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THE SIX NATIONS AND OTHER

INDIANS.

259

6. General Wayne was a truly brave man. He was at this time about thirty-five years of age; but, though young, he was old in war -having been continually employed in the most active services of his country for four years. He had been in Canada, at Ticonderoga, at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and several other points of great hazard and danger.

7. For this brilliant attack on Stony Point, Congress gave thanks to Washington, who contrived it, and a gold medal to Wayne, who executed it. But, the army gained, with the fort, something beside mere honor. A large quantity of military stores, of which they stood in great, indeed absolute, need, fell into their hands.

8. This successful adventure was followed, in a few days, by another. Major Lee, with three hundred men, made a descent upon Paulus Hook, a British post on the New Jersey shore, opposite New York, which he completely surprised and carried, with but two men killed and three wounded.

CHAPTER CXXIV.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-The Six Nations and other Indians.

1. THE history of events in the United States for the year 1779 would be incomplete without some further accounts of the war with the Indians. These, except in the vicinity of Wyoming, were exceedingly troublesome.

2. In May of this year, a small body of men from Fort Schuyler marched against the Onondaga Indians, and burnt their village, consisting of about fifty houses, with a large quantity of pro visions, without the loss of a single man. They also took thirty

four prisoners.

3. Detached parties of men were also sent out against the Indians on the borders of South Carolina, and in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. On the frontier of South Carolina, eight Indian towns were destroyed; and in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, a number of Indian huts and about five hundred acres of corn.

6. Give some account of General Wayne. 7. What rewards did Congress give? What did the Americans take in the fort? S. What exploit was performed by Major Lee ? CHAP. CXXIV.-1. What of the Indians in the United States? 2. What attack was made upon the Onondaga Indians? 8. What other attacks were made upon the

Indians?

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determination to load his gun, for which he was killed by his captain on the spot. The fort was defended by a deep swamp, covered with water. The troops marched through it, waist deep. The British opened upon them a tremendous fire of musketry and artillery; stili the Americans were not allowed to fire a gun.

4. But their success was complete. The fort was carried at the point of the bayonet, and its surviving defenders all taken. The Americans lost about a hundred men in the onset, of whom seventeen were of the twenty picked guards who went in front of the rest. The British had sixty-eight killed-the rest surrendering at discretion.

5. General Wayne was among the wounded of the Americans. As they were entering the fort, a musket-ball cut a gash in his forehead. He fell, but rose upon one knee, and said, "Forward, my brave fellows, forward!" Then, in a low voice, he said to one of his aides, "Assist me; if I die, I will die in the fort!" But the wound proved less severe than was at first expected.

3. What happened as to one of the soldiers? Describe the attack upon the fort 4 What was the success of the Americans? Their loss? What of the British loss? 5. De scribe General Wayne's conduct when wounded.

THE SIX NATIONS AND OTHER

INDIANS.

259

6. General Wayne was a truly brave man. He was at this time about thirty-five years of age; but, though young, he was old in war -having been continually employed in the most active services of his country for four years. He had been in Canada, at Ticonderoga, at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and several other points of great hazard and danger.

7. For this brilliant attack on Stony Point, Congress gave thanks to Washington, who contrived it, and a gold medal to Wayne, who executed it. But, the army gained, with the fort, something beside mere honor. A large quantity of military stores, of which they stood in great, indeed absolute, need, fell into their hands.

8. This successful adventure was followed, in a few days, by another. Major Lee, with three hundred men, made a descent upon Paulus Hook, a British post on the New Jersey shore, opposite New York, which he completely surprised and carried, with but two men killed and three wounded.

CHAPTER CXXIV.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-The Six Nations and other Indians.

1. THE history of events in the United States for the year 1779 would be incomplete without some further accounts of the war with the Indians. These, except in the vicinity of Wyoming, were exceedingly troublesome.

2. In May of this year, a small body of men from Fort Schuyler marched against the Onondaga Indians, and burnt their village, consisting of about fifty houses, with a large quantity of provisions, without the loss of a single man. They also took thirty

four prisoners.

3. Detached parties of men were also sent out against the Indians on the borders of South Carolina, and in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. On the frontier of South Carolina, eight Indian towns were destroyed; and in the neighborhood of Pittsburg, a number of Indian huts and about five hundred acres of corn.

6. Give some account of General Wayne. 7. What rewards did Congress give? What did the Americans take in the fort? S. What exploit was performed by Major Lee? CHAP. CXXIV.-1. What of the Indians in the United States? 2. What attack was made upon the Onondaga Indians? 8. What other attacks were made upon the

Indians?

4. The "Six Nations,"* as they were called, had promised to be

RED JACKET, A SENECA CHIEF.

neutral in the war; but, except the Oneidas, they became at length quite troublesome-plundering, burning, and murdering. They were instigated, no doubt, by the British agents. General Sullivan, with a part of the American army, was at length sent out against them. He arrived in their country in August.

5. The Indians, aware of his approach, had fortified themselves after the English fashion. They defended themselves most manfully against the attack of General Sullivan for more than two hours. They were, however, finally driven from the position, and their villages, gardens, corn and fruits destroyed.

6. Still it was in the power

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of detached parties of the Indians to do much mischief. In July,

4. What of the "Six Nations"? Let the pupil give an account of the Five Nations from the foot-note. Who was sent against them? 5. How did the Indians defend themselves? * This powerful confederacy consisted originally of the Five Nations, that is, the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk tribes. These were the proper Iroquois, and are to be distinguished from the Huron-Iroquois. They all occupied lands in Western New York, and the names of towns and counties, at the present day, indicate the region of their settlements. Their great council-fire was with the Onondagas, and their chief village was near the present town of Syracuse. At what time the confederation was formed is not known, but it was in existence at the time the French became acquainted with them, in 1609. The name of Iroquois was given by the French; the Algonquins called them Mingos. They were very warlike, and were almost constantly engaged in hostile excursions against other savages, as well in the East as the South and West.

The Tuscaroras, having been defeated by the Carolinians in 1712, migrated to the North, and became a member of the confederacy, which from this time has borne the title of the Six Nations. They were generally the friends of the British during the revolutionary war. They were finally reduced to a state of submission and insignificance. They numbered over forty thousand souls in 1715; but at present do not exceed three or four thou sand. Most of them are removed west of the Mississippi; a few, partially civilized, being in or near their original sites in Western New York. The celebrated Red Jacket, whe died in 1880, was chief of one of the tribes, the Senecas.

SURRENDER OF CHARLESTON.

261

about the time of the Wyoming massacre, Brandt, the half-blood chief, with a body of Indians and tories, burnt ten houses and killed fortyfour men at Minisink settlement, near the Hudson. The bones of those who fell there, after whitening in the sun forty-three years, were in 1823 collected and buried with much ceremony.

CHAPTER CXXV.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-Surren der of Charleston. Other disastrous Events in the South.

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1. THE greater part of the American army at the north had wintered, 1779-'80, in Morristown, New Jersey. There were, however, strong detachments at West Point, and other posts about the Hudson, and a body of cavalry in Connecticut. Little was done on either side during the winter, which was one of unusual severity. In truth, the sufferings of the American army were so great that Washington at times thought of disbanding them.

2. The army for the campaign of 1780 was fixed by Congress at thirty-five thousand two hundred and eleven men; of which each state was to furnish its proportion by the first day of April. But it was easier to furnish an army on paper than actually to procure the enlistments. Only ten thousand four hundred men could be actually mustered in April; while the British force at New York was seventeen thousand three hundred.

3. Nor was the condition of the American army in some other respects at all encouraging. Their wages were five months in arrears; their food was scanty, and sometimes bad; they had no sugar, tea, wine, spirits, or medicine; and, worse than all, no prospect before them of any thing better.

4. Gloomy as these circumstances were, however, the spring was spent in preparation for war. In April, La Fayette returned from France, with the cheering intelligence that a large land and naval force might soon be expected from that country. They did not arrive, however, till July; and until their arrival the war at the north was confined to unimportant skirmishing.

6 What outrages were committed by Brandt?

CHAP. CXXV.-1. Where was the greater part of the American army in the winter of 1779-1750? Where were strong detachments? What of suffering? 2. What of the arn. for the campaign of 1780? What men were actually raised? What was the British force ▾ 8 What was the condition of the American army? 4. What news was brought by 1Fayette?

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