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greatly in the East, at length, in 1832, crossed to Canada, and advanced, by way of Albany and New York, into the United States, where it became, for several years the principal epidemic disease. It was much more suddenly fatal, as well as more severe, than common cholera morbus.

12. But the scourge of the United States, in every period of their history, especially for a century past, has been consumption. With the progress of civilization and refinement, this disease has increased, and is likely to continue to increase till the community can be generally enlightened with regard to its numerous causes.

13. The public events of the year 1800, in addition to those which have been mentioned, were neither numerous nor important. Agreeably to a resolution of Congress, ten years before, the seat of government was this year transferred to Washington, in the District of Columbia.* A law was passed this year, establishing a national system of bankruptcy, but it was repealed three years afterward.

14. There were also some changes made in the western territories this year. A part of the North-Western territory was separated from the rest, to be called the Indiana Territory. The Mississippi Territory was also erected into a separate government. By the census taken this year-the second taken under direction of the government—the population of the United States was found to be five million three hundred and five thousand four hundred and eighty-two.

15. During the administration of Mr. Adams, agriculture, trade and commerce had continued to flourish, and religion had begun to revive. Infidelity, indeed, still stalked abroad, but had greatly altered its tone. The good influence of religion upon society had begun to be admitted, even by those who did not believe in its divine origin.

11. What of the cholera ? 12. What can you say of consumption? 13. What of the public events in the year 1800? What of Washington? The District of Columbia? What law was passed? 14. What changes were made in the territories this year? What of the population of the United States? 15. What of the administration of Mr. Adams? Infidelity?

The District of Columbia was originally ten miles square; the part that lies north of the Potomac was ceded to the general government by Maryland; the southern part by Virginia. This latter portion was re-ceded to Virginia in 1846.








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JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION, FROM MARCH 4TH, 1801, TO MARCH 4TH, 1809.-Choice of Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice-President, by Congress.

1. On the 4th of March, 1801, Mr. Adams's term of office, as president, having expired, and the measures of the Federal party, who had been the chief supporters of Mr. Adams in the early part of his administration, having become somewhat unpopular, Thomas Jefferson, the candidate of the Republican or Democratic party, had been elected in his stead; and Aaron Burr had been chosen vice-president. As there was no election by the people, the choice for the first time had devolved upon Congress. The contest was long and severe.

2. The method of election, in such cases, was now first to be settled, and was fixed upon as follows. The representatives of each state were to be seated by themselves, and to ballot by themselves; each state being

CRAP. CXLIX.-1. When was Jefferson elected president? In what manner was he elected? What of Aaron Burr? 2. What mode of proceeding was fixed upon?

entitled to only one vote. The doors were to be closed against every person but the officers of the house, and, the balloting having once commenced, the house was not to adjourn till a choice was effected.

3. In the present instance, the representatives of the states were obliged to ballot thirty-six times before they could effect a choice. At the first ballot, eight states had voted for Mr. Jefferson, six for Mr. Burr, and two were divided. Of course, neither candidate had a majority of the votes. At the thirty-sixth ballot, Mr. Jefferson had the votes of ten states, Mr. Burr four, and there were two blanks.



of Ohio.

1. IN 1802, the eastern part of the North-Western territory was admitted to the Union as an independent state, by the name of Ohio. There were now seventeen states in the Union. At the time of its reception, Ohio contained seventy-two thousand inhabitants.

2. It was first permanently settled at Marietta, in the year 1788. This was a year famous in the history of western emigration, for no less than twenty thousand persons—men, women and children—passed the mouth of the Mus-king/-um River, during the season, on their journey down the Ohio! The party which stopped at Marietta consisted of forty-seven persons, under General Rufus Putnam.

3. Their first business was to build a stockade fort, of sufficient strength to resist the ordinary attacks of the savages. They killed the standing trees by cutting the bark, taking care, however, to hew down enough of them to admit of their planting fifty acres of corn. In the autumn, twenty more families joined them. Both of these companies were New Englard people.

4. The Indians, for many years, gave the settlers of Marietta but little trouble. Nor did the latter make war upon or molest the Indians, except in one or two instances. Twice, some of the more thoughtless of the settlers fired upon the Indians, when they came too near them, by which means one Indian was killed and another wounded.

5. The earliest settlers of Cincinnati, about twenty in number, ar

8. What of the ballot in the present case? Describe the result of the balloting. CHAP. CL.--1. What of Ohio in 1802? How many states at that time? 2. For what was the year 1788 remarkable? 3. What was their first business? 4. What of the Indians?

were there in the Union Describe the emigration The settlers?


311 rived there in 1790. Twenty acres of corn were soon planted, and, for food, they shot down game and caught fish. They ground their corn in handmills. Their garments were chiefly of their own manufacture.

6. It has been said that Ohio was first permanently settled in 1788. There was a settlement of Christian missionaries and converted Indians, from Pennsylvania, formed on the Muskingum River about fifteen years earlier; but, after the lapse of a few years, they were gradually broken up, and the remnant were massacred some time after.

7. Until the year 1795, there was much difficulty in settling most parts of this state, on account of the Indian wars. But after the victory over the Indians by General Wayne during the administration of Washington, the population increased very rapidly, and has continued to increase till the present time, when it numbers about two and a half millions.


JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Cession of Indian Lands.-Duel between Burr and Hamilton.Jefferson's Second Election.

1. Ar the first session of Congress after the election of Jefferson, the


system of internal taxation, which had been introduced during Adams's administration, was repealed, as well as several other laws which the new administration did not approve. Many public officers, who were strongly attached to the old order of things, were removed to make way for those who were of a different political character.

2. Louisiana was ceded by Spain to France, in 1802, and the United States bought it of France for fifteen millions of dollars, the next year. Governor Claiborne took possession of it in December, 1803. By a treaty with the Indians at Fort Wayne, a large extent of Indian lands was also ceded to the United States this year. Much of what

5. Describe the settlement of Cincinnati. 6. What of the first settlement of Ohio? 7. What difficulty was there in settling this state? What is its population at the present time? CHAP. CLI.-1. What was done by the first Congress after the election of Jefferson? 2. Give some history of Louisiana.

is now the state of Illinois was ceded to us by the Kaskaskias, in 1803.

3. In July, 1804, a duel was fought by Aaron Burr, vice-president of the United States, with Alexander Hamilton, late secretary of the treasury, and a distinguished officer of the Revolutionary war, in which the latter was killed at the first fire. The duel took place on the New Jersey shore, opposite New York.

4. The death of Hamilton produced a very deep sensation in the United States. He was unquestionably one of the ablest men known in the history of our country. But, in accepting the challenge of Burr, who sought his life, he was misled by a false notion of honor; and, in an evil hour, consented to take a step which he was too proud to retrace. Few men have been more lamented.

5. Jefferson was re-elected, and again took the oath of president of the United States, March 4th, 1805. George Clinton, of New York, was chosen vice-president, This office the latter held by re-election till death, which happened in April, 1812.

6. The following anecdote will show the character of Vice-President Clinton. At the close of the Revolutionary war, a British officer, in New York, for no crime worthy of notice, was about to be tarred and feathered. With a drawn sword in his hand, Clinton rushed in among the mob, and, at the hazard of his own life, rescued the officer.




1. DURING the year 1805-the first of President Jefferson's second term-a war broke out between the United States and Trip'-o-li, which, more than almost any other historical event of that period, deserves a particular notice.

2. For many years the inhabitants of the northern states of Africa had been known as corsairs or pirates, and the United States, as well as other nations, had suffered greatly from their depredations. The Tripolitans, in particular, had been very troublesome. Many of our vessels had been boarded and plundered; and the crews, in some instances, had been carried into a captivity worse, if possible, than death.

8. What duel was fought in 1804? Describe it. 4. What can you say of the death of Hamilton? 5. Who was re-elected president in 1805? Who was chosen vice-president 6. Relate the anecdote of Clinton.

CHAP. CLII.-1. What war broke out in 1805? 2. What was the character of the northern states of Africa? The Tripolitans?

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