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10. The British went slowly up the hill. It was a perilous hour. Thousands of people, on the tops of the steeples and houses in Boston. as well as on the hills round about, waited, in breathless silence, to know the result. A battle there must be, as every one foresaw, probably a bloody one; and the fate of the country depended, perhaps, on its issue.

11. But the British were now near the redoubt, and the Americans only withheld their fire in compliance with the orders of General Putnam. "Do not fire a gun," said he, "till you can see the whites of their eyes." But even the strict letter of this command did not equire long delay. Such a tremendous volley was at last poured upon the invaders in an instant, as thinned their ranks and compelled them

to retreat.

12. They soon rallied, however, and came on as before, but were repulsed a second time with great loss, and fled down the hill. The green field was covered with dead bodies. General Howe had not an officer left him on the field. General Clinton now came over from Copp's Hill, with new troops, and the battle was renewed with more spirit than ever.

13. At this critical moment, the powder of the Americans failed them, and they began to retreat, fighting with their muskets, using them as clubs. They moved westward as far as Prospect Hill, where they began to throw up new works. The British, however, were not disposed to pursue them-nor had the Americans the power to drive them from Bunker's Hill.

14. In this hard-fought battle, the British had two hundred and twenty-six killed, and eight hundred and twenty-eight wounded. Of the Americans one hundred and thirty-nine were killed, and three hundred and fourteen wounded and missing. Among the slain, of the Americans, was General Joseph Warren; among the British, Major Pitcairn, who had made himself so notorious at Lexington.

15. The death of General Warren was deeply lamented by the Americans. He was a physician, and greatly beloved both in his profession and in private life. He had received the commission of majorgeneral just three days before the battle, and was only thirty-five years of age. He went into this battle as a mere volunteer. He was killed almost instantly by a ball in the head, on or near the spot whers Bunker Hill Monument now stands.

10. Describe their ascent up the hill. 11. What was their reception? 12 What British general now joined in the attack? 18. What unfortunate occurrence compelled the Americans to retreat? 14. What was the loss of the British? Of the Americans? 15 What of General Warren?

GENERAL PUTNAM.

195

CHAPTER XCI.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-General Putnam.

1. THIS is a proper place to say something more of the principa commander of the army of Bunker's Hill-General Put'-nam, after ward Major-General Putnam. Till the French and Indian war broke

out in 1754, he was a farmer in Connecticut, and nothing had occur red in his life worthy of much notice, except his adventure with & wolf, which is so familiar to every schoolboy that it need not be related here.

2. Throughout the whole of the French and Indian war, which lasted bout nine years, General Putnam was employed as an officer; first as ▸ captain, afterward as a major, and still later as a colonel. No officer was more bold or skilful; few were more successful or more beloved.

3. In August, 1757, while stationed in the northern part of New York, he was engaged in a severe contest with the French and Indians, in which he was taken prisoner and tied to a tree. The battle went on, and, as it turned out, Putnam stood for some time in the hottest fire of both parties. Many balls lodged in the tree near him, and some pierced his clothes.

4. But he was reserved for further trials. Even before he was loosed from this very tree, when the colonial troops had, in one instance, retreated a little way, a young Indian amused himself by throwing his tomahawk at the tree, apparently to see how near he could throw it without hitting Putnam. In several instances it came within a hair's breadth of him.

5. He was at length untied, but not till he had been cruelly treated by a French officer, who struck him heavily on the cheek. He was next deprived of his vest, stockings, and shoes, and his hands tied together, and then loaded with the packs of the wounded soldiers.

6. The cords were tied so tightly round his wrists as to cause much swelling and great pain, and the blood flowed from his torn and naked feet, till his sufferings became so great that he begged the savages either to loosen the cord or kill him. A French officer removed a part of the burden, and an Indian gave him a pair of moccasins.

CHAP. XCI.-1. What can you say of General Putnam? What war broke out in 1754' 2. How long did this war last? How was General Putnam employed? 8. What hap pened in 1757? 4-6. Describe the trials to which he was exposed.

* It would appear probable that there was no regularly appointed commander at Bunker's Hill, and it has been even said that Putnam was not there. But it has been made clear that he was there, and no doubt gave directions to the American troops.

7. During the day, an Indian had also wounded him deeply in the cheek with a tomahawk. But the arrival of night brought greater trials than before. It was now the determination of the savages to roast him alive. He was bound to a tree, entirely naked, and the flames were kindled, and the Indians had already begun their horrid dancing and singing around him.

8. A sudden shower partly extinguished the flames, but they soon raged again. Already was he beginning to writhe in torture, and his ase was becoming hopeless, when a young French officer, rushing hrough the throng, dashed away the firebrands, and though he was Imost past feeling, liberated him from his sufferings.

9. Suffice it to say that he was sent as a prisoner, first to Ticonderoga, then a French post, and afterward to Montreal, where he was exchanged, upon which he immediately re-entered the army. He served under General Amherst, in the expedition to the West Indies, in 1762; was out in an expedition against the Western Indians, in 1764; and after serving nearly ten years in the army, he returned to his plough.

10. We hear no more of him in public life, except that he was opposed to the stamp act, till the news of the battle of Lexington reached him. He was ploughing in his field; but he left the plough standing in the furrow, and, without staying to change his clothes, rode to the scene of war. Subsequently to this he was, as will be seen, concerned in many of the most important battles of the Revolu-` tion. He died in May, 1790, aged seventy-two years. He was rough in speech and manner, but possessed sterling qualities of head and heart.

7 What plan had the Indians concerning him in the night? 8. How was he liberated? 9. What was then done with him? Where did he afterward serve? 10. When do we again hea, of him? When did he die?

WASHINGTON IN THE ARMY.

197

CHAPTER XCII.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-The Second Continental Congress.- Washington at the head of the Army.

1. THE Second Continental Congress met, according to the provis

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GENERAL WASHINGTON,

ions of the first, at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775. At this meeting, twelve of the colonies were represented. Georgia, it seems, did not send in her delegates till some time in July. Mr. Randolph was again chosen their president. 2. At the opening of the con

gress, John Hancock presented the most ample and conclusive evidence that, in the battle of Lexington, the king's troops were the first aggressors. The delegates were united in the opinion that it was necessary to put the colonies in a state of defence, and, though they should continue to hope for the best, to make all possible preparation for the worst which could happen.

8. For the purposes of defence, they voted to raise and equip an army of twenty thousand men, and to issue bills of credit to the amount of three millions of dollars, to pay the expenses-the twelve colonies being pledged for their redemption. They next proceeded to select George Washington, one of the delegates from Virginia, who was already favorably known, commander-in-chief of the army.

CHAP. XCII.-1. Where and when did the Second Continental Congress meet? How many colonies were represented? Who was the president? 2. What was done by John Hancock? What was deemed necessary? 8. What did they first proceed to do? To what station was Washington appointed?

4. The following anecdote will serve to show, in a striking manner, the modesty of Washington. The elder President Adams, then a member of Congress from Massachusetts, was the person who first proposed to make the appointment. Though he does not appear to have called Washington by name at first, yet his allusions were so strong that no one could mistake his meaning, upon which Washington sprang from his seat, and retired to an adjoining room.

5. One more fact, in this place, concerning him. Before his appoint ment, five hundred dollars a month had been voted to the chief commander of the army. After Washington's appointment, he most respectfully assured Congress that he did not wish to receive any profit from the office. "I will keep an account," said he, "of my expenses; these, I doubt not, they will discharge; and that is all I desire."

6. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals, to serve under Washington, were also appointed. The names of the first were Ar'te-mas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuy'-ler, and Israel Putnam. Those of the second were Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Thomas, John Sullivan, and Nathaniel Greene.

7. At this critical period in the history of the colonies, Congress appointed a general or national fast-the first of the kind ever kept in this country. The season, as it appears, was religiously observed. It was the 20th of July.

8. The appointment of Washington, as commander-in-chief of the army, was made on the 15th of June. He received his commission four days afterward. In company with Generals Lee and Schuyler, he left Philadelphia for the north on the 21st of June, and, after a little delay in New York-where he left General Schuyler-he arrived at Cambridge, near Boston, on the 2d of July.

4. Tell the anecdote of Adams and Washington. 5. What more can you say of him? 6. Tell the names of the generals and brigadier-generals chosen to serve under Washington. 7. What fast did Congress appoint? 8. What can you say of Washington at this time!

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