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siege; but there was yet a great work to do. "Rome was not built in a day;" neither could Louisburg be taken in a day.

6. Between them and the town was a deep morass or swamp, which horses and oxen could not pass. There had, indeed, been a drawbridge over it, but it was now destroyed. Over this morass it took them fourteen days and nights to transport their cannon. But their end was at length gained, and a fire was opened upon the town.

7. The siege lasted forty-nine days. Commodore Warren was of great service to the assailants. He not only bombarded the town, and did much in battering down the walls, but he captured one seventyfour-gun ship with all its men and stores. The town and island surrendered June 17th.

8. The capture of this important post was no sooner known in France than a heavy naval force was dispatched to America, to retake it and punish the colonies for their insolence. A fleet of forty ships of war, fifty-six transports, three thousand five hundred men, and forty thousand stand of arms, under the direction of the Duke d'An-ville', an excellent officer, sailed early in the spring of 1746.

9. When the colonies heard of this armament, they were alarmed. They had made the attack on Louisburg without the public approbation of the mother country; and, though they had gained their end, they had incurred the displeasure of the French, and would Britain now protect them from their vengeance?

10. But a Power unseen had already interposed in their behalf. A violent storm had destroyed some of the vessels and injured others, and one had returned to France. Only two or three of the ships, and a few of the transports, ever reached Halifax; and the admiral and vice-admiral both died soon after their arrival. Though an attempt was still made to do something, violent storms prevented the remnant of the fleet from acting in concert.

11. This expedition being frustrated, nothing of importance was done except upon the Canadian frontiers, where the French and Indians were, of course, troublesome. But negotiations at last took place between England and France; a treaty of peace was made, and the colonies relieved from their anxiety. This was signed at Aix-la-Chapelle [aix-lah-sha-pell'], in October, 1748.

6. What obstacles were there in the way of the besiegers? 7. Length of the siege What of Commodore Warren? 8 What did the French do when they heard of the capture of Louisburg? 9. Why were the colonists alarmed? 10. How were the French forces made harmless? 11. What was done on the Canadian frontiers? What treaty was made in 1748?


Progress of Agriculture and Manufactures in the

1. THE colonies had been so much involved in the long French and

Indian wars, that agriculture had been, as yet, but little attended to. The forests were indeed cleared, and a large amount of produce was raised, and not a little of it exported to the West Indies and England. Still, the more enlightened modes of husbandry were almost as little known at this


period among the English colonies as among the Dutch.

2. Nor had the arts and manufactures made much greater progress, and for similar reasons. But there was another difficulty with regard to manufactures. The regulations and prohibitions of the mother country continually came in their way. It was not Sir Edmond Andros alone that had sought to throw obstacles in their path. The parliament of England had done it continually.

3. In 1732, for example, they had passed an act prohibiting the exportation of American hats, as well as limiting the number of apprentices taken by hat-makers. Again, in 1750, an act was passed to check the progress of the iron and steel manufacture, under a penalty of two hundred pounds sterling.

4. Still, something had been done both in agriculture and manufactures. The introduction of tobacco into Virginia had been effected, and the plant had been cultivated to a very great extent. Virginia, in 1758, is said to have exported seventy million pounds. Rye was first harvested in Massachusetts in 1633.

CHAP. LXIV.-1. What of agriculture? 2. Arts and manufactures? How had the mother country interfered with them? 8. What act was passed in 1782? What in 1750? 4 What can be said of tobacco? When was rye first gathered in Massachusetts ?



5. The cultivation of the grape, for the manufacture of wine, was introduced into Virginia in 1622; into South Carolina in 1690; and into Illinois, by the French settlers, in 1769. This branch of industry, however, was little pursued till a recent period; it has now become extensive in some of the Western states, and is somewhat attended to in the states of New York and Connecticut.

6. Silk-making was introduced into Virginia quite early. In 1669, the legislature passed an act for its encouragement. It was tried in South Carolina in 1703. In 1759, the manufacture of silk had be come so common in Georgia, that ten thousand pounds of raw silk were received in a single year at Savannah; and it brought half a dollar more a pound in London than any other silk. But this culture entirely ceased many years ago. The production and manufacture of silk were, however, prosecuted in the United States about twenty years since to some extent, but they are now nearly abandoned.

7. Hemp and flax must have been introduced into Maryland early, for the legislature passed an act for their encouragement in 1671. Hemp was introduced, in 1701, into Massachusetts. Tea began to be cultivated in Georgia in 1770, but it did not thrive very well. Rice was introduced into Carolina in 1695. The exports from South Carolina, in 1729, were two hundred and sixty-four thousand four hundred and eighty-eight barrels. Rice is now one of the leading crops of South Carolina and Georgia.

8. Cotton, the great staple of the southern Atlantic states, does not appear to have been cultivated till after the war-viz., in 1788. In 1791, it first began to be exported. The whole crop of the Southern states then amounted to a few thousand pounds; in 1860 it exceeded five millions of bales, of four hundred pounds each, valued at upwards of two hundred millions of dollars. The Indigo plant was brought to South Carolina in 1743, by Miss Lucas, and its culture was prosecuted for a time. The Spanish potato was introduced into New England in 1764, but the Irish kind was cultivated there much earlier.

9. The introduction of the art of printing into une colonies has been mentioned. The Boston News Letter-the first newspaper in North America--was begun in 1704, by Bartholomew Green. During the next fifty years four more newspapers were established in New Eng

5. When was the grape first introduced into Virginia? Into South Carolina? Illinois? 6. When was the manufacture of silk introduced into Virginia? South Carolina? Georgia? 7. What of hemp? Flax? What of tea? Rice? What of the exports in 1729? 8. When was cotton first cultivated? What does the present crop of cotton mount to? When was indigo taken to South Carolina? What of potatoes? 9. What as the first newspaper printed in North America? When begun? What of othe newspapers and books?

land, four in the Middle States, and two at the South. Books, also, began to be published.

10. Little was it thought in 1704, that in 1754 there would be ten newspapers in the provinces. Still less was it thought, that, in 1850, nearly a century later, the number of newspapers and periodicals in the United States would be more than twenty-five hundred, and their annual circulation four hundred and fifty millions of copies.


Sufferings of the Colonies.-Expenses of New York and New England in the War of 1744.-Losses by Sea and Land.-Prosperity attendant upon Peace.

1. It is impossible for us, at the present day, to understand the full extent of the losses and sufferings of the colonies at this early period. For when we draw away a few thousand men from our present population, or a few thousand dollars from a national or state treasury, the loss is scarcely perceived; but it was far otherwise one hundred and fifty or even one hundred years ago.

2. The expenses of New England and New York in the war of 1744, though it hardly lasted four years, were estimated at over one million of pounds sterling. Massachusetts herself is said to have expended four hundred thousand pounds, or two millions of dollars, in the expedition against Louisburg.

3. Here, again, paper money was issued, which seemed to answer, as it usually does, a very good purpose for the time. But it did injury in the end. Two or three millions of it were hardly worth half a million of gold or silver at the first; and, at last, twenty pounds in bank notes were only worth about one pound sterling in good money.

4. The emission of paper money, while it seemed to afford relief, and, in truth, did afford relief to particular individuals at the time, was a loss to the whole community. It divided the losses of the war, it is true, by compelling every man, whether soldier or laborer, who held the money at the time of its depreciation, to bear his share.

5. Losses had, moreover, been sustained by sea, as well as by land,

10. What was not thought in 1704? Present number of periodicals in the United States? Annual circulation of copies?

CHAP. LXV.-1 What difference is there in the state of things between the present tinie and one hundred years ago? 2. What were the expenses of the wars of New England and New York? 3. What was the value of paper money? 4 How was the emission of the money hurtful? 5. How had losses been sustained? What happened in 1641 and 1642?




Massachusetts soon

through the odious practice of privateering. learned the art of trading, not only at home, but even with England and the West Indies. A trade was begun with the West Indies, as early as 1641, and in 1642 the colony had five ships already at sea.

6. Nor were the other colonies backward to engage in commercial enterprise. It is mentioned as a great drawback upon the prosperity of the New Haven colony during the first years of its existence, especially about the year 1647, that the trade with the West Indies was unfortunate, and many vessels were lost at sea.

7. But we have other facts on this subject. In 1676, there were, in the whole of New England, thirty shipwrights. In 1680, Connecticut had twenty-four vessels engaged in trade with Boston and other places. In 1681, forty-nine trading vessels entered the single harbor of Ports'-mouth. And, in 1731, Massachusetts alone had six hundred sloops and vessels, with five or six thousand men, engaged in the fisheries.

8. It is easy, then, to see that the losses, by means of privateers. during a war, to say nothing of the depredations of pirates, must be very great. But the loss of property, by sea and by land, was not all. Multitudes of the best of the citizens, of every age, especially in the prime of life, had fallen in the wars.

9. What the loss of men, women, and children actually was, during the long French and Indian wars, is not known. The loss of Massachusetts, including Maine and New Hampshire, between the years 1722 and 1749, when there was as little war as at any period of twentyseven years after the settlement of the country, has been supposed to be fifty thousand.

10. No wonder the colonies were glad to enjoy, when it came, the blessing of peace. No wonder trade and commerce revived, agriculture flourished, and the arts and manufactures made progress.


a pity the peace between the nations could not have been permanent ! How strange that the early history of the United States, like that of almost every nation, should be tarnished by a series of wars and ccnsequent sufferings!

6 What circumstance was prejudicial to the New Haven colony? 7. What of commerce from 1680 to 1781? 8 What losses were sustained during the war? 9 What of the reduction of population? 10. What was not surprising? What is the history of alJust every nation ?

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