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NAVAL OPERATIONS.

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3. During the summer of 1779, Commodore Nicholson, with two ships, one of thirty-two guns, and the other of twenty-four, made a cruise, in which he took many prizes, but fought no important battle. The Providence, of twelve guns, this year took the Diligent, a British vessel of equal size; and the Hazard, of fourteen guns, took the British vessel Active, of eighteen guns, after a bloody battle of thirty minutes.

4. During the early part of the year 1780, while the French fleet, under Count d'Estaing, was in the West Indies, the British, by means of their superior force, were able to capture or destroy a considerable part of the little navy of the United States. The Providence, twentyeight guns, the Queen of France, twenty-eight, the Boston, twentyfour, the Ranger, eighteen, and several others, successively fell into their hands.

5. On the 2d of June, a most severely contested action was fought, some five hundred miles eastward of the coast of Virginia, between the Trumbull, of twenty-eight guns, Commodore Nicholson, and the Wyatt, Captain Coulthard, of thirty-two or thirty-six guns. The Trumbull had thirty-nine men killed and wounded; the Wyatt nearly a hundred. The latter, though severely injured, escaped.

6. In October, of the same year, the Saratoga, of sixteen guns, Captain Young, captured a British ship of war and two brigs, after a short but very spirited action. The Saratoga was run alongside of the enemy's vessel at once, and her men boarded her and fought for victory on the deck of the enemy's ship, and against a force double their own.

7. During the year 1781, the Alliance, of thirty-two guns, Captain Barry, had several engagements with vessels nearly her own size, in all of which she was victorious. The principal of these was on the 28th of May. On this occasion she fought two ships, one of sixteen guns and another of fourteen. Both were taken.

8. The Trumbull, still under the command of Commodore Nicholson, had a most sanguinary engagement, on the 8th of August of this year, off the Capes of Delaware, with the British frigate Iris, of thirty-two guns, and the Shark, of eighteen, in which the Trumbull was finally captured; but not till she had first almost disabled the Iris.

9. Some other engagements took place on the ocean, both in 1781 and 1782, but they were chiefly of the same general character with those described above. Let us now return to the war in the Southern states, and especially the operations of Cornwallis.

8. What of Commodore Nicholson? What British ships were taken in 1779? 4. What was done by the British navy in the year 1780 ? 5. Describe the action of the 24 June 6 That of October. 7. What was done by the Alliance? 8 What of the engagement be tween the Trumbull and the Iris and Shark? 9. Other engagements?

CHAPTER CXXXIII.

PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR, CONTINUED. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.

1. Soon after the battle at Guilford court-house, Cornwallis left

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at Petersburg, and hastened with his troops to meet him.

2. As La Fayette approached Petersburg, Cornwallis offered him battle; but finding his forces greatly inferior to those of the British, he chose to retreat, and wait for reinforcements. Meanwhile, Washington and other officers at the north were making every possible preparation for an attack upon New York; and were already concentrating their forces, including the French, under Rochambeau, at Kingsbridge.

3. About this time, Cornwallis received a reinforcement of troops, upon which, after various movements, he marched to Yorktown,* near the head of York River, on its southern bank, and forthwith began to fortify the place, as well as Gloucester, on the opposite side of the river. His whole force now amounted to about seven thousand men.

CHAP. CXXXIII.-1. What did Lord Cornwallis do soon after the battle at Guilford court-house? What of the French fleet? What did La Fayette then do? 2. What was being done by the American and French forces? 3. What of Cornwallis? His force?

* Yorktown, the capital of York county, in Virginia, is a small place, situated on the south side of York River, about seven miles from its entrance into the Chesapeake. It is seventy miles south-east of Richmond.

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4. Just at this time, Washington learned that the French fleet, which was expected to unite with him in the siege of New York, was about to sail for the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. This changed his determination, though he did not suffer his plan to be known, and he hastened with his forces, Americans and French, at once toward Yorktown to attack Cornwallis.

5. On the 30th of September, the combined armies of the north and south, amounting to twelve thousand men, were fairly encamped round about Yorktown and Gloucester, while the French fleet, under Count de Grasse, blockaded the mouth of the river, to prevent Cornwallis from receiving any assistance from New York or elsewhere, and from making his escape.

6. Washington arrived in person on the 6th of October, and the siege was begun and carried on with so much vigor that, on the 19th of October, 1781, Lord Cornwallis found himself obliged to surrender, with

4. What of Washington just at this time? What changed his determination? 5. De scribe the situation of the French and American forces at Yorktown. 6. When did Lord Cornwallis surrender?

his whole army of more than seven thousand men-an event which two months before was as unexpected by the Americans as it was by the British government.

7. At the capture of Charleston, eighteen months before, by the British, much pains had been taken to render the manner of the surrender as humiliating to the Americans as possible. This was remembered by the victorious army at Yorktown, and retaliated. So humil iating indeed was it, that Lord Cornwallis would not appear in person to give up his sword, but sent it by General O'Hara.

8. So rapid, and at the same time so secret, had been the movements of Washington and his army to the south, that the British did not for some time suspect his departure from the neighborhood of New York. When they learned what was going on, they sent the traitor Arnold to Connecticut, as we have elsewhere stated, in order to divert Washington from his object. Sir Henry Clinton also sailed with an armament of seven thousand men for the relief of Cornwallis, but as he did not reach the Chesapeake till five days after his surrender, he returned to New York.

9. This important event, the surrender of Cornwallis, revived the dying hopes of the country, and diffused universal joy, of which the strongest public testimonials were everywhere given. Nothing was to be heard, for some time, but the praises of Washington, La Fayette, Rochambeau, and De Grasse. The war was now thought to be chiefly over. The 30th of the December following was appointed by Congress as a day of national thanksgiving.

10. The British still occupied New York, Charleston, Savannah, and a few other posts; but they no longer, as before, overran New Jersey and the Carolinas. Nor was there, in truth, much more severe fighting. The fall of Cornwallis may therefore be justly said to have decided the war; and to have decided it in favor of the Americans.

11. Among the more considerable events of the year 1781, in addi. tion to a few which have already been noticed, was an expedition, late in the autumn, against the Cherokee Indians, who had recently been troublesome. In this expedition, thirteen of their towns and villages were burnt, and many of the Indians were slain.

12. Soon after the capture of Cornwallis, the northern division of the American army returned to their old position on the Hudson, while the French troops and the southern division of the army remained in

8 What can

7. What of the surrender at Charleston? What of that of Cornwallis? you say of the movements of Washington's army? 9. What demonstrations of joy were made all over the country? 10. What places were occupied by the British at this time? What decided the war? 11. What expedition was made in 1781 in regard to the Indians? 12. Where did the Americans and French station themselves soon after the capture of Cornwallis?

TREATY OF PEACE.

279 and about Virginia. Count de Grasse sailed with his fleet to the West Indies, where they spent the winter.

13. It should be added here, that the Articles of Confederation, which Congress had prepared and signed, and sent to the several states for adoption, were finally ratified by them all, this year. Till this time, objections of one kind or another had been made, and various amendments proposed; but it was at length seen to be necessary to unite, in order to sustain the contest with Great Britain, and hence the compact of the Confederation was adopted.

CHAPTER CXXXIV.

CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.-Treaty of Peace.

1. AFTER the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, the war with America

began to be quite unpopular in England; but nothing decisive was done to put an end to it till March, 1782, when the House of Commons passed a resolution against prosecuting, or attempting to prosecute, the American war any further. Still the troops were not withdrawn immediately.

2. The first truly pacific public measure adopted by Great Britain, was that of appointing Sir Guy Carleton, one of the best and ablest of the British generals, to the command of the forces in America, and directing him to settle the differences between the two countries. This officer endeavored to open a correspondence with Congress for this purpose; but they refused to do any thing except in concert with their French allies.

SIR GUY CARLETON.

3. It was not till late in the year 1782, that any thing effectual was accomplished toward making peace between the two countries. At

13. What of the Articles of Confederation?

CHAP. CXXXIV.-1. What was done in England in 1782? 2. What did Sir Guy Carle on attempt to do? 3. What commissioners met at Paris?

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