in Nova Scotia, which surrendered with little or no resistance; and the invading army took possession of the whole coast from Port Royal to Maine.

9. Sir William Phipps was also to sail up the St. Law'-rence, with his fleet, while two thousand men from New York and New England

3 What of King James? 4. What did the government of Canada do? 5. What did the Indians do in 1690? 6. Describe the sufferings of the people. 7. What took place at Salmon Falls? 8. What roused the spirit of the colonists? What did Sir William Phipps do? 9. What other plans were formed?

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