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5. It was at this battle that a noble French officer, by the name of Dieskau, was wounded and taken prisoner. He was shot in the leg, and, being unable to retreat, was taken by an English soldier. Fear ing for his safety, he was feeling for his watch to give it up to the soldier, when the latter, supposing him to be feeling for his pistol, inflicted a deep wound in his hips. He was treated with great kindness, and survived eleven years.

6. The expedition against Niagara, with twenty-five hundred men, under Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, was begun too late in the year. The troops proceeded no further than Os-we'-go, on Lake Onta'-ri-o, when the proposed attack was abandoned. No more attempts were made, in this quarter, till after the declaration of war, which took place June 9, of the next year.

7. In the operations against the French, on the Ohio, there was not only a want of success, but a signal failure, in the memorable defeat of General Braddock, whom the British had sent over in February, with two thousand men, to the aid of the colonies. He was an aged and experienced officer-one who not only thought well of himself, but was thought well of by others.

8. No sooner had he arrived than the Virginian Assembly raised a body of eight hundred men to join him, and Washington agreed to serve as his aide-de-camp. The army marched without being molested till they were within seven miles of Fort du Quesne, now Pittsburg.

9. It was on this occasion that Franklin rendered his country a most important service. The troops being in want of a suitable number of wagons to transport their baggage, Franklin, who lived at Philadelphia, persuaded the farmers of Pennsylvania to let them have both wagons and horses. In the end, the wagons and horses were lost, and Franklin was expected to pay for them. The damage was about one hundred thousand dollars.

10. Franklin would have paid the debt had he been able, but he was not. He had advanced considerable money already. The owners of the horses and wagons at last began to sue him. The government, however, at length interposed, as they ought, and paid the debt.

11. But to return to General Braddock. On the morning of July 9, when within a few miles of Pittsburg, a large party of French and Indians were discovered in ambush. Washington now informed General Braddock what sort of an enemy he had to deal with-an enemy who would fight chiefly from behind hedges and rocks and trees, where they could not be easily seen.

5. Tell the anecdote of the French officer. 6. What of the expedition against Niagara? 7. What of General Braddock? 8. How did Washington serve? 9. Describe the service rendered by Franklin. 10. Who at last paid for the wagons and horses? 11. What did Washington tell General Braddock?



12. General Braddock, who was sadly ignorant on the subject, in stead of receiving the information with gratitude, was only angry, and said things had indeed come to a strange pass when a young Virginian should presume to teach a British general how to fight. He would not even grant the modest request of Washington to let him place himselt at the head of the Virginian riflemen, and fight the savages in their own way.

13. Washington bit his lips with anguish, for he knew too well. what would be the result. The troops were soon assailed on all sides, not by an enemy whom they could see and meet in fair fight, but a foe which, to them, was invisible. Slain by hundreds, and unable to resist, they soon fell into confusion, and General Braddock himself was mortally wounded.

14. Washington, however, remained perfectly calm and self-possessed.. As soon as Braddock fell, he placed himself at the head of the Virginian Blues, as they were called, led them against the enemy, checked their fury, and enabled the shattered British army to retreat. Braddock lived long enough to see his folly and to applaud the bravery of the Virginians. But he died; and Washington, to prevent the savages from discovering or disturbing his remains, buried him in the road, and ordered the wagons, on their retreat, to drive over his grave. 15. In this battle, the English and the colonists had seven hundred and seventy-seven men Filled and wounded, while the enemy scarcely lost fifty. Washington had four bullets sent through his clothes, and two horses slain under him, and yet he escaped unhurt! He again received the thanks of his country, though not in a formal manner.

16. It was not long after this battle that, near Pittsburg, an Indian warrior is reported to have said that Washington was not born to be killed by a bullet; for he had seventeen fair shots at him with his rifle, during the engagement, and yet, after all, he could not kill him. Such a sentiment, whether uttered by a savage or invented for the occasion, seems to have been almost prophetic.

12. How did Braddock receive Washington's advice? 18. What was the result of the battle? 14. What of Washington when Braddock fell? Where was Braddock buried? 15. What was the loss in this battle? What happened to Washington? 16. What did a javage say of him?


The French and Indian War.-Plan of the Colonists for taking Crown Point.-Montcalm's capture of the Fort at Oswego, etc.-Lord Chatham, British Minister.Louisburg recaptured.-Abercrombie's disastrous Attack on Fort Ticonderoga.-Capture of Forts Frontenac and du Quesne.-Great Indian Treaty.

1. ALTHOUGH for about two years the French and English colonies


had been at war, the two governments still maintained the relations of peace at home. But in May, 1756, war was declared by Great Britain against France, in due form. Then began that celebrated conflict, called in our annals The French and Indian War.

2. In the full expectation of immediate aid from the mother country, the colonies laid a plan to take the French forts at Crown Point* and Niagara, and for this purpose raised seven thousand men, placing them under


the command of General Winslow, of Massachusetts.

3. Governor Shirley had been, for some time past, the commander of the Massachusetts forces. But now the British ministry appointed the Earl of Loudon to this office, though, until his arrival, General Abercrombie was to have the command of the troops of Massachusetts. But General Abercrombie was an inefficient officer, and nothing decisive was done this year.

CHAP. LXXI.-1. What were the relations of France and England at home, while the colonies were at war? When was war formally declared? 2. What expectations bad the colonists? What forces were raised by them? Where was Crown Point? 3. What of Governor Shirley? Lord Loudon? General Abercrombie?

* Crown Point was on the western shore of Lake Champlain, and occupied a point of land projecting into the lake. It was ninety-five miles north-east of Albany. The site now presents a heap of ruins



4. In the mean time, the Canadian and Indian forces, amounting to eight thousand men, under General Mont-calm', had attacked and taken Oswego, the American key to Lake Ontario, with sixteen hundred of our troops, and a large quantity of cannon and military stores-as signal a disaster to the colonies as could have befallen them.

5. Lord Loudon at length arrived in America, and great preparation was made in England and America for the campaign of the next year. In 1757, eleven ships of the line, fifty transports, and six thousand troops arrived, destined to act against Louisburg, which had again fallen into the hands of the French. But the attack was delayed till it was so well fortified that it was not thought advisable to besiege it.

6. General Montcalm, the French commander, in pursuing his successes, had, by this time, besieged and taken Fort William Henry,* on Lake George. Nor did he meet with much resistance, although General Webb, with four thousand men, lay at Fort Edward, only fifteen miles off, and evidently knew what was going on.

7. It was a condition, in the surrender of the troops at Fort William Henry, that their lives should be spared after the surrender; and yet the Indians butchered great multitudes-the French officers pretending they could not restrain them. Yet they had a regular force of at least seven thousand men!

8. In 1758, the celebrated Mr. Pitt, Lord Chatham, was placed at the head of the British ministry. This event infused a new spirit into all the affairs of the government, and what was done with regard to the prosecution of the war in America, was done promptly and effi ciently.

9. He sent letters to all the American governors, requiring them to raise as many troops as they could, at the same time promising to send a large British force to their aid. The colonies complied with the request, and Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, alone, raised fifteen thousand men. They were to be ready for action in May. 10. The first movement was against Louisburg, in the months of June and July. This fortress, after a stout resistance, surrendered, and, with it, five thousand seven hundred and thirty-seven men. A considerable amount of cannon also was taken. The whole country, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Nova Scotia, fell into the hands of the English.


4. What had the Canadian and Indian fo ces done? 5. What of Lord Loudon? took place in 1757? 6. What of General Montcalm? 7. What happened at Fort William Henry? 8. When was Pitt made prime minister? 9. What steps did he take? 10. What was the first attack? What fell into the hands of the English?

*Fort William Henry was situated at the southern point of Lake George, on the northeastern border of the present state of New York. Fort Edward was on the east side of the Hudson River, forty-five miles north of Albany.

11. An attack was next made on Ti-con-de-ro'-ga.* As Lord Loudon had returned to England, the expedition was conducted by the inefficient Abercrombie. Though he had a force of seven thousand British and nine thousand colonists, and though the garrison consisted of but three thousand men, he was repulsed, with a loss, in killed and wounded, of nearly two thousand men.

12. The passage of General Abercrombie over Lake George, when going to Ticonderoga, is said to have been one of the most splendid and imposing scenes ever witnessed. The morning was bright and beautiful, the music fine; the ensigns glittered in the sunbeams, and a fleet of one thousand and thirty-five boats, with sixteen thousand men, moved along in the most exact order. How different must have been their return!

13. General Abercrombie, as if to atone for past remissness, now sent out three thousand men against Fort Fror'-te-nac, near the outlet of Lake Ontario, which in two days surrendered. An expedition was also fitted out against Fort du Quesne, but the French had evacuated it the evening before they arrived. It was at this period that it took the name of Pittsburg.

14. A treaty was made this year at Easton, sixty miles from Philadelphia, by the English colonies, with the principal tribes of Indians between the Atlantic and the Rocky Mountains. No less than five hundred Indian representatives, including women and children, were present, in their national costume.

15. Among them were Mo'-hawks, O-nei'-das, On-on-da'-gas, Ca-yu'gas, Sen'-e-cas, Tus-ca-ro'-ras, Nan'-ti-coques, Co'-nays, Tu'-te-loes, Chug'-nuts, Del'-a-wares, U'-na-mies, Min'-i-sinks, Mo-hi'-cans, and Wap'-pin-gers. Such an assembly had not been seen before, since the days of Penn.

11. Who attacked Ticonderoga and with what success? 12. Describe the passage over Lake George 13. What did Abercrombie now do? 14. What treaty was made th year? 15. Wbat tribes of Indians were present?

*Ticonderoga was situated at the outlet of Lake George,

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