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a passage up the Hudson, spies and scouts were constantly passing between the two armies. One Palmer was at last caught by the army under General Putnam, and executed. He had been an American tory, but had deserted to the British, and received a lieutenant's commission.

4. The British general in New York, having heard of the arrest of Palmer, wrote to General Putnam, entreating that he might be spared, and threatening vengeance in case of a refusal. But neither his entreaties nor his threats moved Putnam, and Palmer was condemned as a spy and executed.

5. The brave Colonel Trumbull has been mentioned. He was in London, pursuing his studies as a painter, when the news of André's death arrived; and though Trumbull had been entirely disconnected from the army for several years, he was now carefully watched, and at length taken and subjected to a rigid examination. Their rough method of examination not pleasing him, he soon brought it to a close by a voluntary confession.

6. "I will put an end to all this insolent folly," said he, "by telling you who and what I am. I am an American-my name is Trumbull; I am son of him whom you call the rebel governor of Connecticut; I have served in the rebel American army, and I have had the honor of being aide-de-camp to him you call the rebel General Washington."

7. He was respected for his frankness and his spirit, but not released. After further examination, he was committed to prison, and would probably have been executed but for the kind interference of West, the celebrated American painter, then in London and on good terms with the king, who persuaded the latter to spare his life. He was, however, kept in close confinement seven months.

CHAPTER CXXX.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-Arnold invades Virginia and New London.

1. ARNOLD received 6,315 pounds sterling-equal to about thirty thousand dollars-for his treachery, with the commission of a brigadier-general in the service of his majesty, the British king. His vanity and extravagance had involved him in debt, and he doubtless sold himself and his country for the means of replenishing his purse.

8. What took place during the war at the north? What was the fate of Palmer? 4. What passed between the British general and Putnam? 5. What happened to Colonel Trumbull? 6. Repeat his confession. 7. How was he treated?

CHAP. CXXX.-1. How was Arnold rewarded for his treachery? What was probably the cause of his fall?

ARNOLD INVADES VIRGINIA.

271

2. Soon after his arrival in New York, he published an 66 Address to the Inhabitants of America," explaining the course he had pursued, and endeavoring to justify himself in it. It was of little force, howIt was rather a tirade against Congress and the alliance with the French, than an address to the Americans, or an apology for his own conduct.

ever.

3. In about two months after he joined the British, he was appointed to the command of an expedition against Virginia, consisting of sixteen hundred men. A violent gale separated the fleet in which he and his men had embarked, but they all arrived at Hampton Roads about December 30th, except four hundred of the troops, who were a week later.

4. Not waiting for those who were missing, Arnold proceeded up the James River, burning and plundering, without any distinction between public and private property. After doing all the mischief he could, he descended the river, and stationed himself at Portsmouth; and in a few weeks after returned to New York.

5. Washington and La Fayette exerted themselves to the utmost to cause him to be captured, but without success. A French fleet was even sent to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, chiefly for this service, but they were pursued by the British admiral Arbuthnot; and though they had captured some of Arnold's vessels, they were compelled to retire to Newport. Arnold took care to secure his own person.

6. We hear little more of this desperate man-except that he endeavored, without success, to make an attack upon West Point-till the autumn of 1781, when he made a descent with fifteen hundred men upon the mouth of the Connecticut River, and took Forts Trumbull and Griswold, committing a merciless slaughter at the latter place, after the troops had partly surrendered, and burning the town of New London.

7. Not long after these last events, he sailed for England. He lived till the year 1801, but was almost unnoticed. A small part of his time was spent at St. John's in the province of New Brunswick, and in the West Indies; but the greater portion of it was spent in London, where he died at the age of sixty-one years. Arnold the Traitor has become a name of infamy throughout this country, and even in England, where he was generally despised.

2. What did he do soon after his arrival in New York? 8. To what expedition was he appointed commander? 4. Describe his march up the James River. 5. What means were used to take Arnold? 6, 7. What more do we hear of him? When did he die?

CHAPTER CXXXI.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-Events at the South.

1. WE have been carried forward a little in the history of the war, in

GENERAL GREENE.

order to finish the story of Arnold Let us now return to Washington and the American army, whom we left stunned with amazement at the conduct of the traitor, at West Point.

2. The troops wintered-17801781, for the most part in New Jersey, as they had done the year before. In the spring of 1781, the Pennsylvania troops, to the number of thirteen hundred, revolted and rebelled for want of pay. It was found, on examination, that their complaints were well founded. Their claims being met, the rebellion ceased.

3. Little was done at the north, during the year 1781, except what has been mentioned in connection with the story of Arnold. The theatre of war was principally at the south. General Greene had succeeded to General Gates, as the commander-in-chief of the army there, and affairs soon began to wear a more favorable aspect.

4. A brilliant victory was gained, January 17th, of this year, by a part of General Greene's army, under General Morgan, at a place called the Cowpens, in the western part of South Carolina, near King's Mountain, over a detachment of British troops under Colonel Tarleton. The latter had one thousand of the best men of the army; the former about five hundred regulars and a few raw militia, only half clothed and hað fed.

5. The Americans, with a loss of only twelve in killed and sixty wounded, took five hundred prisoners, besides twelve standards, twó pieces of artillery, eight hundred muskets, thirty-five baggage wagons,

CHAP. CXXXI.-2. Where did the American troops winter 1780–1781 ? What of the troops in the spring of 1781? 8. Who succeeded General Gates in command at the south! 4. Describe the battle of the Cowpens. 5. What was the loss of the Americans? What prisoners and baggage fell into their hands?

WAR AT THE SOUTH.

273

and one hundred horses, and killed one hundred and wounded two hundred men. So disastrous

[graphic]

GENERAL MORGAN.

an event gave a permanent check to the progress of the British troops in the Southern states.

6. At the time of the defeat of Tarleton, Lord Cornwallis was on the point of invading North Carolina, but he now went in pursuit of General Morgan, who made a rapid retreat. General Greene, suspecting Cornwallis' intentions, set out with his troops to reinforce Morgan. Having left the main body of his army at the left bank of the Pedee River, opposite Cheraw, he arrived, and took command of Morgan's division, closely pursued however by Cornwallis.

7. By a series of masterly movements, and great good fortune, the season seeming to

aid him and his troops, Greene baffled his pursuers, until at last, having joined his forces and received several reinforcements, his army amounting to forty-four hundred men, he took a station at Guilford court-house, and awaited the enemy.

8. Here on the 15th March, he was attacked by the British, commanded by Cornwallis in person. A severe engagement followed, in which, though the enemy lost in killed and wounded about five hundred men, they were at last victorious. The Americans lost about four hundred men, mostly regular troops-the militia having fled at the beginning of the battle. But the result of the engagement to the ritish was little less injurious than a defeat.

3. Another battle was fought, on the 25th of April, near Camden. The British had fortified the place, and left Lord Rawdon and nine hun

6. What of Lord Cornwallis? 7. What of the movements of General Greene? 8. What of the battle at Guilford court-house? 9. What of the battle of Camden?

* Guilford court-house was about six miles south of the present Greensborough, in North Carolina, eighty miles north-west of Raleigh. Camden, in South Carolina. as already stated, is one hundred and ten miles north-west from Charleston.

dred men to guard it. General Greene, with twelve hundred men attacked them, but was at length obliged to retreat without accomplishing his purpose.

10. But all these victories of the British were dearly bought, and were fast reducing their strength. The defence of Camden alone, though successful, had cost them nearly three hundred out of nine hundred men. It was therefore concluded, not only to evacuate Camden, but also all their other posts in Carolina, except Ninety-Six* and Charleston. Here they still had strong forces.

11. The former place, Ninety-Six, was attacked by General Greeno on the 18th of June, but he was again unsuccessful, though the British some time afterward evacuated the place and retired to the Eutaw Springs, forty miles north-west from Charleston. A close engagement took place at these Springs, September 8th, in which both sides claimed the victory. The British lost, in killed, wounded, and missing, eleven hundred men; the Americans half as many.

12. This finished the war, for the time, in South Carolina. The British retired to Charleston, and General Greene, satisfied with driving them out of the country, did not molest them further. For his good conduct at Eutaw Springs and elsewhere, Congress presented him with a British standard and a gold medal.

CHAPTER CXXXII.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED.-Naval

Operations.

1. THE naval operations of the Revolutionary war have been alluded to in connection with the story of Paul Jones. A few other engagements, in the years 1779, 1780, and 1781, remain to be mentioned.

2. Some time in the spring of the year 1779, the Hampden, a twentytwo-gun ship that sailed from Massachusetts, engaged an English vessel, five hundred miles north of the A-zores'. In this action, though the Hampden was obliged to haul off, the British were not disposed to triumph. This is said to have been one of the most closely contested actions of the war.

10. What was the effect of their success upon the British? 11. What place was attacked by General Greere? What of Eutaw Springs? 12. What of General Greene? Where

lid the British retire?

CHAP. CXXXII-2. What of the Hampden?

Ninety-Six was in South Carolina, one hundred and fifty miles north-west from Charleston.

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