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12. It is necessary to state here that from the beginning of the new Constitution, some persons had been opposed to it. Among them was Mr. Jefferson, who afterward became the head of the Republican party, which espoused the cause of France, and expressed great hostility to Great Britain, during the period to which our history now refers. The supporters of the Constitution, or Federal government, among whom were Washington and Hamilton, were called Federalists. The conflicts between the two parties soon shook the country to its foundation.

CHAPTER CXLIII.

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Difficulties with Great Britain.

1. FEARS began to be entertained, in 1794, of another war with

JOHN JAY.

Great Britain. The govern

ment of that country had issued an order in January, 1793, forbidding the exportation of corn to France, and authorizing the seizure of neutral vessels found carrying it there. As a consequence, many American vessels had been captured.

2. Additional instructions had also been given, in the November following, to British ships of war and privateers, to take all such vessels as were carrying provisions or other supplies to France or her colonies. Great Britain, moreover, had failed to deliver up to the

United States the Western posts, according to the provisions of the treaty of 1783.

3. In view of these difficulties between the two countries, and the uncertainty to what they might lead, Congress, in 1794, passed bills for laying an embargo upon ships in our ports for thirty days, for increasing the standing army, and for organizing the militia and erecting

12. What of Mr. Jefferson? What of the two parties, Republicans and Federalists? CHAP. CXLIII.-1. What order had government issued in 1793? 2. What was done in November? How had Great Britain failed to fulfil her treaty? What bills were passed in 1794? To what office was Mr. Jay appointed?

THE WHISKEY INSURRECTION.

299

fortifications. At the same time that these precautionary measures were taken, John Jay, of New York, who had been greatly distinguished by his wisdom and patriotism during the Revolution, was appointed an envoy extraordinary to the court of Great Britain.

4. Mr. Jay succeeded, during this and the following year, in making a treaty for the settlement of the difficulties between the two countries. This, while it met the approbation of a majority of the people of the United States, only increased the complaints of those who were opposed to the existing administration, and widened the gulf which separated the two great political parties.

5. The conference which had been promised by the Indians of the north-west having failed, General Wayne, the successor of General St. Clair, was sent out against them in August, 1794, and succeeded in gaining a complete victory on the banks of the Miami, and in laying waste their whole country.

6. The Six Nations, and the other tribes of Indians in their region, who had been for some time meditating a great war against the people of the United States, were discouraged by the success of General Wayne, and gave up their scheme, and hopes were now entertained of a permanent peace with them.

CHAPTER CXLIV.

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-The Whiskey Insurrection.

1. CONGRESS, in 1790, had enacted laws imposing duties on spirits distilled within the United States, and upon stills. To these laws four or five counties in western Pennsylvania had from the first been strongly opposed, but it was not till 1795 that their hostility broke out in angry opposition.

2. In July of this year, about a hundred persons, armed with guns and other weapons, attacked the house of an inspector of the revenue, and wounded some of the occupants. They also seized the district marshal, and compelled him to agree not to persevere in the duties of his office. Both the inspector and the marshal found it necessary to leave the county for safety.

4. What did he succeed in doing? What of the two parties in respect to Jay's treaty? 5. Where was General Wayne sent in 1794? How did he succeed? 6. What were the feelings of the Six Nations and other Indians?

CHAP. CXLIV.-1. To what laws were some counties in Pennsylvania opposed? 2. What outrages were committed in July, 1794?

3. These and other similar outrages called forth a proclamation, on the 7th of August, from President Washington, commanding the insurgents to disperse, and warning all persons against aiding them in any way whatever, in their rebellious opposition. All officers and other citizens were also required to exert themselves to the utmost, to prevent and suppress such dangerous proceedings.

4. On the 25th of September, a second proclamation was issued, the object of which was to admonish the insurgents, and induce them, if possible, to desist from their opposition. At the same time, however, the president declared his fixed determination, in obedience to the duty assigned him by the Constitution, "to take care that the laws be faithfully executed," and to compel the refractory to obedience.

5. Meanwhile, the insurgents, nothing daunted, proceeded to almost every form of outrage. They first robbed the western mail. Next, several thousands of them collected at Braddock's Field, on the Monongahela. Still later, a convention of two hundred delegates, from the disaffected counties of Pennsylvania and Virginia, met at Parkinson's Ferry, and by adjournment at other places.

6. Some were for returning to obedience; others adhered to their opposition. At length, Washington ordered out fifteen thousand militia, under Governor Lee, of Virginia, on the approach of whom the insurgents laid down their arms. Eighteen were tried for treason, but not convicted. Only three men were killed during the whole progress of the insurrection.

7. The only other historical events of the year 1795, worthy of note, were, the ratification, by the Senate of the United States, of Mr. Jay's treaty with Great Britain, after a violent opposition by the Republican party, in Congress and out of it, and the conclusion of treaties with the dey of Algiers, Spain, and the Miami Indians. By the treaty with Algiers a number of American citizens were liberated from a most painful bondage.

8. What orders were issued by Washington? 4. What of a second proclamation? Describe the conduct of the insurgents. 6. How were they compelled to lay down their arma? 7. What were some other historical events of the year 1795?

5

ADMISSION OF TENNESSEE.

301

CHAPTER CXLV.

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Admission of Tennessee, the sixteenth State.

1. IN 1796, Ten-nes-see' was admitted into the Union. It had been made a territorial government in 1790, but did not attain until six years afterward the number of inhabitants necessary to entitle it to be received into the confederacy.

2. What is now the great state of Tennessee, with more than a million of inhabitants, was, till about sixty years ago, a part of North Carolina. The first settlement attempted to be made in the province was in 1754. At that time, about fifty families settled on Cumberland River, where Nashville now stands, but were broken up soon after by the Indians.

3. The first permanent white inhabitants of Tennessee went there in 1757. They built Fort Loudon, now in Blount county. They were attacked in 1760 by the savages, and two hundred men, women and children, were massacred. In 1767, the savages were humbled by Colonel Grant, and a treaty made with them, which encouraged emigration.

4. In 1765, settlements began on the Holston River, and gradually increased. Still the Indians were troublesome, but were often promptly repulsed, especially by Colonel John Sevier, who was the Tennesseean hero of those times. In June, 1776, Colonel Sevier, with the militia of Tennessee, and a few soldiers from Virginia, gained a decisive victory over the savages.

5. Where Nashville now stands was a wilderness till 1780. During that year, about forty families, under the direction of James Robertson, crossed the mountains, and founded Nashville. From this time forward, though more or less harassed by the Indians, the progress of the state, in population and improvement, was rapid.

6. In 1785, the inhabitants of the province proposed to become a state by the name of Franklin; but the scheme was at length abandoned. In 1789, North Carolina gave up the territory, and in 1790 Congress recognized it as a separate province, and made provision for its government accordingly.

CHAP. CXLV.-1. What of Tennessee? 2. What was its condition till about sixty years ago? What settlement was attempted? 8. What of the first permanent white inhabitants of Tennessee? What of the savages in 1760 and 1761? 4. What was done in 1765? In 3776? 5. In 1780? When was Nashville founded? 6. What was proposed in 1785? When did Congress recognize Tennessee as a separate province ?

CHAPTER CXLVI.

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Changes in his Cabinet.-Education in the Country.

1. Two years before the close of Washington's administration, there were some modifications of his cabinet. General Hamilton had resigned the office of secretary of the treasury, and had been succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, of Connecticut. General Knox had also been succeeded, in the war department, by Timothy Pickering, of Massachusetts.

2. No considerable change had taken place in the morals and religion of the community, during the administration of Washington, notwithstanding his own manifestations of regard for good things. The country was still flooded with vice and infidelity. The writings of Paine and Godwin were circulated in great numbers-sometimes gratuitously.

3. Trade and commerce, however, flourished during this period, beyond any former example. In 1797, the exports of the United States amounted to nearly fifty-seven millions of dollars, and the imports to seventy-five millions of dollars. Great progress was made in agriculture, and also in manufactures. The population of the United States had risen to about five millions.

4. The national credit, moreover, had become established; an ample revenue had been provided; a considerable part of the national debt had been paid; and such measures had been put in operation as bade fair to extinguish the debt in a reasonable time. Treaties had been made with most of the Indian tribes, and we were at peace with most foreign nations.

5. A prodigious impulse had been given, during this period, to the cause of education. Among the literary institutions which had their origin during the short period of Washington's administration, were Williams, Union, Greenville and Bowdoin Colleges, and the University of Vermont. The Historical Society of Massachusetts had its origin, also, during the same period.

6. It was in the year 1795 that the remarkable school fund of Connecticut was formed. The Connecticut reserve lands-now a part of

CHAP. CXLVI.-1. What changes had been made in Washington's cabinet? 2. What of morals and religion during Washington's administration? 8. Describe the increase of trade and commerce. What other progress was made? What of the population of the United States? 4. In what other respects had the country improved? 5. What of educaion at this period? Colleges?

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