Page images



2. The Revolutionary War, though it retarded the progress of the settlements in the West, did not wholly prevent emigration thither. In 1773, no less than four hundred families passed down the Ohio River in six weeks, most of whom settled at or near Natchez. The same

year three hundred families of Germans emigrated from Maine to the south-western parts of South Carolina.

8. But the most remarkable of all the attempts to people the western country at this period was made by Colonel Daniel Boone, of North Carolina. He was a great hunter, and had rambled in the forests of the "Mighty West" several years before he ventured, in defiance of wild beasts and still wilder men, to take up his residence there.

4. He first left home, in company with six other adventurers, in 1769. Kentucky was found to be a fine place for hunting the buffalo. At length, he and a companion by the name of Stuart were taken prisoners by the Indians. They escaped from them and found their way back to their camp, but it had been plundered, and the rest of the company were dispersed.

5. Soon after this, his brother and another man joined him, so that the company was again increased to four. Stuart was soon after killed by the Indians, and the other man by wolves, so that Boone and his brother alone remained. They, however, built themselves a cottage with poles and bark, and wintered there.


6. In May, 1770, the brother of Boone returned to North Carolina, in order to procure a recruit of horses and ammunition, leaving him entirely alone, and, as he himself says, without bread, salt, or sugar, or even a horse or a dog." This winter, in one of his rambles, he narrowly escaped the savages. But he was one of those men who, like Washington, seemed reserved for special purposes.

7. His brother returned to him late in July, and they spent the rest of the year there, and the following winter. During this time, beside hunting, they discovered and gave name to the principal rivers of the country. The whole region seemed to them a paradise, and in March, 1771, they returned home to bring their families there.

8. In September, 1773, they set out for Kentucky. Five other families had been induced, by their representations, to join them. Forty men also joined them at Powell's Valley, on the road. Soon after this, they were attacked by the Indians, and six of the party slain, among whom was Boone's eldest son. Their cattle also were scattered.

9. They retreated forty miles to a settlement on Clinch River, where

2. Describe the emigration of the year 1773. 3. What of Daniel Boone? 4, 5. Describe his adventures in 1769. 6. What took place in May, 1770? 7. What happened after the return of his brother? What did he and his brother do in 1771? 8. What happened in September? What was done by the Indians?

they left their families. From this time forth, for nearly two years, Boone was employed in surveying the country and in building roads and forts. Among the rest, they built a fort at a place which they called Boonesborough. He removed his family to the fort in June, 1775, about the time of the battle at Lexington.

10. This is supposed to have been the first permanent settlement in that state at that time a part of Virginia-though two others were inade not far from the same time. The wife and daughter of Colonel Boone were, as he says, "the first white women that ever stood upon the banks of Kentucky River."

11. But this settlement was not effected without great peril. Several times did the Indians attack Boone's party during the journey from Clinch River to Boonesborough. Five of the company were killed, and as many wounded. Others were slain after their arrival. The daughter of Boone was even carried off by the savages, in 1776; but her father recovered her.

12. The whole life of this father of Kentucky is eventful and interesting; we can only add here, that he remained in his favorite state, though often much exposed and once taken a prisoner, till 1798, when he removed, with a large train of relatives and friends, to Missouri, where he spent his days in hunting and trapping. He died in 1822, aged eighty-five years.


WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED. Formation of various Societies in the United States.

1. THE year 1792 is distinguished for the formation of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society; an association which, by itself and its auxiliaries, has, in the progress of half a century, done much for the advancement, in the United States, of that which constitutes the real wealth and happiness and greatness of a nation.

2. Up to this period, societies for the promotion of improvement, physical or moral, had been little known among us. But an interval of rest from war had led many at length to turn their thoughts to mechanics, manufactures, agriculture, education, morals, and religion.

9 How was Boone employed for two years? To what place did he remove his family? 10. What was the first permanent settlement in Kentucky? What of the wife and daughter of Boone? 11. How were the settlers annoyed by the Indians? 12. How long did Boone remain in Kentucky? Where did he then go? When did he die?

CHAP. CXLI.-1. For what is the year 1792 distinguished? 2. What had been done Auring the interval of rest from war?



3. It is worthy of remark that the rearing of mulberry-trees and silk-worms had succeeded so far, in Connecticut, that the Rev. Jason Atwater, a minister in Branford, had a silk gown made for him this year, at his own home. This was the first clergyman's silk gown made in America. Silk stockings had been fabricated a little before, and also silk handkerchiefs.

4. One of the first and most curious societies ever formed in this country was the Boston Society for Encouraging Industry and Employing the Poor. It was established about the year 1750, though it continued but a few years. A large and handsome brick building was erected in Boston, in connection with this society, for the linen manufacture, the expense of which was paid by a tax on carriages and other articles of luxury.

5. This society held its first anniversary in 1753, when a public discourse was delivered by Rev. Mr. Cooper. In the afternoon, about three hundred young female spinsters, decently dressed, appeared on the common, at their spinning-wheels. The wheels were placed regularly in three rows, of one hundred each, and a female was seated at each wheel.

6. The weavers, also, of the city and its vicinity, appeared on the Common, neatly dressed in garments of their own weaving. One of them, with his loom, was carried on the shoulders of the people, attended by music; the music of the shuttle continuing along with the rest. The crowd that attended to witness these novel but interesting spectacles was immense.

7. An association of tradesmen and manufacturers of the town of Boston was formed in 1785. The Boston Mechanics' Association was formed in 1795. The Delaware Society for Promoting American Manufactures was instituted at Wilmington in 1817; and the Scotch loom came into Rhode Island the same year. The Maryland Economical Association was formed at Baltimore in 1819.

8. The American Bible Society was formed at New York in 1816. Delegates were present from thirty-two societies. It is, moreover, a curious fact, that, in view of the want of Bibles in the country, Congress, in 1777, had ordered twenty thousand Bibles to be imported.

9. But there had been societies for other purposes, in considerable numbers, formed long before the year 1792—the period at which we are now arrived. There was a society for propagating the gospel in New England, incorporated in 1649—for propagating the gospel among the Indians in New England and elsewhere, in 1661, and the Society for propagating Christian knowledge among the Indians, in 1762.

8. What of the culture of silk in Connecticut? 4. What society was formed in 1750? What building was erected? 5. What was done in 1753? Describe the scene on Boston Common. 6. Describe the meeting of the weavers. 7. What other associations were formed? 8. What of Bible societies? 9. What societies were there prior to 1792?

10. In more modern times, associations or societies have become numerous in all parts of the United States, including those devoted to agriculture and other domestic arts; to religion, to charities of many kinds, to literature, science, the fine arts, etc. These societies have been the means of promoting, in many ways, the peace, improvement, and happiness of the people.


WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-His Second Election.-The French Revolution.-M. Genet's Operations.-Jefferson's Resignation as Secretary of State.

1. Soon after the opening of Congress in 1792, an attempt was made to show that Hamilton, the secretary of the treasury, was a dangerous man, aiming at the destruction of the liberties and rights of his country; and hints to the same effect were even thrown out against President Washington himself.

2. But, notwithstanding all these insinuations, in March, 1793, Washington was declared unanimously re-elected to the presidency, and Mr. Adams was again chosen vice-president. Washington had at first decided not to be again a candidate for this high office, but had at length yielded his own wishes to those of the people.

3. A treaty was this year made with the Indians on the Wabash, and the promise of a conference, the next spring, was obtained of several of the other tribes. In the mean time, however, the business of enlisting soldiers for an exigency, which might, after all, require them, was perseveringly though slowly carried on, and the troops already in the service were kept in a proper state of discipline.

4. Early in 1793, news reached America of a Declaration of War by France against England, Spain, and Holland, and caused much excitement. From the nature of the relation which had subsisted between the United States and France during the late war, a majority of the people sympathized strongly with the French, and were as strongly opposed to Great Britain.

5. The question therefore arose, whether the government of the United States should espouse the cause of either party in the contest. This question was finally decided by Washington and his council in

10. What of societies in more modern times?

CHAP. CXLII.-1. What attempts were made by some invidious persons about 1792? 2. When was Washington re-elected president? 8. What treaty was made this year. 1798? What was done in respect to soldiers? 4. What news in 1793? How were the Americans disposed? 5. What question arose? What was issued April 22d?



the negative. Accordingly, on the 22d of April, President Washington issued a proclamation enjoining entire neutrality on the part of the United States.

6. The Revolution in France, which resulted in the execution of the king, Louis XVI., and changed the government from a Monarchy to a Republic, had commenced about the year 1789. It seems to have been brought on, or at least hastened, by the Revolution in the United States. The new republic now recalled the French minister in the United States, who had been appointed under the king, and sent over M. Genet in his stead.

7. The principal object for which M. Genet was sent over was, to persuade the United States to aid France in the pending war. He landed at Charleston, South Carolina, and, being kindly received by the constituted authorities there, both on account of the dignity of his office and the gratitude which was felt toward the French nation, he boldly proceeded to the performance of various unauthorized, and indeed wholly illegal, acts.

8. He did not hesitate to enlist men, and to arm and fit out privateers, to cruise and commit hostilities against nations with whom the United States were at peace. When any captures were made, he allowed the French consul at Charleston to hold courts of admiralty on them, and to try and condemn them, and authorize their sale.

9. All this was done, too, by M. Genet before the American government had recognized him as a minister. He had presumed on a disposition to aid France without regard to consequences. Finding that the Americans disapproved of his conduct, he endeavored-partly, no doubt, in self-defence-to excite them to opposition against their own government.

10. When Congress met, in 1793, they approved of Washington's proclamation, as well as of all his conduct in relation to France. They also encouraged the president and his cabinet to urge the French government to recall M. Genet, and appoint a successor. M. Genet was therefore recalled, and M. Fauchet appointed in his stead.

11. The last important event of the year 1793 was the resignation of Mr. Jefferson, secretary of state, and the appointment of Edmund Randolph, of Virginia, as his successor. Mr. Randolph had been for some time attorney-general of the United States, and had sustained the office with singular ability.

6. What of the French Revolution? What of the new republic? 7. Why was M. Genet sent to America? 8. What did he proceed to do? 9. What did he do on the disapproval of the Americans? 10. What was done by Congress in 1793? Who was sent as French minister to the United States in place of M. Genet? 11. Who succeeded Jef ferson as secretary of state? What of Mr. Randolph ?

« PreviousContinue »