Page images



north-western Ohio-were sold for one million two hundred thousand dollars, and devoted to this purpose. The fund now amounts to over two millions of dollars. In 1796, an act for establishing schools throughout the state was passed in Pennsylvania. At the present time, nearly every state in the Union gives encouragement to common school education, and high-schools, academies and colleges, in the Union, are al most beyond enumeration.

7. No man ever had such unbounded influence in the United States as Washington-perhaps it is not too much to say, no man ever will have. Several other chief magistrates have indeed been extremely popular and influential, especially when they had been distinguished in military life. Yet even these had not the hearts of the whole nation at their disposal, like Washington.

8. Had he been as ambitious as Napoleon, or even as Bolivar or Francia, he might have been dictator for life, as well as they. Such a course was even proposed to him, in 1782, when it was believed that the country was not yet ready for any thing but a qualified monarchy; but he turned from it with disdain. As the leader of a republic, in a time which "tried men's souls," no one ever exceeded him in judg ment or patriotism.

6. What of the school fund of Connecticut? 7. What of schools, academies and colleges at the present time? What can you say of Washington as chief magistrate? & What station might he have held? What was his character?

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

JOHN ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1797, TO MARCH 4TH, 1801.-Prospects of a War with France. 1. THE time for electing a chief magistrate was again approaching, and Washington having signified his determination to retire to private life, it became necessary to bring into the field a new candidate. The most popular individual was John Adams, of Massachusetts, and, on opening and counting the votes, in February, 1797, he was found to be elected. Thomas Jefferson was at the same time chosen vice-president.

2. Although Washington retired from the presidency, and Adama succeeded him, with the prospects of the country, on the whole, en couraging, yet there was one drawback to the public felicity. This was the perplexing character of our relations, as a government, with France.

3. For a long time before this, France had been committing dep

CHAP. CXLVII.-1. Who became president in 1797? Who vice-president? 2. What drawback was there to the public happiness?



redations on our West India commerce. In the hope of being able to adjust, in an amicable way, the existing difficulty, Washington, just before his retirement from office, had recalled Mr. Monroe, our minister at Paris, and appointed General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in his stead.

4. The French republic refused to receive a new minister till after the "redress of grievances" of which they complained. On learning the fact, President Adams, in June, 1797, convened Congress, and in his address or message, though he spoke of preserving peace if possible, yet, as a last resort, he alluded to war.


5. The result was, that three envoys extraordinary to France were appointed, to attempt a settlement of the existing difficulties. They were General Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall. mission finally proved an entire failure; and the spring of 1798 opened with every prospect of war.

6. Indeed, in a practical point of view, war was already begun. The treaty existing between the two countries had, in July, 1797, been declared by the United States as no longer binding on their part. The French cruisers were continually making depredations upon our commerce, and every opportunity was taken to insult the United States government.

7. In these circumstances, the first step taken by Congress was to increase the regular army. Twelve regiments of infantry, one of artillery, and one of cavalry, were ordered to be added to the existing establishment; and the president was authorized to appoint such officers as might be necessary to render the army efficient.

8. For commander-in-chief, all eyes were once more turned toward Washington; and notwithstanding his love of retirement and of domestic and agricultural life, he consented once more to comply with the wishes of his country. But, by the merciful appointment of Divine Providence, the danger of war suddenly disappeared.

9. The French government having expressed a willingness to settle the difficulties which existed, on reasonable terms, President Adams appointed Oliver Ellsworth, William R. Davies, and William Vans Murray, envoys extraordinary to meet the commissioners of the French. They sailed for France in the summer of 1799.

10. On their arrival in France, they found a change in the government. All power was now in the hands of Napoleon, who had not

8. What had been done by France? What new minister had Washington sent to Paris? 4. What did the French refuse to do? What did Adams say in his message to Congress? 5. What envoys were sent to France? 6. What of the treaty of 1797? What of the French cruisers? 7. What steps were taken to increase the regular army? 8. Who was looked to as commander-in-chief of the American army? 9. Who sailed for France in 1799?

been concerned in the transactions about which so much difficulty existed. A treaty of peace was made, Sept. 30th, 1800; and the army of the United States was, by direction of Congress, soon after disbanded.

11. Before the treaty was made, however, the commander-in-chief of the newly-raised American army was no more! General Washington expired suddenly, at his seat at Mount Vernon, in Virginia, December 14th, 1799, in the sixty-eighth year of his age; and left a whole nation to mourn his loss.


ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.--The Public Health. Smallpox.- Yellow Fever.-Cholera.

1. THE introduction of the kine-pox, or, as it was at that time called, the cow-pox-or, in more fashionable language still, vaccination—into the United States, in the year 1800, is an event which deserves to be remembered in our history. The individual to whom the country is indebted for this act of benevolence was Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse, of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

2. Smallpox was first known in Europe about the time of the discovery of America by Columbus; and, as might have been expected on its introduction into a country, was exceedingly fatal. From Europe it was soon scattered among the inhabitants of the Western World, where it was also very fatal, especially among the Indians, owing, in part, no doubt, to their wretched mode of treating it.

3. As early in the settlement of Massachusetts as the year 1631, this terrible destroyer appeared among the natives at Saugus, and swept away whole towns and villages. The colonists assisted, it is said, in burying entire families of the Indians at once. In one of their wigwams a living infant was found at the breast of its deceased mother, every other Indian of the place being dead.

4. Again, in 1633 and 1634, the disease raged in the same fearful manner. Holmes, in his "American Annals," says, that "thirty of John Sagamore's people were buried by Mr. Maverick, of Wineseme, in one day." In 1692, it raged greatly in New Hampshire among the

10. What treaty was made by Napoleon? 11. When and where did Washington die? CHAP. CXLVIII.-1. When was the cow-pox first introduced into the United States, and by whom? 2. When was the smallpox first known in Europe? Where was it very fata?? 8. Describe its first appearance in Massachusetts. 4. When did it again rage? What does Holmes say in his Annals? Where did it prevail in 1692? In 1700?



colonists, having been brought there in bags of cotton from the West Indies. Again, in 1700. it was fearfully prevalent in Charleston, South Carolina.

5. The first notice we find of its appearance among the white population of Boston is in the year 1689. In 1702, it was still more prevalent and fatal, and swept off more than three hundred of the inhabitants. Again it made great havoc in Boston and some of the adja cent-towns, in 1721. Inoculation for the disease was now for the first time introduced.

6. The opposition which was manifested to the practice of inoculation is at this day hardly credible, were it not well attested. Many thought that if a person who had been inoculated should die, his physician ought to be treated as a murderer. Dr. Cotton Mather, though not. a little superstitious himself, labored in vain to remove the vulgar prejudices on this subject.

7. Dr. Zabdiel Boylston was the first physician whom Dr. Mather could persuade to stem the torrent of prejudice. He began by inoculating his own family. The populace were so enraged, that his family were hardly safe in his house, and he was often insulted in the streets. And yet it was obvious that the inoculated disease was comparatively mild, and that but few died of it.

8. But the crowning discovery of all, as a preventive of this fearful disease, was that of vaccination, by Dr. Jenner, of England, late in the eighteenth century, and first made publicly known in 1796. Much praise should be accorded to Dr. Waterhouse for his successful efforts to introduce it in this country.

9. The yellow fever first prevailed within the present limits of the United States, at Philadelphia, about the year 1698, and swept off great numbers of the people. It had, however, previously appeared in the West Indies. In 1728, it was still more fatal in Charleston, South Carolina. The physicians knew not how to treat it. Again it raged in Charleston most fearfully in 1732.

10. In the year 1746, it prevailed among the Mohegan Indians, in Connecticut, and about one hundred of them died of it. In 1793, it was very fatal in Philadelphia, and again in 1797 and 1798. In the latter year it raged also in New York, and, for the first time, in Boston. It prevailed in New Haven in 1794. It has since appeared at intervals in our large cities, and sometimes has caused great mortality. 11. The cholera, a new and destructive disease, after having raged

5. When did it first appear in Boston? What of the further ravages of the smallpox? 6. What of the opposition to inoculation? What of Cotton Mather? 7. What of Dr. Boylston? How was he treated? 8. What of Dr. Jenner? 9, 10. What of the yellow Sever?

Give some account of it.

« PreviousContinue »