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Newspapers, Societies and Mobs.

1. NEWSPAPERS had as great an influence on the public mind, in proportion to their number, in 1765, as now, and perhaps even greater. These continued to be published, though on inferior paper. They were, as with one voice, clamorous against the stamp act, and severe in their denunciations of those who were friendly to it.

2. Societies in great numbers were formed during this year, of those who were determined to unite in resisting parliamentary oppression. They called themselves "Sons of Liberty." They were particularly numerous in New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. Toward the close of the year, these associations, in the several colonies, became united by a kind of national compact.

3. Societies of quite another kind were also formed. Dr. Franklin had advised the people to "light the lamps of industry and economy." These, therefore, embraced persons of all ages and of both sexes, who were more willing to do without luxuries, and live by their own industry, than to depend on Great Britain.

4. Instead of wearing imported cloth, the more wealthy people were soon seen in dresses of their own manufacture; and for fear there might not be wool enough for their purpose, the use of sheep for food was discouraged. The most fashionable people could now card, spin, and weave their own cloth, and deny themselves the use of all foreign luxuries.

5. Nor were these resolutions and changes in modes of living, confined to cities and towns, and to the more wealthy. Close economy became the order of the day. Multitudes of artisans and manufacturers in England were left without employment, as the consequence of the diminished sale of their productions in the colonies; and Great Britain every where began to feel the consequences of her folly.

6. Meanwhile, mobs began to be got up in the colonies. In August, two images, called effigies, were found hanging on the branch of an old alm tree, near the southern limits of Boston. One represented a stamp officer. There was a great jack-boot also, out of which rose a horned bead, which seemed to gaze around. Multitudes collected from all parts to witness the strange sight.

CHAP. LXXVII.-1. What of newspapers in 1765? 2. Societies? 3. Other societies? 4. What was done by the more wealthy people? 5. Describe other changes in the modes of living. 6 Describe the effigies in Boston.

7. This, however, was but the beginning of mobs and mob law. About dark the same day, the effigies in Boston were taken down, placed on a bier, and carried about the city in solemn procession. The mob followed, shouting aloud, "Liberty and property forever, and no stamps!"

8. After passing through several of the principal streets, they halted at a building belonging to one Oliver, a stamp officer, which they supposed to be intended for a stamp office, and having demolished it, Carried the wood through the streets, with a tremendous noise, to

e dwelling of Mr. Oliver; where, having gone through the ceremony of cutting off his head, in effigy, they finished by breaking his windows.

9. They then marched up Fort Hill, still following the two figures, jack-boots, horns, and all. Here they kindled a bonfire with them, returned to Oliver's house with clubs and staves, and destroyed his gardens, fences, and out-houses. Oliver fled. They then broke open his doors, and destroyed much of his furniture. The next day, Mr. Oliver gave notice that he would not serve as a stamp officer; upon which the farce ended.

10. These riotous acts, or those which were similar, were repeated in Boston and elsewhere throughout New England, and even in New York, Maryland, and the Carolinas. At Newport and New York, the effigies of various political characters who were disliked were dragged about, hanged, burned, etc.; and, in a few instances, houses were plundered.


Repeal of the Stamp Act.

1. THE king and parliament of Great Britain finally saw their error, but they were too proud to retrace their steps by repealing the offensive law. However, something must be done to quiet the colonies; and this became, at the opening of the parliament in 1766, a leading object of inquiry.

2. Dr. Franklin was again consulted on the subject. He did not assume an air of triumph, and say, "I told you all this would happen." He knew too well the weakness and folly of human nature, even in members of parliament. He only repeated what he had before said, "That, though the Americans were a reasonable people, they would

7. What more was done by the mob? 8, 9. Describe the procession. 10. What took place in New England and elsewhere?

CHAP. LXXVIII.-1 What of the king and parliament? 2. What of Dr. Franklin,



never submit to taxation of any kind without representation, unless


compelled to do so by mere force of arms."

3. Fortunately for Great Britain, as well as America, there had been about this time a change in the administration, and the repeal of the stamp act had be come, at length, a subject of earnest and deep consideration. And though there was great and even obstinate opposition to its repeal, the measure was at length carried.

4. The repeal of the act was hailed with universal

joy. The American merchants in London were among the first to testify their gratitude. The ships lying in the river Thames displayed their colors. The houses of the city were lighted up, cannon fired, bonfires kindled, and messengers sent to spread the news, as fast as possible, in England and America.

5. But it was in America that the tidings were received with joy the


most heartfelt and sincere. The general assemblies of Massachusetts and Virginia went so far as to vote thanks to Mr. Pitt and the other members of parliament who had done so much to effect a repeal; and in Virginia it was proposed to erect a statue to the king. Mr. Pitt, Colonel Barre, and Edmund Burke, who had favored our cause in parliament, received the thanks of the people, and Charles Grenville, who had or posed it with great ability, ex cited general feelings of indigna tion.

3. Was the stamp act repealed? 4. How was the joy of the Americans in London expressed on account of the repeal? 5. What was done in America ?

6. There was one drawback upon the general joy; for, at the time of voting for the repeal of the stamp act, parliament also voted that they had a right to tax America whenever they should think it expedient. This, of course, was an adherence to the general principle against which the colonists had been all along contending.

7. Well had it been, no doubt, for the mother country had she stopped here; and though the right to tax America had been asserted, refrained from any other offensive or oppressive acts. But Providence had not designed-so it would seem-that the colonies should always remain the subjects of a monarch three thousand miles distant; and the hour of separation was rapidly approaching.


George III-More Taxation.-Petitions, Circulars, Remonstrances.-The British Custom-House Officers Mobbed in Boston.

1. On the 29th of June, 1767, the king, George III.* signed another act, which involved the principle of taxation without representation, . and as applied, in its worst features. It required a duty, to be paid by the colonists, on all paper, glass, pai.iters' colors, and tea, which were imported into the country.

2. The people of America did not hesitate to pronounce this act as unjust as the sugar and stamp act had been. It was not that they were too poor to pay a small tax on such articles as these, but if the crown could tax them without their consent in one way, it could in another; and where was the matter to end?

3. The British, it is true, reasoned otherwise. Their finances, they said, were exhausted by a war for the support of the colonies, and which had cost them nearly four hundred millions of dollars. It was, therefore, not only right that the Americans should contribute toward paying its expenses, but extremely ungrateful for them to refuse. They had taxed themselves severely on cider, ale, beer, porter, tea, sugar, coffee, molasses, etc., and why could not the colonies pay something also? 4. And as to taxation without representation, the British said that the colonies had taxed themselves, most heavily, and without being represented in parliament. They were not represented when Massachu

6. What was still to be lamented?

CHAP. LXXIX.-1. What was done in 1767? What of George III. as to his reign, age etc.? 2. What of the people of America? 8, 4. What was urged by the British? *George III came to the throne of Great Brita n in 1760, and died in 1820, aged eighty. For seven years before his death he was insane, and his son, afterward George IV.

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setts paid two millions of dollars for the support of one French war. and furnished twenty thousand to thirty thousand troops; why did they not complain then? This reasoning, however, did not satisfy the colonists.

5. But the tax on paper, glass, tea, etc., was not alone. A law was passed which obliged the several American legislatures to provide quarters for the British troops, and furnish them with fuel, lodging, candles, and other necessaries, at the expense of the colonies. This act was little less odious than the former.

6. New York, it is true, so far yielded as to make partial provision for the troops about to be quartered there. The assembly, at the request of the governor, voted to furnish barracks, fire-wood, candles, and beds; but not salt, vinegar, cider, and beer, as the law demanded. They, however, finally furnished the whole.

7. Still more than all this: an act passed the parliament, establishing a custom-house and board of commissioners in America. The duties were to commence November 20; and early in that month three of the commissioners arrived at Boston. The colonists, believing this board was created to enforce payment of the new duties, were more inflamed than ever.

8. Beside, the duties collected were to be applied in paying the salaries of governors, judges, and other officers; and it was easy to see that if they were paid in this way, rather than by the general assembly, they would not be so likely to regard the interest of the people whom they served, and would be more apt to be the mere tools of the king and parliament.

9. The consequences were, resolves, petitions, and remonstrances from all parts of the country. In 1768, the legislature of Massachusetts voted a humble petition to the king on the subject. This was followed by a circular letter to the representatives and burgesses of the other colonies, requesting them to unite in some suitable measures for obtaining a redress of their grievances.

10. This circular and the petition to the king, by Massachusetts, gave great offence to the British administration, and they demanded of the colonies that they should retrace the steps they had taken, and crush in the bud the rising propensity among them to act in concert. To this end, they, in their turn, sent a circular to the colonies. But all to no purpose.

11. The merchants and traders of Boston now entered into a compact, by which they agreed not to import, for one year, any kind of

5. What other law was passed? 6 What of New York? The assembly? 7. What act was passed by Parliament? What effect was produced on the colonies? 8 What of the da ties collected? 9. What was done in 1768? 10 What did the British parliament demand

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