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MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Indian War.Battle of Tippecanoe.

1. In the year 1811, Congress assembled on the 5th of November. Not only the president's message, but all the proceedings, indicated the expectation of a rupture with Great Britain at no distant period; for, though reparation had been made in the case of the Chesapeake, the Orders in Council remained in full force.

2. During this year, the Shaw-a-nese' and other Indians about the Wa'-bash River in the territory of Indiana, became troublesome. Governor Harrison, afterward president, with twelve hundred men, three hundred and fifty of whom were regular troops, proceeded from the neighborhood of Vincennes to Prophet's-town, as the residence of their chief was called, to demand satisfaction of the Indians.

3. The troops commenced their march September 26th, and nothing of importance occurred until their arrival on the line of the enemy's

CHAP. CLVII.-1. What was expected in the year 1811? 2. What of the Indians! Who went against them?

country. Here they built a fort, which, in honor of their commander, they called Fort Harrison. At this place they remained about a month, during which time the Indians very frequently came into the camp, and held councils with Governor Harrison, but would not accede to his terms.

4. Under the circumstances, it was resolved to attack them; and, with this view, the troops left Fort Harrison, October 29th, and arrived at Prophet's-town November 6ti. When they were within half a mile of the place, they formed in line of battle, upon which the Indians sent in a flag of truce, saying that if their lives might be spared till next morning, they would agree to the governor's

terms.

5. This was a device of the savages to gain time, and put their enemies off their guard. It was but too successful; and, unsuspicious of danger, our troops encamped where they were. Many of them, strange as it may seem, slept as quietly all night as if they had been at home in the midst of their families.

6. A little before five o'clock, next morning, the savages came upon them with such fury that the sentinels could only fire a single gun before they were in the very midst of the camp. Some of the soldiers were prepared, but others had to struggle with them at their very tent doors.

7. The battle soon became severe, and the Indians, encouraged by the surprise into which they had thrown the troops at the first onset, pressed forward in great numbers. The result of the contest for a long time was doubtful. The bravery and skill of our troops, however, prevailed, and the Indians began to give way; shortly after this, they fled to a swamp, where they could not be followed.

8. The victory over them was dearly bought. Sixty of the United States troops were killed, and one hundred and twenty-eight wounded. Among the slain were several able and valuable officers. The loss of the savages was great, but the number could not be exactly ascertained.

9. The next day the troops set fire to Prophet's-town, and having destroyed every thing valuable they could find, returned to Vincennes, after a fatiguing campaign of about two months. The defeat of the Indians, however, was decisive. They gave the settlers in that vicinity no more trouble for some time.

3. Where did the troops encamp? 4. What was now done by the troops? What did the savages do? 5. What of the deceptive device of the savages? 6. Describe the attack. Result of the battle? 8. What was the loss of the Americans? 9. What was done the next day? What effect had the defeat of the Indians?

WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN DECLARED. 325

CHAPTER CLVIII.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.— War with Great Britain declared.

1. THE difficulties with Great Britain were not removed. That government still insisted on the right of impressment, as it was called; the blockade of her enemies' ports embarrassed and injured us; and though the French decrees of Berlin and Milan were repealed, the British had not as yet annulled their Orders in Council.

2. An embargo was laid, on the 3d of April, 1812, by the president, at the recommendation of Congress, to continue ninety days, on all vessels within the jurisdiction of the United States. This was the prelude to war with Great Britain, which was declared on the 18th of June following. Thus began the SECOND WAR WITH GREAT BRITAIN, which continued till the peace of Ghent, December 24th, 1814.

3. The bill for the declaration of war did not pass, however, without opposition. Though generally supported by the Democratic party, it was condemned by some of its members, and was resisted by the other party, the Federalists, with great unanimity. Forty-nine, out of one hundred and twenty-eight of the representatives, entered their solemn protests, in which they denied the war to be either necessary or just. Indeed, it only passed the senate by a very small majority.

4. Nor was the measure very well received by the people after the bill passed. The editors of several newspapers in different parts of the country, were very decided in their expressions of disapprobation; so much so as to provoke the violence of the war party and cause mobs and riots.

5. The most remarkable of these mobs was at Baltimore. The rioters first tore down the printing-office of the paper which had offended them. The editor and others undertook to defend themselves with arms. The military force of the city was finally called out. The conflict was severe, and was continued for two or three nights; General Lingan was killed, and several were wounded.

6. So poorly prepared was the country for war, and so difficult was it found to enlist soldiers, that a demand was made by the president on the governors of the states to furnish men from the militia of their

CHAP. CLVIII-1. What of the difficulties with Great Britain? 2. What of an embargo laid in April, 1812? When was war declared with Great Britain? 8. How did the bill pass? 4. What of the editors of papers? 5. Describe the mob at Baltimore. 6. Was the country well prepared for war? What demand was made by the President? What refusal

followed?

several states, to guard their own seaboard. But this Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island refused to do.

7. The grounds of this refusal were, that the militia, if sent under the call of the president, would be subject to the officers of the regular army, and might be marched into Canada, or to any other part of the country; and this, it was contended, was not agreeable to the constitution.

8. This refusal produced a great sensation throughout the United States, but was fully justified by a large majority of the people of the several states which thus withheld their militia from the demand of the general government. It was severely condemned, however, by some other portions of the country, especially those of the Democratie party.

CHAPTER CLIX.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED -General Hull's Surrender to the British at Detroit.

1. WE have seen that, as the war advanced, a part of the states refused to call out their militia at the request of the president. Connecticut, however, proceeded to raise troops for her own defence, and to organize and station them, at various points along the coast, in her own way.

2. It was also found difficult to enlist regular troops, and still more so to find suitable officers for them. The few already in the service, and such as could be readily enlisted, amounting to two thousand, were sent away to the north-west, and placed under General Hull, an aged man who had served in the war of the Revolution, and who was at this time governor of Michigan Territory.

3. General Hull, with his troops, was ordered to Detroit, to garrison the fort there, and protect the country from the incursions of the British and Indians. He arrived early in July, 1812, and having put every thing in a posture of defence, he crossed the river Detroit July 12th, and made preparations to invade Upper Canada.

4. But, instead of invading Canada, or even attacking a single post, he remained there till the 7th of August, and then returned, with his army, in the night, to Detroit. After a few slight battles and a good deal of skirmishing, he surrendered his army, August 16th, with the fort of Detroit, and all the neighboring forts and garrisons, to the British, under General Brock.

7. What were the grounds of the refusal? 8. What of the people?

CHAP. CLIX.-1. What did Connecticut do? 2. What was the state of the United States troops? 8. What was done by General Hull? 4. Describe his surrender.

CAPTURE OF THE GUERRIERE AND ALERT. 327

5. This unexpected surrender, at the very outset of the war, cast a gloom over the whole country. General Hull was everywhere regarded, whether justly or unjustly, as either a coward or a traitor. Having been exchanged, soon afterward, for thirty British prisoners, he was subsequently tried by a court-martial and sentenced to death; but, on account of his age, he was recommended to the mercy of the president, who finally pardoned him.

6. General Hull was tried for three things-treason, cowardice, and unofficer-like conduct. On the first charge, the court-martial which tried him did not give an opinion; but he was found guilty on the other two. He was, most evidently, unfit to command an army, either by reason of age, or from other causes, and ought never to have been charged with so important a trust.

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MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION, CONTINUED.-Capture of the Guerrière and the Alert.

1. WHILE the war was commenced so unhappily on land, it was far otherwise on the sea. Though Lord Nelson and others, by their skill, had rendered Great Britain the mistress of the ocean, she was yet to

5. What was the consequence of General Hull's act? How was he regarded? 6. For what was he tried?

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